Abstract

The image resolution and contrast in Near-Infrared (NIR) tomographic image reconstruction are affected by parameters such as the number of boundary measurements, the mesh resolution in the forward calculation and the reconstruction basis. Increasing the number of measurements tends to make the sensitivity of the domain more uniform reducing the hypersensitivity at the boundary. Using singular-value decomposition (SVD) and reconstructed images, it is shown that the numbers of 16 or 24 fibers are sufficient for imaging the 2D circular domain for the case of 1% noise in the data. The number of useful singular values increases as the logarithm of the number of measurements. For this 2D reconstruction problem, given a computational limit of 10 sec per iteration, leads to choice of forward mesh with 1785 nodes and reconstruction basis of 30×30 elements. In a three-dimensional (3D) NIR imaging problem, using a single plane of data can provide useful images if the anomaly to be reconstructed is within the measurement plane. However, if the location of the anomaly is not known, 3D data collection strategies are very important. Further the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructed anomaly increased approximately from 15% to 89% as the anomaly is moved from the centre to boundary, respectively. The data supports the exclusion of out of plane measurements may be valid for 3D NIR imaging.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

E. E. Graves, J. P. Culver, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Singular-value analysis and optimization of experimental parameters in fluorescence molecular tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 231-241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, C. Kogel, M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, J. B. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, B. W Pogue, and K. D Paulsen, "Magnetic resonance guided near infrared tomography of the breast", Rev. Sci. Inst. 75, 5262-5270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, K. D. Paulsen and J. F. Dunn, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, N. G. Chen, and S. C. Kurtzman, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis by use of combined near-infrared diffusive light and ultrasound," Opt. Lett. 28, 337 - 339 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100,12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A sub-millimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue S. P. Poplack and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three dimensional near infrared tomography of the breast: Initial simulation, phantom and clinical results," App. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three dimensional optical tomography: Resolution in small object imaging," App. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdale, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom," Appl. Opt. 42, 3109-3116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: Evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

N. Polydorides1 and H. McCann, "Electrode configurations for improved spatial resolution in electrical impedance tomography," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1862-1870 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Molinari, B. H. Blott, S. J. Cox, and G. J. Daniell, "Optimal imaging with adaptive mesh refinement in electrical impedance tomography," Physiol. Meas. 23, 121-128 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. P. Culver, V. Ntziachristos, M. J. Holboke and A. G. Yodh, "Optimization of optode arrangements for diffuse optical tomography: A singular-value analysis," App. Opt. 26, 701-703 (2001).

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. DiMarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, "Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57-75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, S. Geimer, T. Mcbride, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional simulation of near-infrared diffusion in tissue: boundary conditions and geometry analysis for a finite element reconstruction algorithm," Appl. Opt. 40, 588-600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Three dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom," App. Opt. 40, 3278-3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

N. Ramanujam, G. Vishnoi, A. H. Hielscher, M. E. Rode, I. Forouzan and B. Chance, "Photon migration through fetal head in utero using continuous wave, near infrared spectroscopy: clinical and experimental model studies," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 173-184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

S. R. Arridge, "Optical tomography in medical imaging," Inv.Problems 5, R41-R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger and S. R. Arridge, "Optical tomographic reconstruction in a complex head model using a priori region boundary information," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2703-2722 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, and M. Patterson, "Improved continuous light diffusion imaging in single and multiple target tissue-like phantoms," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 675-693 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1996

1995

M. Schweiger, S R Arridge, M Hiroaka and D T Delpy, "The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source Conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779-1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge and M. Schweiger, "Photon-measurement density functions. Part2: Finite-element-method calculations," App. Opt. 34, 8026-8037 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S R

M. Schweiger, S R Arridge, M Hiroaka and D T Delpy, "The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source Conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779-1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdale, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom," Appl. Opt. 42, 3109-3116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Three dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom," App. Opt. 40, 3278-3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger and S. R. Arridge, "Optical tomographic reconstruction in a complex head model using a priori region boundary information," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2703-2722 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, "Optical tomography in medical imaging," Inv.Problems 5, R41-R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge and M. Schweiger, "Photon-measurement density functions. Part2: Finite-element-method calculations," App. Opt. 34, 8026-8037 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Austin, T.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blott, B. H.

M. Molinari, B. H. Blott, S. J. Cox, and G. J. Daniell, "Optimal imaging with adaptive mesh refinement in electrical impedance tomography," Physiol. Meas. 23, 121-128 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. DiMarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, "Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57-75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, D. H.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. DiMarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, "Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57-75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brooksby, B.

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, C. Kogel, M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, J. B. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, B. W Pogue, and K. D Paulsen, "Magnetic resonance guided near infrared tomography of the breast", Rev. Sci. Inst. 75, 5262-5270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three dimensional optical tomography: Resolution in small object imaging," App. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: Evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, G. Vishnoi, A. H. Hielscher, M. E. Rode, I. Forouzan and B. Chance, "Photon migration through fetal head in utero using continuous wave, near infrared spectroscopy: clinical and experimental model studies," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 173-184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, N. G.

Choe, R.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: Evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, S. J.

M. Molinari, B. H. Blott, S. J. Cox, and G. J. Daniell, "Optimal imaging with adaptive mesh refinement in electrical impedance tomography," Physiol. Meas. 23, 121-128 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

E. E. Graves, J. P. Culver, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Singular-value analysis and optimization of experimental parameters in fluorescence molecular tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 231-241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: Evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, V. Ntziachristos, M. J. Holboke and A. G. Yodh, "Optimization of optode arrangements for diffuse optical tomography: A singular-value analysis," App. Opt. 26, 701-703 (2001).

Daniell, G. J.

M. Molinari, B. H. Blott, S. J. Cox, and G. J. Daniell, "Optimal imaging with adaptive mesh refinement in electrical impedance tomography," Physiol. Meas. 23, 121-128 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, C. Kogel, M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, J. B. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, B. W Pogue, and K. D Paulsen, "Magnetic resonance guided near infrared tomography of the breast", Rev. Sci. Inst. 75, 5262-5270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdale, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom," Appl. Opt. 42, 3109-3116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue S. P. Poplack and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three dimensional near infrared tomography of the breast: Initial simulation, phantom and clinical results," App. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three dimensional optical tomography: Resolution in small object imaging," App. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, K. D. Paulsen and J. F. Dunn, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100,12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H. H.

J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Three dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom," App. Opt. 40, 3278-3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D T

M. Schweiger, S R Arridge, M Hiroaka and D T Delpy, "The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source Conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779-1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdale, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom," Appl. Opt. 42, 3109-3116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Three dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom," App. Opt. 40, 3278-3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

DiMarzio, C. A.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. DiMarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, "Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57-75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Doyley, M.

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, C. Kogel, M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, J. B. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, B. W Pogue, and K. D Paulsen, "Magnetic resonance guided near infrared tomography of the breast", Rev. Sci. Inst. 75, 5262-5270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, J. F.

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, K. D. Paulsen and J. F. Dunn, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: Evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Everdale, N.

Everdell, N.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forouzan, I.

N. Ramanujam, G. Vishnoi, A. H. Hielscher, M. E. Rode, I. Forouzan and B. Chance, "Photon migration through fetal head in utero using continuous wave, near infrared spectroscopy: clinical and experimental model studies," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 173-184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaudette, R. J.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. DiMarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, "Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57-75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Geimer, S.

Gibson, A.

A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdale, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom," Appl. Opt. 42, 3109-3116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, J. J.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100,12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graves, E. E.

E. E. Graves, J. P. Culver, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Singular-value analysis and optimization of experimental parameters in fluorescence molecular tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 231-241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A sub-millimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdale, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom," Appl. Opt. 42, 3109-3116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Three dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom," App. Opt. 40, 3278-3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, A. H.

N. Ramanujam, G. Vishnoi, A. H. Hielscher, M. E. Rode, I. Forouzan and B. Chance, "Photon migration through fetal head in utero using continuous wave, near infrared spectroscopy: clinical and experimental model studies," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 173-184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E. M. C.

A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdale, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom," Appl. Opt. 42, 3109-3116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Three dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom," App. Opt. 40, 3278-3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hiroaka, M

M. Schweiger, S R Arridge, M Hiroaka and D T Delpy, "The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source Conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779-1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holboke, M. J.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: Evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, V. Ntziachristos, M. J. Holboke and A. G. Yodh, "Optimization of optode arrangements for diffuse optical tomography: A singular-value analysis," App. Opt. 26, 701-703 (2001).

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, and M. Patterson, "Improved continuous light diffusion imaging in single and multiple target tissue-like phantoms," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 675-693 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, and U. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue and MichaelS. Patterson, "Optical image reconstruction using frequency domain data: simulations and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 253-266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, C. Kogel, M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, J. B. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, B. W Pogue, and K. D Paulsen, "Magnetic resonance guided near infrared tomography of the breast", Rev. Sci. Inst. 75, 5262-5270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100,12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Geimer, T. Mcbride, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional simulation of near-infrared diffusion in tissue: boundary conditions and geometry analysis for a finite element reconstruction algorithm," Appl. Opt. 40, 588-600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kilmer, M.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. DiMarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, "Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57-75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kogel, C.

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, C. Kogel, M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, J. B. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, B. W Pogue, and K. D Paulsen, "Magnetic resonance guided near infrared tomography of the breast", Rev. Sci. Inst. 75, 5262-5270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100,12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtzman, S. C.

Mcbride, T.

Meek, J. H.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Michael, B. W.

Miller, E. L.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. DiMarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, and Q. Zhang, "Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 18, 57-75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Molinari, M.

M. Molinari, B. H. Blott, S. J. Cox, and G. J. Daniell, "Optimal imaging with adaptive mesh refinement in electrical impedance tomography," Physiol. Meas. 23, 121-128 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

E. E. Graves, J. P. Culver, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Singular-value analysis and optimization of experimental parameters in fluorescence molecular tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 231-241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A sub-millimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: Evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, V. Ntziachristos, M. J. Holboke and A. G. Yodh, "Optimization of optode arrangements for diffuse optical tomography: A singular-value analysis," App. Opt. 26, 701-703 (2001).

Osterberg, U.

Osterberg, U. L.

Patterson, M.

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, and M. Patterson, "Improved continuous light diffusion imaging in single and multiple target tissue-like phantoms," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 675-693 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, C. Kogel, M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, J. B. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, B. W Pogue, and K. D Paulsen, "Magnetic resonance guided near infrared tomography of the breast", Rev. Sci. Inst. 75, 5262-5270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paulsen, K. D.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100,12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three dimensional optical tomography: Resolution in small object imaging," App. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, K. D. Paulsen and J. F. Dunn, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Geimer, T. Mcbride, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional simulation of near-infrared diffusion in tissue: boundary conditions and geometry analysis for a finite element reconstruction algorithm," Appl. Opt. 40, 588-600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, and M. Patterson, "Improved continuous light diffusion imaging in single and multiple target tissue-like phantoms," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 675-693 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, M. Testorf, T. Mcbride, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Instrumentation and design of a frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography imager for breast cancer detection,".Opt. Express 1, 391-403 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, and U. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue and MichaelS. Patterson, "Optical image reconstruction using frequency domain data: simulations and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 253-266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, C. Kogel, M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, J. B. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, B. W Pogue, and K. D Paulsen, "Magnetic resonance guided near infrared tomography of the breast", Rev. Sci. Inst. 75, 5262-5270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100,12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three dimensional optical tomography: Resolution in small object imaging," App. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, K. D. Paulsen and J. F. Dunn, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Geimer, T. Mcbride, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional simulation of near-infrared diffusion in tissue: boundary conditions and geometry analysis for a finite element reconstruction algorithm," Appl. Opt. 40, 588-600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, M. Testorf, T. Mcbride, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Instrumentation and design of a frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography imager for breast cancer detection,".Opt. Express 1, 391-403 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, and U. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue and MichaelS. Patterson, "Optical image reconstruction using frequency domain data: simulations and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 253-266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Polydorides, N.

N. Polydorides1 and H. McCann, "Electrode configurations for improved spatial resolution in electrical impedance tomography," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1862-1870 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poplack, S. P.

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, C. Kogel, M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, J. B. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, B. W Pogue, and K. D Paulsen, "Magnetic resonance guided near infrared tomography of the breast", Rev. Sci. Inst. 75, 5262-5270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100,12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

N. Ramanujam, G. Vishnoi, A. H. Hielscher, M. E. Rode, I. Forouzan and B. Chance, "Photon migration through fetal head in utero using continuous wave, near infrared spectroscopy: clinical and experimental model studies," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 173-184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards, R.

Riley, J.

Ripoll, J.

E. E. Graves, J. P. Culver, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Singular-value analysis and optimization of experimental parameters in fluorescence molecular tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 231-241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A sub-millimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rode, M. E.

N. Ramanujam, G. Vishnoi, A. H. Hielscher, M. E. Rode, I. Forouzan and B. Chance, "Photon migration through fetal head in utero using continuous wave, near infrared spectroscopy: clinical and experimental model studies," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 173-184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweiger, M.

A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdale, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom," Appl. Opt. 42, 3109-3116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Three dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom," App. Opt. 40, 3278-3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger and S. R. Arridge, "Optical tomographic reconstruction in a complex head model using a priori region boundary information," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2703-2722 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge and M. Schweiger, "Photon-measurement density functions. Part2: Finite-element-method calculations," App. Opt. 34, 8026-8037 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S R Arridge, M Hiroaka and D T Delpy, "The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source Conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779-1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shudong, J.

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, J. Shudong, B. Brooksby, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three dimensional optical tomography: Resolution in small object imaging," App. Opt. 42, 3117-3128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Slemp, A.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: Evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soho, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100,12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Springett, R.

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, K. D. Paulsen and J. F. Dunn, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100,12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Testorf, M.

Tosteson, T. D.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. J. Gibson, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation and scattering measured in vivo by near-infrared breast tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100,12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veenstra, H.

J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Three dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom," App. Opt. 40, 3278-3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vishnoi, G.

N. Ramanujam, G. Vishnoi, A. H. Hielscher, M. E. Rode, I. Forouzan and B. Chance, "Photon migration through fetal head in utero using continuous wave, near infrared spectroscopy: clinical and experimental model studies," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 173-184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weaver, J. B.

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, C. Kogel, M. Doyley, H. Dehghani, J. B. Weaver, S. P. Poplack, B. W Pogue, and K. D Paulsen, "Magnetic resonance guided near infrared tomography of the breast", Rev. Sci. Inst. 75, 5262-5270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weissleder, R.

E. E. Graves, J. P. Culver, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Singular-value analysis and optimization of experimental parameters in fluorescence molecular tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 231-241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "A sub-millimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 901-911 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J. S.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, K. D. Paulsen and J. F. Dunn, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: Evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, V. Ntziachristos, M. J. Holboke and A. G. Yodh, "Optimization of optode arrangements for diffuse optical tomography: A singular-value analysis," App. Opt. 26, 701-703 (2001).

Yusof, R. M.

A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdale, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom," Appl. Opt. 42, 3109-3116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Xu, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, R. Springett, K. D. Paulsen and J. F. Dunn, "Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 102-110 (2003).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of data collection geometry used for the 3D cylindrical model.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The sensitivity (Jacobian) contour plot of log amplitude and µa for a source (S) and detector (D), which are diagonally opposite to each other as shown, calculated on a circular mesh of 9664 nodes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Singular value analysis of homogeneous and heterogeneous 2D circular models. (a). Plot of the useful singular values versus number of measurements. (b). Plot of percentage of useful measurements versus the total number of measurements. (c). Plot of the Rank versus number of measurements is shown for a range of mesh nodes. (d). Plot of the number of useful singular values versus number of measurements is shown, for various reconstruction bases.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of Jacobian cross-section with respect to measurement number. (a). The horizontal cross-sectional plot of the sum of 2D circular Jacobian matrix values, from center to the boundary at y=0 mm. (b) The normalized sum of 2D circular Jacobian matrix values, with respect to the value at the center (at x=0 mm, y=0 mm). The legend gives number of measurements associated with each plot.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The normalized cross-section in the X-Y plane, showing the total sensitivity across the dotted line in Fig. 2, from x=0 mm to x=43 mm (center to boundary) at Y=0 mm normalized with respect to the sensitivity at the origin, (i.e. X=0, Y=0 & Z=0 mm).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The reconstruction of the µa distribution, using noisy simulated data of log amplitude, for a circular object with an absorbing inhomogeneity at the center. Different numbers of measurements were used as denoted above each image, ranging from 56 up to 4032 data points. The forward mesh was 1785 nodes and the pixel basis consisted of 30×30 elements. The original µa distribution is shown as the first image.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

A plot of logarithm of rms error in the horizontal cross-section of µa at y=0 (as shown in original µa distribution of Fig. 6) versus number of measurements for various positions of an absorption inhomogeneity. These calculations used 1785 nodes in the mesh of the forward problem and a pixel basis of 30×30 elements in the reconstruction.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The reconstructed absorption coefficient distribution for the cylindrical object with a spherical absorption inhomogeneity (diameter of 15mm and contrast 2:1 with respect to background) located at x, y and z locations (a) (0,0,0), (b) (30,0,0) and (c) (30,0,10). The three columns of images show the results achieved with the three different data collection schemes.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The RMS error (with respect to the fine mesh of 9664 nodes) in the Jacobian cross-section from center to boundary, (indicated by dashed line in Fig. 2) at y=0 mm. This is tabulated as a function of mesh resolution, or number of nodes in the mesh. Last two rows show the computation time taken for calculation the Jacobian and Forward data for 16 source-detector pairs (240 measurements). For the fine mesh of 9664 nodes the computation time for Jacobian and Forward data is 98.1 sec and 28 sec respectively.

Tables Icon

Table 2. The number of useful measurements above the 1% expected noise level, is shown for the 2D circular and 3D cylindrical models, having 16 source and detector fibers with one or three planes of data collection. The two upper rows have only 1 plane of collection, whereas the 2nd last row has 3 planes of collection but not between the planes, and the last row has 3 planes of data collection with complete out of plane measurements.

Tables Icon

Table 3. The computation time and accuracy of the 3D reconstruction is shown for the three different data collection strategies, along with three different locations of the anomaly for each.

Equations (5)

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. κ ( r ) Φ ( r , ω ) + ( μ a ( r ) + i ω c ) Φ ( r , ω ) = q 0 ( r , ω )
J = [ J 1 = ln I κ ; J 2 = ln I μ a J 3 = θ κ ; J 4 = θ μ a ]
[ Δ μ a ] = [ J T J + λ I ] 1 . J T b
J = USV T
Useful measurements ( in % ) = [ Useful number of singular values Total number of singular values ] × 100

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