Abstract

The phase-resolved (PR) method is widely used in optical Doppler tomography (ODT) to estimate flow velocity from sequential axial line (A-line) signals. However, the A-line signal contains clutter components induced by stationary or relative slow moving clutter scatterers such as the blood vessel wall or the overall sample with motion artifacts. The clutter component affects the accuracy in quantifying Doppler flow. In this paper, we present a delay line filter (DLF) to reject the clutter effect and enables moving-scatterer-sensitive ODT (MSS-ODT) imaging of flow. The frequency response of DLFs of different orders is theoretically analyzed and we find that a first-order phase-shifted DLF is effective for clutter rejection and for improving the sensitivity to moving scatterers such as moving blood cells. The proposed MSS-ODT method has been experimentally applied to Doppler flow imaging in a capillary flow phantom and a mouse ear in vivo. The ODT data were acquired using a real-time spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system with an A-line acquisition rate of 12.3k/s. Doppler flow images obtained with MSS-ODT and the conventional PR-ODT techniques are compared and MSS-ODT is found to be more sensitive to Doppler flow and more accurate in determining vessel size. Small blood vessels that might be masked by clutter signals in PROCT are successfully recovered by MSS-ODT.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 28, 1981-1983 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2000

1998

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Characterization of fluid-flow velocity by optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Lett. 20, 1337-1339 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-zaiat, "Measurement Of Intraocular Distances By Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Barton, J. K.

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging," Opt. Express 13, 5483-5493 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging," Opt. Express 12, 2977-2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480-482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N.A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B.H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 28, 1981-1983 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using rapid wavelength tuning of a Cr4+:forsterite laser," Opt. Lett. 22, 1704-1706 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z.

Chinn, S. R.

Cobb, M. J.

de Boer, J. F.

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging," Opt. Express 13, 5483-5493 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging," Opt. Express 12, 2977-2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480-482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N.A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B.H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. H. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, "Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 25, 114-116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Z.

Drexler, W.

Duker, J. S.

El-zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-zaiat, "Measurement Of Intraocular Distances By Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3116-3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-zaiat, "Measurement Of Intraocular Distances By Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Golubovic, B.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-zaiat, "Measurement Of Intraocular Distances By Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Izatt, J. A.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-zaiat, "Measurement Of Intraocular Distances By Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. H.

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh- resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, M. D.

Leitgeb, R.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C.P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, D. J.

Malekafzali, A.

Miao, J.

Milner, T. E.

Nassif, N.

Nassif, N.A.

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

Park, B.H.

Pierce, M. C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

Rollins, A. M.

Saxer, C.

Schmetterer, L.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, T.

Swanson, E. A.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source," Opt. Lett. 22, 340-342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taira, K.

Tearney, G. J.

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging," Opt. Express 13, 5483-5493 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging," Opt. Express 12, 2977-2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480-482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N.A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B.H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 28, 1981-1983 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using rapid wavelength tuning of a Cr4+:forsterite laser," Opt. Lett. 22, 1704-1706 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vakoc, B. J.

van Gemert, M. J.C.

Wang, X. J.

Welch, A. J.

Westphal, V.

White, B. R.

Wojtkowski, M.

Xiang, S. H.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, J.

Zhao, Y.

J. Biomed. Opt.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-zaiat, "Measurement Of Intraocular Distances By Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3116-3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh- resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N.A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B.H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging," Opt. Express 12, 2977-2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (6)

» Media 1: AVI (915 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (784 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (738 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (1066 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (729 KB)     
» Media 6: AVI (618 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The normalized Doppler power spectrum S(f) of the clutter, and the normalized power transfer function |H(f)|2 of two representative DLFs (e.g., n=1 and n-4) without (a) and with (b) phase shifted. The Doppler bandwidth σf of the clutter scatterers is set to be 0.1 fr and their frequency shift is set to be 0 and 0.17 fr in (a) and (b), respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the fiber-based SD-OCT system. PC: polarization controller; L1, L2: lenses; P: prism pair; NDF: neutral density filter for attenuation; M: mirror; DG: transmission diffraction grating; CL: cameral lens; LSCCD: linescan CCD; FG: function generator; Sync: galvanometer scanner drive synchronization.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Movies of the structural image (a) (0.9MB), and Doppler flow images of the 2% intralipid flow in a capillary tube of an ID 75 µm obtained by the PR-ODT (c) (0.8MB) and the MSS-ODT (d) (0.7MB) methods. The image size of both images is 0.80×0.52 mm (transverse x depth) (without rescaling by the refractive index). The pixel size of the images is 492×320. The flow profiles along the horizontal direction through the center of the capillary tube in image (c) and (d) are shown in (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Movies of the structural image (a) (1.1MB), and Doppler flow images obtained by the PR-ODT (c) (0.7MB) and MSS-ODT (d) (0.6MB) methods on a mouse ear in vivo. All the images have a size of 1.16×0.75mm (transverse x depth) (before rescaling by the refractive index), and the image size in terms of pixels is 492×320 (transverse x depth). The flow profiles plotted along the horizontal direction through the center of the right blood vessel in image (c) and (d) are shown in (b).

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Weight Coefficients of the First Four Delay Line Filters

Equations (15)

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M ˜ ( jT ) = Γ ˜ ( jT ) Γ ˜ ( jT T ) .
h 1 ( t ) = δ ( t ) δ ( t T ) ,
M ˜ ( t ) = Γ ˜ ( t ) * h 1 ( t ) .
M ˜ ( f ) = Γ ˜ ( f ) H 1 ( f ) ,
H 1 ( f ) = 1 exp ( i 2 π f T ) .
M ˜ ( f ) 2 = Γ ˜ ( f ) 2 H 1 ( f ) 2 .
H 1 ( z ) = 1 z 1 .
H n ( z ) = ( 1 z 1 ) n = k = 0 n a k z k ,
a k = ( 1 ) k n ! ( n k ) ! k ! .
H n ( f ) 2 = [ 4 sin 2 ( π f T ) ] n .
M ˜ ( jT ) = Γ ˜ ( jT ) Γ ˜ ( jT T ) exp ( i 2 π f s T ) ,
H ( z ) = [ 1 ( β z ) 1 ] n = k = 0 n a k ( β z ) k ,
H ( f ) 2 = { 4 sin 2 [ π ( f f s ) T ] } n .
S ( f ) = 1 2 π σ f exp [ ( f f s ) 2 2 σ 2 ] ,
f ( m , n ) = 1 2 π T tan 1 ( Im [ z = p ( m 1 ) p ( m 1 ) + S j = q ( n 1 ) q ( n 1 ) + K M ˜ j ( z ) M ˜ j + 1 * ( z ) ] Re [ z = p ( m 1 ) p ( m 1 ) + S j = q ( n 1 ) q ( n 1 ) + K M ˜ j ( z ) M ˜ j + 1 * ( z ) ] ) ,

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