Abstract

We report on a displacement metrology setup that provides sub-pm resolution in air. The setup is based on a Fabry-Perot cavity. However, unlike current Fabry-Perot cavity based displacement setups we incorporate a novel fs-laser based arbitrary wavelength synthesizer that provides efficient suppression of atmospheric disturbances while providing very wide and precise tuning of the output wavelength. The wavelength synthesizer provides sub-10 attometer wavelength resolution. The setup provides subpm length stability for integration times of up to one minute and sub-10 pm for up to half an hour without airtight enclosure of the Fabry-Perot cavities.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Misumi, S. Gonda, Q. Huang, T. Keem, T. Kurosawa, A. Fujii, N. Hisata, T. Yamagishi, H. Fujimoto, K. Enjoji, S. Aya, and H. Sumitani, "Sub-hundred nanometer pitch measurements using an AFM with differential laser interferometers for designing usable lateral scales," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2080-2090 IOP Publishing (2005).
  2. H. Haitjema, P. H. J. Schellekens, and S. F. C. L Wetzels, "Calibration of displacement sensors up to 300 μm with nanometer accuracy and direct traceability to a primary standard of length," Metrologia,  37, 25-33 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W.-T. Ni, D.-K. Liu, T.-T. Liu, H.-H. Mei, S. Shi Pan, C.-P. Pang, and H.-C. Yeh, "The application of laser metrology and resonant optical cavity techniques to the measurement of G," Meas. Sci. Technol 10, 495-498 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C.-M. Wu and R. D. Deslattes, "Analytical modeling of the periodic nonlinearity in heterodyne interferometry," Appl. Opt. 37, 6696-6700 (1998).
  5. T. Keem, S. Gonda, I. Misumi, Q. Huang, and T. Kurosawa, "Removing nonlinearity of a homodyne interferometer by adjusting the gains of its quadrature detector systems," Appl. Opt. 43, 2443-2448 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. Lawall, "Fabry-Perot metrology for displacements up to 50 mm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A,  22, 2786-2789 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Bitou, T. R. Schibli, and K. Minoshima, "Accurate wide-range displacement measurement using tunable diode laser and optical frequency comb generator," Opt. Express 14, 644 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, Y. Bitou, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, "Phase-locked widely tunable optical single-frequency generator based on a femtosecond comb," Opt. Lett. 30, 2323 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Absolute Optical Frequency Measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser" Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of Femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2000 (2)

H. Haitjema, P. H. J. Schellekens, and S. F. C. L Wetzels, "Calibration of displacement sensors up to 300 μm with nanometer accuracy and direct traceability to a primary standard of length," Metrologia,  37, 25-33 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of Femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

W.-T. Ni, D.-K. Liu, T.-T. Liu, H.-H. Mei, S. Shi Pan, C.-P. Pang, and H.-C. Yeh, "The application of laser metrology and resonant optical cavity techniques to the measurement of G," Meas. Sci. Technol 10, 495-498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Absolute Optical Frequency Measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser" Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bitou, Y.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of Femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Deslattes, R. D.

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of Femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gonda, S.

Haitjema, H.

H. Haitjema, P. H. J. Schellekens, and S. F. C. L Wetzels, "Calibration of displacement sensors up to 300 μm with nanometer accuracy and direct traceability to a primary standard of length," Metrologia,  37, 25-33 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of Femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, T. W.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Absolute Optical Frequency Measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser" Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Absolute Optical Frequency Measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser" Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, F.-L.

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q.

Inaba, H.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of Femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keem, T.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kurosawa, T.

Lawall, J. R.

Liu, D.-K.

W.-T. Ni, D.-K. Liu, T.-T. Liu, H.-H. Mei, S. Shi Pan, C.-P. Pang, and H.-C. Yeh, "The application of laser metrology and resonant optical cavity techniques to the measurement of G," Meas. Sci. Technol 10, 495-498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.-T.

W.-T. Ni, D.-K. Liu, T.-T. Liu, H.-H. Mei, S. Shi Pan, C.-P. Pang, and H.-C. Yeh, "The application of laser metrology and resonant optical cavity techniques to the measurement of G," Meas. Sci. Technol 10, 495-498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, H.

Mei, H.-H.

W.-T. Ni, D.-K. Liu, T.-T. Liu, H.-H. Mei, S. Shi Pan, C.-P. Pang, and H.-C. Yeh, "The application of laser metrology and resonant optical cavity techniques to the measurement of G," Meas. Sci. Technol 10, 495-498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

Misumi, I.

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ni, W.-T.

W.-T. Ni, D.-K. Liu, T.-T. Liu, H.-H. Mei, S. Shi Pan, C.-P. Pang, and H.-C. Yeh, "The application of laser metrology and resonant optical cavity techniques to the measurement of G," Meas. Sci. Technol 10, 495-498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Onae, A.

Pang, C.-P.

W.-T. Ni, D.-K. Liu, T.-T. Liu, H.-H. Mei, S. Shi Pan, C.-P. Pang, and H.-C. Yeh, "The application of laser metrology and resonant optical cavity techniques to the measurement of G," Meas. Sci. Technol 10, 495-498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of Femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reichert, J.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Absolute Optical Frequency Measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser" Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schellekens, P. H. J.

H. Haitjema, P. H. J. Schellekens, and S. F. C. L Wetzels, "Calibration of displacement sensors up to 300 μm with nanometer accuracy and direct traceability to a primary standard of length," Metrologia,  37, 25-33 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

Shi Pan, S.

W.-T. Ni, D.-K. Liu, T.-T. Liu, H.-H. Mei, S. Shi Pan, C.-P. Pang, and H.-C. Yeh, "The application of laser metrology and resonant optical cavity techniques to the measurement of G," Meas. Sci. Technol 10, 495-498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of Femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Udem, Th.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Absolute Optical Frequency Measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser" Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wetzels, S. F. C. L

H. Haitjema, P. H. J. Schellekens, and S. F. C. L Wetzels, "Calibration of displacement sensors up to 300 μm with nanometer accuracy and direct traceability to a primary standard of length," Metrologia,  37, 25-33 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of Femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-M.

Yeh, H.-C.

W.-T. Ni, D.-K. Liu, T.-T. Liu, H.-H. Mei, S. Shi Pan, C.-P. Pang, and H.-C. Yeh, "The application of laser metrology and resonant optical cavity techniques to the measurement of G," Meas. Sci. Technol 10, 495-498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol (1)

W.-T. Ni, D.-K. Liu, T.-T. Liu, H.-H. Mei, S. Shi Pan, C.-P. Pang, and H.-C. Yeh, "The application of laser metrology and resonant optical cavity techniques to the measurement of G," Meas. Sci. Technol 10, 495-498 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

H. Haitjema, P. H. J. Schellekens, and S. F. C. L Wetzels, "Calibration of displacement sensors up to 300 μm with nanometer accuracy and direct traceability to a primary standard of length," Metrologia,  37, 25-33 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Absolute Optical Frequency Measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser" Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of Femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

I. Misumi, S. Gonda, Q. Huang, T. Keem, T. Kurosawa, A. Fujii, N. Hisata, T. Yamagishi, H. Fujimoto, K. Enjoji, S. Aya, and H. Sumitani, "Sub-hundred nanometer pitch measurements using an AFM with differential laser interferometers for designing usable lateral scales," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2080-2090 IOP Publishing (2005).

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