Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and its extension, polarization-sensitive (PS-)OCT, are techniques for contactless and non-destructive imaging of internal structures. In this work, we apply PS-OCT for material characterization. We use a transversal scanning, ultra-high resolution (UHR-)PS-OCT setup providing cross-sectional as well as in-plane information about the internal microstructure, the birefringence and the orientation of the optical axis within the material. We perform structural analysis and strain-mapping for different samples: we show the necessity of UHR imaging for a highly strained elastomer sample, and we discuss the effect of large birefringence on the PS-OCT images. Furthermore, we investigate high-aspect ratio photoresist moulds for the production of micro-electromechanical parts (MEMS), demonstrating that transversal UHR-PS-OCT is a promising tool for non-destructive strain-mapping.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (5)

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, S. Bauer, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "En-face scanning optical coherence tomography with ultra-high resolution for material investigation," Optics Express 13, 1015-1024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Alarousu, L. Krehut, T. Prykari, and R. Myllyla, "Study on the use of optical coherence tomography in measurements of paper properties," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1131-1137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Wiesauer, A. D. Sanchis Dufau, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "Non-destructive quantification of internal stress in polymer materials by polarisation sensitive optical coherence tomography," Acta Materialia 53, 2785-2791 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Ultrahigh resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Proc. of SPIE 5690, 257-262 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Kemp, H. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. RylanderIII, and T. E. Milner, "Depth-resolved optic axis orientation in multiple layered anisotropic tissues measured with enhanced polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (EPS-OCT)," Opt. Express 13, 4507-4518 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480-482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Yang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.C. Yang, "The use of Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Subsurface Morphologies of Archaic Jades," Archaeometry 46, 171-182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Burns 30, 511-517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, "The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites," Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135-147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9,780-790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

1998 (2)

M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, "Subsurface defect detection in materials using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 540-545 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, "En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation," Opt. Lett. 23, 147-149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1995 (2)

A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahrens, G.

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, S. Bauer, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "En-face scanning optical coherence tomography with ultra-high resolution for material investigation," Optics Express 13, 1015-1024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alarousu, E.

E. Alarousu, L. Krehut, T. Prykari, and R. Myllyla, "Study on the use of optical coherence tomography in measurements of paper properties," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1131-1137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. K.

Bashkansky, M.

M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, "Subsurface defect detection in materials using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 540-545 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baskansky, M.

Bauer, S.

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, S. Bauer, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "En-face scanning optical coherence tomography with ultra-high resolution for material investigation," Optics Express 13, 1015-1024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaurepaire, E.

A. Dubois, L. Vabre, A.-C. Boccara, and E. Beaurepaire, "High-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography with a Linnik microscope," Appl. Optics 41, 805-812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A.-C.

A. Dubois, L. Vabre, A.-C. Boccara, and E. Beaurepaire, "High-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography with a Linnik microscope," Appl. Optics 41, 805-812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480-482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, "Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites," Composites A 30, 139-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burgholzer, P.

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping," Appl. Phys. A 76, 947-951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

de Boer, J. F.

Dickensheets, D.

Dobre, G. M.

Drexler, W.

Dubois, A.

A. Dubois, L. Vabre, A.-C. Boccara, and E. Beaurepaire, "High-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography with a Linnik microscope," Appl. Optics 41, 805-812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duker, J. S.

A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

Duncan, M. D.

M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, "Subsurface defect detection in materials using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 540-545 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Baskansky, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, D. LewisIII, and J. Reintjes, "Subsurface defect detection in ceramics by high-speed high-resolution optical coherent tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 61-63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dunkers, J. P.

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, "The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites," Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135-147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, "Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites," Composites A 30, 139-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Engelke, R.

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, S. Bauer, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "En-face scanning optical coherence tomography with ultra-high resolution for material investigation," Optics Express 13, 1015-1024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eric, G. M.

Everett, M. J.

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, "The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites," Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135-147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

Fercher, F.

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Findl, O.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flynn, K. M.

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, "Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites," Composites A 30, 139-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, "Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites," Composites A 30, 139-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärntner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Ultrahigh resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Proc. of SPIE 5690, 257-262 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, S. Bauer, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "En-face scanning optical coherence tomography with ultra-high resolution for material investigation," Optics Express 13, 1015-1024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wiesauer, A. D. Sanchis Dufau, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "Non-destructive quantification of internal stress in polymer materials by polarisation sensitive optical coherence tomography," Acta Materialia 53, 2785-2791 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping," Appl. Phys. A 76, 947-951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. H.

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, "The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites," Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135-147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grützner, G.

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, S. Bauer, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "En-face scanning optical coherence tomography with ultra-high resolution for material investigation," Optics Express 13, 1015-1024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, EricA. Swanson, and James G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence microscopy in scattering media," Opt. Lett. 19, 590-592 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, R.

R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger,

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Ultrahigh resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Proc. of SPIE 5690, 257-262 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, S. Bauer, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "En-face scanning optical coherence tomography with ultra-high resolution for material investigation," Optics Express 13, 1015-1024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wiesauer, A. D. Sanchis Dufau, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "Non-destructive quantification of internal stress in polymer materials by polarisation sensitive optical coherence tomography," Acta Materialia 53, 2785-2791 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping," Appl. Phys. A 76, 947-951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P.-W. Lo, and Q. Zhou, "Three dimensional imaging of the human retina by high speed optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2753-2761 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Höglinger, O.

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping," Appl. Phys. A 76, 947-951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, I.-J.

M.-L. Yang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.C. Yang, "The use of Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Subsurface Morphologies of Archaic Jades," Archaeometry 46, 171-182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunston, D. L.

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, "The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites," Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135-147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Izatt, A.

Izatt, J. A.

A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, EricA. Swanson, and James G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence microscopy in scattering media," Opt. Lett. 19, 590-592 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, D. A.

Kahn, M.

Kamp, G.

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kärntner, F. X.

Kemp, N. J.

Kim, S.-W.

Krehut, L.

E. Alarousu, L. Krehut, T. Prykari, and R. Myllyla, "Study on the use of optical coherence tomography in measurements of paper properties," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1131-1137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M. D.

Leitgeb, R.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Ultrahigh resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Proc. of SPIE 5690, 257-262 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, D.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, P.-W.

Lu, C.-W.

M.-L. Yang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.C. Yang, "The use of Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Subsurface Morphologies of Archaic Jades," Archaeometry 46, 171-182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

Morgner, U.

Myllyla, R.

E. Alarousu, L. Krehut, T. Prykari, and R. Myllyla, "Study on the use of optical coherence tomography in measurements of paper properties," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1131-1137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Oh, J.-T.

Owen, G. M.

Park, B. H.

Park, J.

Parnas, R. S.

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, "Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites," Composites A 30, 139-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parnas, R.S.

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, "The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites," Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135-147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, R. C.

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, "Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites," Composites A 30, 139-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phela, F. R.

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, "The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites," Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135-147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, M. C.

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Burns 30, 511-517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Invivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1610-1612 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pircher, M.

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, S. Bauer, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "En-face scanning optical coherence tomography with ultra-high resolution for material investigation," Optics Express 13, 1015-1024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wiesauer, A. D. Sanchis Dufau, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "Non-destructive quantification of internal stress in polymer materials by polarisation sensitive optical coherence tomography," Acta Materialia 53, 2785-2791 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Ultrahigh resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Proc. of SPIE 5690, 257-262 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Prasad, P. N.

Prykari, T.

E. Alarousu, L. Krehut, T. Prykari, and R. Myllyla, "Study on the use of optical coherence tomography in measurements of paper properties," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1131-1137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pudavar, H. E.

Puliafito, A.

A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichel, E.

A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

Reintjes, J.

M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, "Subsurface defect detection in materials using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 540-545 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Baskansky, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, D. LewisIII, and J. Reintjes, "Subsurface defect detection in ceramics by high-speed high-resolution optical coherent tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 61-63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rylander, H. G.

Sanchis Dufau, A. D.

K. Wiesauer, A. D. Sanchis Dufau, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "Non-destructive quantification of internal stress in polymer materials by polarisation sensitive optical coherence tomography," Acta Materialia 53, 2785-2791 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, D.P.

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, "The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites," Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135-147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sattmann, H.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Ultrahigh resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Proc. of SPIE 5690, 257-262 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheridan, R. L.

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Burns 30, 511-517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stifter, D.

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, S. Bauer, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "En-face scanning optical coherence tomography with ultra-high resolution for material investigation," Optics Express 13, 1015-1024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wiesauer, A. D. Sanchis Dufau, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "Non-destructive quantification of internal stress in polymer materials by polarisation sensitive optical coherence tomography," Acta Materialia 53, 2785-2791 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping," Appl. Phys. A 76, 947-951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Trost, P.

Vabre, L.

A. Dubois, L. Vabre, A.-C. Boccara, and E. Beaurepaire, "High-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography with a Linnik microscope," Appl. Optics 41, 805-812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Welch, A. J.

Wiesauer, K.

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, S. Bauer, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "En-face scanning optical coherence tomography with ultra-high resolution for material investigation," Optics Express 13, 1015-1024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wiesauer, A. D. Sanchis Dufau, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "Non-destructive quantification of internal stress in polymer materials by polarisation sensitive optical coherence tomography," Acta Materialia 53, 2785-2791 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

Yang, C.C.

M.-L. Yang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.C. Yang, "The use of Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Subsurface Morphologies of Archaic Jades," Archaeometry 46, 171-182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.-L.

M.-L. Yang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.C. Yang, "The use of Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Subsurface Morphologies of Archaic Jades," Archaeometry 46, 171-182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yazdanfar, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zaatari, H.

Zhou, Q.

Zimba, C. G.

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, "Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites," Composites A 30, 139-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Acta Materialia (1)

K. Wiesauer, A. D. Sanchis Dufau, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "Non-destructive quantification of internal stress in polymer materials by polarisation sensitive optical coherence tomography," Acta Materialia 53, 2785-2791 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Optics (1)

A. Dubois, L. Vabre, A.-C. Boccara, and E. Beaurepaire, "High-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography with a Linnik microscope," Appl. Optics 41, 805-812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Höglinger, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography for material characterisation and strain-field mapping," Appl. Phys. A 76, 947-951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Archaeometry (1)

M.-L. Yang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.C. Yang, "The use of Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Subsurface Morphologies of Archaic Jades," Archaeometry 46, 171-182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burns (1)

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Burns 30, 511-517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Composites A (1)

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, "Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites," Composites A 30, 139-145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am B (1)

R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

E. Alarousu, L. Krehut, T. Prykari, and R. Myllyla, "Study on the use of optical coherence tomography in measurements of paper properties," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1131-1137 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (1)

A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

M. D. Duncan, M. Bashkansky, and J. Reintjes, "Subsurface defect detection in materials using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 540-545 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-T. Oh and S.-W. Kim, "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography for photoelasticity testing of glass/epoxy composites," Opt. Express 11, 1669-1676 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P.-W. Lo, and Q. Zhou, "Three dimensional imaging of the human retina by high speed optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2753-2761 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9,780-790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Kemp, H. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. RylanderIII, and T. E. Milner, "Depth-resolved optic axis orientation in multiple layered anisotropic tissues measured with enhanced polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (EPS-OCT)," Opt. Express 13, 4507-4518 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phela, D.P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R.S. Parnas, "The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites," Opt. Laser Eng. 35, 135-147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (9)

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Invivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1610-1612 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 480-482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, EricA. Swanson, and James G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence microscopy in scattering media," Opt. Lett. 19, 590-592 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Baskansky, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, D. LewisIII, and J. Reintjes, "Subsurface defect detection in ceramics by high-speed high-resolution optical coherent tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 61-63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, "Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 934-936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, "In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 1439-1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, "En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation," Opt. Lett. 23, 147-149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärntner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, H. E. Pudavar, P. N. Prasad, and D. Dickensheets, "Confocal enhanced optical coherence tomography for nondestructive evaluation of paints and coatings," Opt. Lett. 24, 1808-1810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Optics Express (1)

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, S. Bauer, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, "En-face scanning optical coherence tomography with ultra-high resolution for material investigation," Optics Express 13, 1015-1024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. of SPIE (1)

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Ultrahigh resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Proc. of SPIE 5690, 257-262 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney (Eds.), Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York 2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic setup of the transversal UHR-PS-OCT. The bold arrows indicate the polarization states of the laser beam at the respective positions. Abbreviations: SMF – single mode fibre, (N)PBS – (Non)-polarizing beamsplitter, AOM – acousto-optic modulator, QWP – quarter wave plate, DAQ – data acquisition.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross-sectional UHR-PS-OCT images of a PU-elastomer sample. (a) Reflectivity and (b) retardation image of the unstrained sample (retardation colour-coded from 0° to 90°). (c)–(f) Retardation images of the sample continuously strained up to 600%. In (d)–(f), the optical splitting of the rear surface due to increased birefringence as well as the position of the first 6 fringes are indicated by arrows. The inset in (f) gives a magnified view of the marked area to show the very narrow birefringence fringes with a separation of only 6.5 µm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cross-sectional UHR-PS-OCT images of a PU-elastomer sample. (a,b) Retardation (colour-coded from 0° to 90°) and (c,d) orientation of the slow OA (colour-coded from 0° to 180°). In (a) and (c), no external strain is applied, and the given orientation of the slow OA is perpendicular to the plane of the B-scan, as indicated in (c). When the sample is strained perpendicularly to the orientation of the slow OA (arrows in (b)), the orientation is aligned parallel to the direction of the strain (d). The squares mark areas with similar retardation values (a,b), but with perpendicular orientations of the slow OA axis for unstrained and the strained sample (c,d).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Photo of a high-aspect ratio photoresist mould on a wafer for production of micromechanical gear wheels. (b) Cross-sectional UHR-OCT image and schematic drawing of the sample illustrating the different optical levels. (Wheels designed by Micromotion GmbH.)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transversal UHR-PS-OCT images of the resist-wafer interface of a photoresist mould for a micromechanical wheel. (a) Reflectivity and (b) retardation (colour-coded from 0° to 90°). The arrows in (b) indicate highly strained areas at the teeth of the wheel. (c) Orientation of the slow OA (colour-coded from 0° to 180°, and displayed as vector-field scaled by the magnitude of the retardation).

Equations (3)

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Δ n = λ 360 dret dz ,
Δ n * z l = l c .
ret max = 360 ° * l c λ .

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