Abstract

We report the fabrication of photonic crystal fibers with a continuously-decreasing zero-dispersion wavelength along their length. These tapered fibers are designed to extend the generation of supercontinuum spectra from the visible into the ultraviolet. We report on their performance when pumped with both nanosecond and picosecond sources at 1.064 µm. The supercontinuum spectra have a spectral width (measured at the 10 dB points) extending from 0.372 µm to beyond 1.75 µm. In an optimal configuration a flat (3 dB) spectrum from 395 to 850 nm, with a minimum spectral power density of 2 mW/nm was achieved, with a total continuum output power of 3.5 W. We believe that the shortest wavelengths were generated by cascaded four-wave mixing: the continuous decrease of the zero dispersion wavelength along the fiber length enables the phase-matching condition to be satisfied for a wide range of wavelengths into the ultraviolet, while simultaneously increasing the nonlinear coefficient of the fiber.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, "Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 10,609-613 (2000).
  5. W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T.-P. Martin Man, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers : A novel source of light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19,753-764 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12,299-309 (2004).
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2005 (4)

2004 (1)

2002 (3)

2000 (3)

1999 (1)

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevtsev, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Dispersion compensation using single-material fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,674-676 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1987 (1)

1970 (1)

R. R. Alfano, and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 °A via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24,584-587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 °A via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24,584-587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Arriaga, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blach, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12,807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Atkin, D. M.

Biancalana, F.

Birks, T. A.

Braun, B.

Chen, H. H.

Coen, S.

Deng, Y.

Dudley, J. M.

Eggleton, B. J.

Gapontsev, V. P.

Giessen, H.

Grossard, N.

Harvey, J. D.

Hing Lun Chau, A.

Joly, N.

Knight, J. C.

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12,299-309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Coen, A. Hing Lun Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight,W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19,753-764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T.-P. Martin Man, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers : A novel source of light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19,753-764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blach, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12,807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, "Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 10,609-613 (2000).

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevtsev, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Dispersion compensation using single-material fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,674-676 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21,1547-1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knox, W. H.

Lee, Y. C.

Leonhardt, R.

Lu, F.

Maillotte, H.

Martin Man, T.-P.

Menyuk, C. R.

Mogilevtsev, D.

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevtsev, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Dispersion compensation using single-material fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,674-676 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Group-velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 23,1662-1664 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ortigosa-Blach, A.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blach, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12,807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Popov, S. V.

Provino, L.

Ranka, J. K.

Reeves, W. H.

Roberts, P. J.

Rulkov, A. B.

Russell, P. St. J.

Shapiro, S. L.

R. R. Alfano, and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 °A via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24,584-587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

St, P.

Stentz, A. J.

Taylor, J. R.

Teipel, J.

Travers, J. C.

Trke, D.

Vyatkin, M. Y.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wai, P. K. A.

Windeler, R. S.

Zintl, A.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blach, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12,807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevtsev, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Dispersion compensation using single-material fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11,674-676 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. R. Alfano, and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 °A via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24,584-587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM of fiber 1 cross section at the smallest core end.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Evolution of the core diameter and of λ0 (inset) as a function of fiber length for fiber 1 (a) and fiber 2 (b).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Output spectra recorded for various lengths of fiber 1 pumped with nanosecond pulses. The sharp peak visible around 800 nm in the blue curve is leakage from the diode pump source for the microchip laser.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Shortest wavelength of the nanosecond pumped supercontinuum versus length of fiber 1, pumped from the larger core end.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectra taken at various cutback lengths of fiber 2 with picosecond pumping. The spectra are normalized to the total output power of the continuum.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Shortest wavelength (blue circles) and total power (red triangles) of the generated supercontinuum versus length of fiber 2 from the larger core end, for picosecond pulse pumping.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Spectral power density in the visible spectral region for picosecond pumping of 1 m of fiber 2.

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