Abstract

We report the generation and focusing of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waves from normally incident light on a planar circular grating milled into a silver film. The focusing mechanism is explained by using a simple coherent interference model of SPP generation on the circular grating by the incident field. Experimental results concur well with theoretical predictions and highlight the requirement for the phase matching of SPP sources in the grating to achieve the maximum enhancement of the SPP wave at the focal point. NSOM measurements show that the plasmonic lens achieves more than a 10-fold intensity enhancement over the intensity of a single ring of the in-plane field components at the focus when the grating design is tuned to the SPP wavelength. We discuss the technique’s adaptability for surface enhanced nano-scale spectroscopy.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Dahlin, M. Zach, T. Rindzevicius, M. Kall, D. S. Sutherland, and F. Hook, "Localized surface plasmon resonance sensing of lipid-membrane-mediated biorecognition events," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 5043-5048 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Hutter, and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. A. Maier, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, "A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379, 920-930 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. B. Jackson, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101, 17930-17935 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, R. P. Van Duyne, "Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 338A-346A (2005).
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  7. A. J. Haes, C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, and S. L. Zou, "Plasmonic materials for surface-enhanced sensing and spectroscopy," MRS Bull. 30, 368-375 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, R. P. Van Duyne, "Wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 11279-11285 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon polariton-based optical beam profiler," Opt. Lett. 29, 1408-1410 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Salerno, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Plasmon polaritons in metal nanostructures: the optoelectronic route to nanotechnology," Opto-Electron.Rev. 10, 217-224 (2002).
  13. F. Tam, C. Moran, and N. Halas, "Geometrical parameters controlling sensitivity of nanoshell plasmon resonances to changes in dielectric environment," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 17290-17294 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Nath, and A. Chilkoti, "Label-free biosensing by surface plasmon resonance of nanoparticles on glass: Optimization of nanoparticle size," Anal. Chem. 76, 5370-5378 (2004).
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  15. J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Kall, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Optical properties of gold nanorings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. D. McFarland, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity," Nano. Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  23. J. C. Weeber, M. U. Gonzalez, A. L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, "Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of Bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, "Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368-1370 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. J. Guntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, "Surface plasmon interference nanolithography," Nano. Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. N. Halas, "Playing with plasmons. Tuning the optical resonant properties of metallic nanoshells," MRS Bull. 30, 362-367 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (13)

A. Dahlin, M. Zach, T. Rindzevicius, M. Kall, D. S. Sutherland, and F. Hook, "Localized surface plasmon resonance sensing of lipid-membrane-mediated biorecognition events," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 5043-5048 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, R. P. Van Duyne, "Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 338A-346A (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes, C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, and S. L. Zou, "Plasmonic materials for surface-enhanced sensing and spectroscopy," MRS Bull. 30, 368-375 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, R. P. Van Duyne, "Wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 11279-11285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, M. U. Gonzalez, A. L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, "Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, "Surface plasmon interference nanolithography," Nano. Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Halas, "Playing with plasmons. Tuning the optical resonant properties of metallic nanoshells," MRS Bull. 30, 362-367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, "Surface plasmon generation and light transmission by isolated nanoholes and arrays of nanoholes in thin metal films," Opt. Express 13, 3150-3165 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (7)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon polariton-based optical beam profiler," Opt. Lett. 29, 1408-1410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of Bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Tam, C. Moran, and N. Halas, "Geometrical parameters controlling sensitivity of nanoshell plasmon resonances to changes in dielectric environment," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 17290-17294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Nath, and A. Chilkoti, "Label-free biosensing by surface plasmon resonance of nanoparticles on glass: Optimization of nanoparticle size," Anal. Chem. 76, 5370-5378 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, "A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379, 920-930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Jackson, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101, 17930-17935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hutter, and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Kall, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Optical properties of gold nanorings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. McFarland, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity," Nano. Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, "Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368-1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

S. R. Sershen, S. L. Westcott, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Independent optically addressable nanoparticle-polymer optomechanical composites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4609-4611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Salerno, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Plasmon polaritons in metal nanostructures: the optoelectronic route to nanotechnology," Opto-Electron.Rev. 10, 217-224 (2002).

2001 (1)

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. J. Guntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical-constants of noble-metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Kall, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Optical properties of gold nanorings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon polariton-based optical beam profiler," Opt. Lett. 29, 1408-1410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Salerno, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Plasmon polaritons in metal nanostructures: the optoelectronic route to nanotechnology," Opto-Electron.Rev. 10, 217-224 (2002).

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. J. Guntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baudrion, A. L.

J. C. Weeber, M. U. Gonzalez, A. L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, "Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of Bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bischoff, L.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, "Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368-1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. J. Guntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. E.

L. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, G. W.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Kall, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Optical properties of gold nanorings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. H.

Chilkoti, A.

N. Nath, and A. Chilkoti, "Label-free biosensing by surface plasmon resonance of nanoparticles on glass: Optimization of nanoparticle size," Anal. Chem. 76, 5370-5378 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical-constants of noble-metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dahlin, A.

A. Dahlin, M. Zach, T. Rindzevicius, M. Kall, D. S. Sutherland, and F. Hook, "Localized surface plasmon resonance sensing of lipid-membrane-mediated biorecognition events," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 5043-5048 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Abajo, F. J. G.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Kall, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Optical properties of gold nanorings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

J. C. Weeber, M. U. Gonzalez, A. L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, "Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of Bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of Bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dieringer, J. A.

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, R. P. Van Duyne, "Wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 11279-11285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon polariton-based optical beam profiler," Opt. Lett. 29, 1408-1410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Salerno, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Plasmon polaritons in metal nanostructures: the optoelectronic route to nanotechnology," Opto-Electron.Rev. 10, 217-224 (2002).

Drezet, A.

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of Bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eng, L.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, "Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368-1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Felidj, N.

M. Salerno, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Plasmon polaritons in metal nanostructures: the optoelectronic route to nanotechnology," Opto-Electron.Rev. 10, 217-224 (2002).

Fendler, J. H.

E. Hutter, and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of Bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, M. U.

J. C. Weeber, M. U. Gonzalez, A. L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, "Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of Bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grafstrom, S.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, "Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368-1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K.

Guntherodt, H. J.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. J. Guntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haes, A. J.

A. J. Haes, C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, and S. L. Zou, "Plasmonic materials for surface-enhanced sensing and spectroscopy," MRS Bull. 30, 368-375 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, "A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379, 920-930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N.

N. Halas, "Playing with plasmons. Tuning the optical resonant properties of metallic nanoshells," MRS Bull. 30, 362-367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Tam, C. Moran, and N. Halas, "Geometrical parameters controlling sensitivity of nanoshell plasmon resonances to changes in dielectric environment," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 17290-17294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

J. B. Jackson, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101, 17930-17935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Sershen, S. L. Westcott, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Independent optically addressable nanoparticle-polymer optomechanical composites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4609-4611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hanarp, P.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Kall, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Optical properties of gold nanorings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haynes, C. L.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, R. P. Van Duyne, "Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 338A-346A (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes, C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, and S. L. Zou, "Plasmonic materials for surface-enhanced sensing and spectroscopy," MRS Bull. 30, 368-375 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hiller, J. M.

L. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hook, F.

A. Dahlin, M. Zach, T. Rindzevicius, M. Kall, D. S. Sutherland, and F. Hook, "Localized surface plasmon resonance sensing of lipid-membrane-mediated biorecognition events," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 5043-5048 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, J.

L. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huser, T.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. J. Guntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hutter, E.

E. Hutter, and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. B.

J. B. Jackson, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on tunable plasmonic nanoparticle substrates," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101, 17930-17935 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical-constants of noble-metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kall, M.

A. Dahlin, M. Zach, T. Rindzevicius, M. Kall, D. S. Sutherland, and F. Hook, "Localized surface plasmon resonance sensing of lipid-membrane-mediated biorecognition events," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 5043-5048 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Kall, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Optical properties of gold nanorings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimball, C. W.

L. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon polariton-based optical beam profiler," Opt. Lett. 29, 1408-1410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Salerno, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Plasmon polaritons in metal nanostructures: the optoelectronic route to nanotechnology," Opto-Electron.Rev. 10, 217-224 (2002).

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lacroute, Y.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of Bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

M. Salerno, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Plasmon polaritons in metal nanostructures: the optoelectronic route to nanotechnology," Opto-Electron.Rev. 10, 217-224 (2002).

Leitner, A.

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon polariton-based optical beam profiler," Opt. Lett. 29, 1408-1410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Salerno, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Plasmon polaritons in metal nanostructures: the optoelectronic route to nanotechnology," Opto-Electron.Rev. 10, 217-224 (2002).

Liu, Z. W.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, "Surface plasmon interference nanolithography," Nano. Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McFarland, A. D.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, R. P. Van Duyne, "Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 338A-346A (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes, C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, and S. L. Zou, "Plasmonic materials for surface-enhanced sensing and spectroscopy," MRS Bull. 30, 368-375 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, R. P. Van Duyne, "Wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 11279-11285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. D. McFarland, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity," Nano. Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moran, C.

F. Tam, C. Moran, and N. Halas, "Geometrical parameters controlling sensitivity of nanoshell plasmon resonances to changes in dielectric environment," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 17290-17294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nath, N.

N. Nath, and A. Chilkoti, "Label-free biosensing by surface plasmon resonance of nanoparticles on glass: Optimization of nanoparticle size," Anal. Chem. 76, 5370-5378 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearson, J.

L. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pikus, Y.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. J. Guntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rindzevicius, T.

A. Dahlin, M. Zach, T. Rindzevicius, M. Kall, D. S. Sutherland, and F. Hook, "Localized surface plasmon resonance sensing of lipid-membrane-mediated biorecognition events," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 5043-5048 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salerno, M.

M. Salerno, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Plasmon polaritons in metal nanostructures: the optoelectronic route to nanotechnology," Opto-Electron.Rev. 10, 217-224 (2002).

Schatz, G. C.

A. J. Haes, C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, and S. L. Zou, "Plasmonic materials for surface-enhanced sensing and spectroscopy," MRS Bull. 30, 368-375 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Chang, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, "Surface plasmon generation and light transmission by isolated nanoholes and arrays of nanoholes in thin metal films," Opt. Express 13, 3150-3165 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schider, G.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Salerno, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Plasmon polaritons in metal nanostructures: the optoelectronic route to nanotechnology," Opto-Electron.Rev. 10, 217-224 (2002).

Seidel, J.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. Eng, and L. Bischoff, "Surface plasmon transmission across narrow grooves in thin silver films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1368-1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sershen, S. R.

S. R. Sershen, S. L. Westcott, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Independent optically addressable nanoparticle-polymer optomechanical composites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4609-4611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinberger, B.

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, A. L.

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutherland, D. S.

A. Dahlin, M. Zach, T. Rindzevicius, M. Kall, D. S. Sutherland, and F. Hook, "Localized surface plasmon resonance sensing of lipid-membrane-mediated biorecognition events," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 5043-5048 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Kall, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Optical properties of gold nanorings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, F.

F. Tam, C. Moran, and N. Halas, "Geometrical parameters controlling sensitivity of nanoshell plasmon resonances to changes in dielectric environment," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 17290-17294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamaru, H.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. J. Guntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, R. P. Van Duyne, "Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 338A-346A (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes, C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, and S. L. Zou, "Plasmonic materials for surface-enhanced sensing and spectroscopy," MRS Bull. 30, 368-375 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, R. P. Van Duyne, "Wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 11279-11285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, "A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379, 920-930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. McFarland, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity," Nano. Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van Labeke, D.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H. J. Guntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeber, J. C.

J. C. Weeber, M. U. Gonzalez, A. L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, "Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of Bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q. H.

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, "Surface plasmon interference nanolithography," Nano. Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welp, U.

L. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, J. L.

S. R. Sershen, S. L. Westcott, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Independent optically addressable nanoparticle-polymer optomechanical composites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4609-4611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Westcott, S. L.

S. R. Sershen, S. L. Westcott, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "Independent optically addressable nanoparticle-polymer optomechanical composites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4609-4611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yin, L. L.

L. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano. Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, M. A.

A. D. McFarland, M. A. Young, J. A. Dieringer, R. P. Van Duyne, "Wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 11279-11285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zach, M.

A. Dahlin, M. Zach, T. Rindzevicius, M. Kall, D. S. Sutherland, and F. Hook, "Localized surface plasmon resonance sensing of lipid-membrane-mediated biorecognition events," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 5043-5048 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano. Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, "Surface plasmon interference nanolithography," Nano. Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, S. L.

A. J. Haes, C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, and S. L. Zou, "Plasmonic materials for surface-enhanced sensing and spectroscopy," MRS Bull. 30, 368-375 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

E. Hutter, and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, "A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379, 920-930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (2)

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, R. P. Van Duyne, "Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 338A-346A (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Nath, and A. Chilkoti, "Label-free biosensing by surface plasmon resonance of nanoparticles on glass: Optimization of nanoparticle size," Anal. Chem. 76, 5370-5378 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental scheme for near-field measurements. Circular gratings are cut into a silver film deposited on a quartz substrate. Laser light is normally incident from the quartz side, and the electromagnetic near-field is monitored with a metal coated NSOM tip. (b) SEM image of a sample with 15 rings. The scale bar is 5 microns.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The near field is modeled as the superposition of the fields from a line of surface plasmon point sources, located at positions ρ n,m . m indicates the ring number and θn is the angular position of the point source from the positive x axis. The near field at a point ρ is simply the sum of contributions from all point sources along each ring, m. The middle ring is modeled to have a radius of 4 µm with the period of the surrounding ring matching experimental values.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

NSOM measurement of the center region of a sample with 4 rings. The rings have a period of 514 nm, equal to the wavelength of incident light. Similar to the one ring case, the intensity is highest in the center of the circle, indicating that the NSOM tip preferentially measures the in-plane component of the near-field. The theoretical results are also plotted, showing good agreement between experiment and simulation.

Fig 4.
Fig 4.

(a) Intensity at the center of the circular grating for increasing number of rings with an incident laser wavelength of 514 nm. Two sets of rings are measured, one with a period G=514 nm and one with G=633 nm. For G=514 nm, the period is close to resonance with the surface plasmon wavelength of 490 nm. The intensity at the center is the result of mostly constructively interfering waves, so the intensity increases with number of rings up to a point, where the intensity levels off. The experimental data matches the simulated data well. For G=633 nm, the period is off resonance with the surface plasmon wavelength such that each ring as a combination of constructively and destructively interfering waves. (b) Intensity at the center of the circular grating for rings with period G=509 nm exactly resonant with the surface plasmon wavelength for an excitation wavelength of 532 nm. The fitting parameter as defined by Eq. (1) for both figures are: phase=0.07π, T=0.88. Lsp=20.4 µm in (a) and 25.2 µm in (b).

Equations (1)

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E n , m SPP = [ R + m G R ] E 0 sin θ n T m e i m Φ e ρ ρ n , m L SPP cos ϕ ρ ρ n , m 1 2 e i k SP ( ρ ρ n , m )

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