Abstract

A new method for confining and guiding two-dimensional (2D) optical waves is proposed using low-refractive-index materials as cores of metal-gap waveguides. A proper choice of the refractive index of claddings prohibits 2D optical waves from propagating inside the claddings, resulting in strong confinement of waves inside the low-refractive-index cores. We numerically demonstrate that this new method for guiding 2D optical waves can achieve stronger confinement than the conventional one using high-refractive-index cores. This strong confinement leads to efficient guiding of 2D optical waves not only at straight path, but also at sharp 90° bends with negligible radiation losses.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Takahara and T. Kobayashi, “Low-dimensional optical waves and nano-optical circuits,” Opt. Photon. News 15, 10, 54–59 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Takahara, S. Yamagishi, H. Taki, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, “Guiding of a one-dimensional optical beam with nanometer diameter,” Opt. Lett. 22, 475–477 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182, 539–554 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186–5201 (1986)
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Takahara and T. KobayashiY. Katagiri, “Nano-optical waveguides breaking through diffraction limit of light,” in Optomechatronic Micro/Nano Components, Devices, and Systems,ed., Proc. SPIE 5604, 158–172 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60, 663–669 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2, 229–232 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Channel plasmon-polariton in a triangular groove on a metal surface,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1069–1071 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature (London) 424, 824–830 (2003), and references therein.
    [Crossref]
  10. F. Kusunoki, T. Yotsuya, J. Takahara, and T. Kobayashi, “Propagation properties of guided waves in index-guided two-dimensional optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211101 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. B. Wang and G. P. Wang, “Metal heterowaveguides for nanometric focusing of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3599–3601 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158–1160 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000), Chap. 3.
  14. David W. Lynch and W. R. HunterE. D. Palik, “Gold (Au),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, ed. (Academic, New York, 1985).
  15. M. P. Nezhad, K. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, “Gain assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on planar metallic waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 4072–4079 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-4072.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S. A. Maier, “Gain-assisted propagation of electromagnetic energy in subwavelength surface plasmon polariton gap waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 258, 295–299 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  17. V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1209–1211 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Guided subwavelength plasmonic mode supported by a slot in a thin metal film,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3359–3361 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljačić, “Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. A. Maier, “Gain-assisted propagation of electromagnetic energy in subwavelength surface plasmon polariton gap waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 258, 295–299 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljačić, “Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Guided subwavelength plasmonic mode supported by a slot in a thin metal film,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3359–3361 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Kusunoki, T. Yotsuya, J. Takahara, and T. Kobayashi, “Propagation properties of guided waves in index-guided two-dimensional optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211101 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (6)

B. Wang and G. P. Wang, “Metal heterowaveguides for nanometric focusing of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3599–3601 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Takahara and T. KobayashiY. Katagiri, “Nano-optical waveguides breaking through diffraction limit of light,” in Optomechatronic Micro/Nano Components, Devices, and Systems,ed., Proc. SPIE 5604, 158–172 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Takahara and T. Kobayashi, “Low-dimensional optical waves and nano-optical circuits,” Opt. Photon. News 15, 10, 54–59 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Channel plasmon-polariton in a triangular groove on a metal surface,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1069–1071 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1209–1211 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, K. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, “Gain assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on planar metallic waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 4072–4079 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-4072.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158–1160 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2, 229–232 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature (London) 424, 824–830 (2003), and references therein.
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60, 663–669 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1986 (1)

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186–5201 (1986)
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182, 539–554 (1969).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2, 229–232 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60, 663–669 (2002).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature (London) 424, 824–830 (2003), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Barrios, C. A.

Burke, J. J.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186–5201 (1986)
[Crossref]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature (London) 424, 824–830 (2003), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Ditlbacher, H.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60, 663–669 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature (London) 424, 824–830 (2003), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Economou, E. N.

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182, 539–554 (1969).
[Crossref]

Fainman, Y.

Fan, S.

Gramotnev, D. K.

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000), Chap. 3.

Harel, E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2, 229–232 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunter, W. R.

David W. Lynch and W. R. HunterE. D. Palik, “Gold (Au),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, ed. (Academic, New York, 1985).

Ibanescu, M.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljačić, “Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljačić, “Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karalis, A.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljačić, “Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2, 229–232 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, T.

F. Kusunoki, T. Yotsuya, J. Takahara, and T. Kobayashi, “Propagation properties of guided waves in index-guided two-dimensional optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Takahara and T. Kobayashi, “Low-dimensional optical waves and nano-optical circuits,” Opt. Photon. News 15, 10, 54–59 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Takahara and T. KobayashiY. Katagiri, “Nano-optical waveguides breaking through diffraction limit of light,” in Optomechatronic Micro/Nano Components, Devices, and Systems,ed., Proc. SPIE 5604, 158–172 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Takahara, S. Yamagishi, H. Taki, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, “Guiding of a one-dimensional optical beam with nanometer diameter,” Opt. Lett. 22, 475–477 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koel, B. E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2, 229–232 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60, 663–669 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kusunoki, F.

F. Kusunoki, T. Yotsuya, J. Takahara, and T. Kobayashi, “Propagation properties of guided waves in index-guided two-dimensional optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lamprecht, B.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60, 663–669 (2002).
[Crossref]

Leitner, A.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60, 663–669 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lidorikis, E.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljačić, “Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Lynch, David W.

David W. Lynch and W. R. HunterE. D. Palik, “Gold (Au),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, ed. (Academic, New York, 1985).

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, “Gain-assisted propagation of electromagnetic energy in subwavelength surface plasmon polariton gap waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 258, 295–299 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2, 229–232 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2, 229–232 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morimoto, A.

Nezhad, M. P.

Pile, D. F. P.

Requicha, A. A. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2, 229–232 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salerno, M.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60, 663–669 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schider, G.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60, 663–669 (2002).
[Crossref]

Soljacic, M.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljačić, “Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186–5201 (1986)
[Crossref]

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000), Chap. 3.

Takahara, J.

F. Kusunoki, T. Yotsuya, J. Takahara, and T. Kobayashi, “Propagation properties of guided waves in index-guided two-dimensional optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Takahara and T. Kobayashi, “Low-dimensional optical waves and nano-optical circuits,” Opt. Photon. News 15, 10, 54–59 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Takahara and T. KobayashiY. Katagiri, “Nano-optical waveguides breaking through diffraction limit of light,” in Optomechatronic Micro/Nano Components, Devices, and Systems,ed., Proc. SPIE 5604, 158–172 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Takahara, S. Yamagishi, H. Taki, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, “Guiding of a one-dimensional optical beam with nanometer diameter,” Opt. Lett. 22, 475–477 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taki, H.

Tamir, T.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186–5201 (1986)
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158–1160 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, M.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158–1160 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tetz, K.

Veronis, G.

Wang, B.

B. Wang and G. P. Wang, “Metal heterowaveguides for nanometric focusing of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3599–3601 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, G. P.

B. Wang and G. P. Wang, “Metal heterowaveguides for nanometric focusing of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3599–3601 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Yamagishi, S.

Yotsuya, T.

F. Kusunoki, T. Yotsuya, J. Takahara, and T. Kobayashi, “Propagation properties of guided waves in index-guided two-dimensional optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. Kusunoki, T. Yotsuya, J. Takahara, and T. Kobayashi, “Propagation properties of guided waves in index-guided two-dimensional optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211101 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Wang and G. P. Wang, “Metal heterowaveguides for nanometric focusing of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3599–3601 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158–1160 (2003).
[Crossref]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60, 663–669 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2, 229–232 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (London) (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature (London) 424, 824–830 (2003), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. A. Maier, “Gain-assisted propagation of electromagnetic energy in subwavelength surface plasmon polariton gap waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 258, 295–299 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. Takahara and T. Kobayashi, “Low-dimensional optical waves and nano-optical circuits,” Opt. Photon. News 15, 10, 54–59 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182, 539–554 (1969).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186–5201 (1986)
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljačić, “Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Takahara and T. KobayashiY. Katagiri, “Nano-optical waveguides breaking through diffraction limit of light,” in Optomechatronic Micro/Nano Components, Devices, and Systems,ed., Proc. SPIE 5604, 158–172 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000), Chap. 3.

David W. Lynch and W. R. HunterE. D. Palik, “Gold (Au),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, ed. (Academic, New York, 1985).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Dependence of the normalized propagation constants on the gap distance for metal-gap waveguides with a homogeneous middle dielectric film with the refractive index n. The gray area shows the region at which no TMmode exist in the case of n=4. Inset: schematic diagram of metal-gap structures.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic diagram of the 2D optical waveguide with a low-refractive-index core, and (b) an inside view of the middle dielectric film.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electric field |E| distribution in the y-z plane at x=0. The white broken lines indicate the boundaries between a core and claddings.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Core width dependence of beam width and propagation loss by FDTD simulations. The beam width is defined as the width at which the amplitude of electric field |E| is reduced to 1/e of its maximum value.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Electric field |E| distribution in the y-z plane at x=0 for a waveguide with a 90° bend. The white broken lines indicate the boundaries between a core and claddings.

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