Abstract

We have experimentally and theoretically compared intensity and phase measurements of surface plasmon resonance, in order to check the widely claimed superiority of the phase method. Both experiment and theory show a slightly higher sensitivity for intensity detection. Simulations confirm that this result is generally true for a wide range of resonance conditions. The basic reason is that phase measurements must be performed by measuring light intensities in some way, and therefore both modes of operation are limited in similar ways by photon statistics. Sensitivity can only be improved by using larger light intensities.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106, 874–881 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Otto, “Excitation of surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 398–410 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).
  4. B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, i–ix (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sensors and Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, “Interferometer based on a surface-plasmon resonance for sensor applications,” Quan. Elec. 27, 653–654 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150, 5–8 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase properties of a surface-plasmon resonance from the viewpoint of sensor applications,” Quan. Elec. 28, 444–448 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, A. A. Beloglazov, T. I. Ksenvich, and P. I. Nikitin, “Visualization of the angular dependence of the reflected-radiation phase under conditions of a surface-plasmon resonance and its sensor application,” Quan. Elec. 28, 835–839 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase-polarization contrast for surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Biosens. & Bioelect. 13, 1263–1269 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Shen, T. Liu, and J. Guo, “Optical phase-shift detection of surface plasmon resonance,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1747–1751 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin,” Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917–3919 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. and Act. B 54, 43–50 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance bio- and chemical sensors with phase-polarization contrast,” Sens. and Act. B 54, 51–56 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, P. I. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, “Dark-field surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 151–155 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, and O. A. Savchuk, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Interferometry for Micro-Array Biosensing,” Sens. and Act. 85, 189–193 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, and Y. Zibo, “Simulation and analysis of surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on phase detection,” Sens. and Act. B 91, 285–290 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. M. Wu, Z. C. Jian, S. F. Joe, and L. B. Chang, “High-sensitivity sensor based on surface Plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry,” Sens. and Act. B 92, 133–136 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor,” Sens. and Act. B 97, 114–121 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder configuration,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2378–2380 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. and Act. B 108, 765–771 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. D. Su, S. J. Chen, and T. L. Yen, “Common path phase shift interferometry surface plasmon resonance imaging system,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1488–1490 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. M. Wu and M. C. Pao, “Sensitivity-tunable optical sensors based on surface Plasmon resonance and phase detection,” Optics Express 12, 3509–3514 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. E. Greivenkamp and J. H. BruningD. Malacara, “Phase Shifting Interferometers” in Optical shop testing, ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2nd Ed., New York, 1992).
  25. S. A. Furman and A. V. Tikhonravov, Basics of Optics of Multilayer Systems, (Editions Frontieres, France, 1992).
  26. S. Kostianovski, S. G. Lipson, and E. N. Ribak, “Interference microscopy and Fourier fringe analysis applied to measuring the spatial refractive-index distribution,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4744–4750 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. John R. Taylor, An introduction to Error Analysis, (University Science Books, 1997), Chap. 7.

2005 (2)

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. and Act. B 108, 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Su, S. J. Chen, and T. L. Yen, “Common path phase shift interferometry surface plasmon resonance imaging system,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1488–1490 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder configuration,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2378–2380 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Wu and M. C. Pao, “Sensitivity-tunable optical sensors based on surface Plasmon resonance and phase detection,” Optics Express 12, 3509–3514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor,” Sens. and Act. B 97, 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, and Y. Zibo, “Simulation and analysis of surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on phase detection,” Sens. and Act. B 91, 285–290 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, Z. C. Jian, S. F. Joe, and L. B. Chang, “High-sensitivity sensor based on surface Plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry,” Sens. and Act. B 92, 133–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, P. I. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, “Dark-field surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 151–155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, and O. A. Savchuk, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Interferometry for Micro-Array Biosensing,” Sens. and Act. 85, 189–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sensors and Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin,” Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. and Act. B 54, 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance bio- and chemical sensors with phase-polarization contrast,” Sens. and Act. B 54, 51–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150, 5–8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase properties of a surface-plasmon resonance from the viewpoint of sensor applications,” Quan. Elec. 28, 444–448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, A. A. Beloglazov, T. I. Ksenvich, and P. I. Nikitin, “Visualization of the angular dependence of the reflected-radiation phase under conditions of a surface-plasmon resonance and its sensor application,” Quan. Elec. 28, 835–839 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase-polarization contrast for surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Biosens. & Bioelect. 13, 1263–1269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Shen, T. Liu, and J. Guo, “Optical phase-shift detection of surface plasmon resonance,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1747–1751 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, “Interferometer based on a surface-plasmon resonance for sensor applications,” Quan. Elec. 27, 653–654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, i–ix (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1968 (2)

A. Otto, “Excitation of surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 398–410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).

1957 (1)

R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106, 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P. N.

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor,” Sens. and Act. B 97, 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beloglazov, A. A.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, P. I. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, “Dark-field surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 151–155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, and O. A. Savchuk, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Interferometry for Micro-Array Biosensing,” Sens. and Act. 85, 189–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. and Act. B 54, 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, A. A. Beloglazov, T. I. Ksenvich, and P. I. Nikitin, “Visualization of the angular dependence of the reflected-radiation phase under conditions of a surface-plasmon resonance and its sensor application,” Quan. Elec. 28, 835–839 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase-polarization contrast for surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Biosens. & Bioelect. 13, 1263–1269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase properties of a surface-plasmon resonance from the viewpoint of sensor applications,” Quan. Elec. 28, 444–448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bruning, J. H.

J. E. Greivenkamp and J. H. BruningD. Malacara, “Phase Shifting Interferometers” in Optical shop testing, ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2nd Ed., New York, 1992).

Chang, L. B.

C. M. Wu, Z. C. Jian, S. F. Joe, and L. B. Chang, “High-sensitivity sensor based on surface Plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry,” Sens. and Act. B 92, 133–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. J.

Dingxin, W.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. and Act. B 108, 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, and Y. Zibo, “Simulation and analysis of surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on phase detection,” Sens. and Act. B 91, 285–290 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Furman, S. A.

S. A. Furman and A. V. Tikhonravov, Basics of Optics of Multilayer Systems, (Editions Frontieres, France, 1992).

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sensors and Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Greivenkamp, J. E.

J. E. Greivenkamp and J. H. BruningD. Malacara, “Phase Shifting Interferometers” in Optical shop testing, ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2nd Ed., New York, 1992).

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, P. I. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, “Dark-field surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 151–155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, and O. A. Savchuk, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Interferometry for Micro-Array Biosensing,” Sens. and Act. 85, 189–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin,” Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

Harris, R. D.

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor,” Sens. and Act. B 97, 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ho, H. P.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sensors and Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jian, Z. C.

C. M. Wu, Z. C. Jian, S. F. Joe, and L. B. Chang, “High-sensitivity sensor based on surface Plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry,” Sens. and Act. B 92, 133–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joe, S. F.

C. M. Wu, Z. C. Jian, S. F. Joe, and L. B. Chang, “High-sensitivity sensor based on surface Plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry,” Sens. and Act. B 92, 133–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance bio- and chemical sensors with phase-polarization contrast,” Sens. and Act. B 54, 51–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin,” Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase-polarization contrast for surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Biosens. & Bioelect. 13, 1263–1269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150, 5–8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, “Interferometer based on a surface-plasmon resonance for sensor applications,” Quan. Elec. 27, 653–654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kochergin, V. E.

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. and Act. B 54, 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance bio- and chemical sensors with phase-polarization contrast,” Sens. and Act. B 54, 51–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase-polarization contrast for surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Biosens. & Bioelect. 13, 1263–1269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, A. A. Beloglazov, T. I. Ksenvich, and P. I. Nikitin, “Visualization of the angular dependence of the reflected-radiation phase under conditions of a surface-plasmon resonance and its sensor application,” Quan. Elec. 28, 835–839 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase properties of a surface-plasmon resonance from the viewpoint of sensor applications,” Quan. Elec. 28, 444–448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kong, S. K.

Kostianovski, S.

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Ksenevich, T. I.

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. and Act. B 54, 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ksenvich, T. I.

V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, A. A. Beloglazov, T. I. Ksenvich, and P. I. Nikitin, “Visualization of the angular dependence of the reflected-radiation phase under conditions of a surface-plasmon resonance and its sensor application,” Quan. Elec. 28, 835–839 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuhne, C.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, P. I. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, “Dark-field surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 151–155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Law, W. C.

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, i–ix (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.

Lipson, S. G.

Liu, T.

Lundstrom, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, i–ix (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikitin, P. I.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, P. I. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, “Dark-field surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 151–155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, and O. A. Savchuk, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Interferometry for Micro-Array Biosensing,” Sens. and Act. 85, 189–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance bio- and chemical sensors with phase-polarization contrast,” Sens. and Act. B 54, 51–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin,” Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. and Act. B 54, 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase properties of a surface-plasmon resonance from the viewpoint of sensor applications,” Quan. Elec. 28, 444–448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, A. A. Beloglazov, T. I. Ksenvich, and P. I. Nikitin, “Visualization of the angular dependence of the reflected-radiation phase under conditions of a surface-plasmon resonance and its sensor application,” Quan. Elec. 28, 835–839 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase-polarization contrast for surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Biosens. & Bioelect. 13, 1263–1269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150, 5–8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, “Interferometer based on a surface-plasmon resonance for sensor applications,” Quan. Elec. 27, 653–654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nylander, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, i–ix (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otto, A.

A. Otto, “Excitation of surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 398–410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Pao, M. C.

C. M. Wu and M. C. Pao, “Sensitivity-tunable optical sensors based on surface Plasmon resonance and phase detection,” Optics Express 12, 3509–3514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raether, H.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Ribak, E. N.

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106, 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Salzer, R.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, P. I. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, “Dark-field surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 151–155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Savchuk, A. I.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, and O. A. Savchuk, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Interferometry for Micro-Array Biosensing,” Sens. and Act. 85, 189–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Savchuk, O. A.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, and O. A. Savchuk, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Interferometry for Micro-Array Biosensing,” Sens. and Act. 85, 189–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.

Sheridan, A. K.

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor,” Sens. and Act. B 97, 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, G.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, P. I. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, “Dark-field surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 151–155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. D.

Taylor, John R.

John R. Taylor, An introduction to Error Analysis, (University Science Books, 1997), Chap. 7.

Tikhonravov, A. V.

S. A. Furman and A. V. Tikhonravov, Basics of Optics of Multilayer Systems, (Editions Frontieres, France, 1992).

Valeiko, M. V.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, and O. A. Savchuk, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Interferometry for Micro-Array Biosensing,” Sens. and Act. 85, 189–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. and Act. B 54, 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, A. A. Beloglazov, T. I. Ksenvich, and P. I. Nikitin, “Visualization of the angular dependence of the reflected-radiation phase under conditions of a surface-plasmon resonance and its sensor application,” Quan. Elec. 28, 835–839 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase properties of a surface-plasmon resonance from the viewpoint of sensor applications,” Quan. Elec. 28, 444–448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wei, L.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. and Act. B 108, 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor,” Sens. and Act. B 97, 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. M.

C. M. Wu and M. C. Pao, “Sensitivity-tunable optical sensors based on surface Plasmon resonance and phase detection,” Optics Express 12, 3509–3514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Wu, Z. C. Jian, S. F. Joe, and L. B. Chang, “High-sensitivity sensor based on surface Plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry,” Sens. and Act. B 92, 133–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. Y.

Xiang, D.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. and Act. B 108, 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xing, W.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. and Act. B 108, 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xinglong, Y.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. and Act. B 108, 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, and Y. Zibo, “Simulation and analysis of surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on phase detection,” Sens. and Act. B 91, 285–290 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xinsheng, Z.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. and Act. B 108, 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sensors and Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T. L.

Zibo, Y.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, and Y. Zibo, “Simulation and analysis of surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on phase detection,” Sens. and Act. B 91, 285–290 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin,” Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. & Bioelect. (1)

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase-polarization contrast for surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Biosens. & Bioelect. 13, 1263–1269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, i–ix (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150, 5–8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, P. I. Nikitin, C. Kuhne, G. Steiner, and R. Salzer, “Dark-field surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 151–155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optics Express (1)

C. M. Wu and M. C. Pao, “Sensitivity-tunable optical sensors based on surface Plasmon resonance and phase detection,” Optics Express 12, 3509–3514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106, 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Quan. Elec. (3)

V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase properties of a surface-plasmon resonance from the viewpoint of sensor applications,” Quan. Elec. 28, 444–448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, A. A. Beloglazov, T. I. Ksenvich, and P. I. Nikitin, “Visualization of the angular dependence of the reflected-radiation phase under conditions of a surface-plasmon resonance and its sensor application,” Quan. Elec. 28, 835–839 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, “Interferometer based on a surface-plasmon resonance for sensor applications,” Quan. Elec. 27, 653–654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sens. and Act. (1)

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, and O. A. Savchuk, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Interferometry for Micro-Array Biosensing,” Sens. and Act. 85, 189–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sens. and Act. B (6)

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, and Y. Zibo, “Simulation and analysis of surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on phase detection,” Sens. and Act. B 91, 285–290 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, Z. C. Jian, S. F. Joe, and L. B. Chang, “High-sensitivity sensor based on surface Plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry,” Sens. and Act. B 92, 133–136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor,” Sens. and Act. B 97, 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. and Act. B 54, 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin, V. E. Kochergin, and P. I. Nikitin, “Surface plasmon resonance bio- and chemical sensors with phase-polarization contrast,” Sens. and Act. B 54, 51–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. and Act. B 108, 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sensors and Actuators B (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sensors and Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Naturforsch. A (1)

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Z. Phys. (1)

A. Otto, “Excitation of surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 398–410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

John R. Taylor, An introduction to Error Analysis, (University Science Books, 1997), Chap. 7.

J. E. Greivenkamp and J. H. BruningD. Malacara, “Phase Shifting Interferometers” in Optical shop testing, ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2nd Ed., New York, 1992).

S. A. Furman and A. V. Tikhonravov, Basics of Optics of Multilayer Systems, (Editions Frontieres, France, 1992).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The Kretschman configuration for measuring surface plasmon resonance.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated behavior of the phase and intensity of light (λ=692nm) reflected from a prism of SF11 glass with gold films of thicknesses between 30 and 80nm covered by water. (a) shows the intensity reflected, (b) the phase anomaly between 50 and 55nm thickness, and (c) the interference intensity when a coherent reference wave of constant amplitude and phase is added to the reflected light. The interferogram shows no signs of anomaly at any gold layer thickness.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Four interferograms simulated as input to the phase-step algorithm at the phase anomaly. The interferograms are the result of interference between the p- polarized wave which interacts with the surface plasmons and the s- polarized wave which serves as a reference wave. Although the phase of the wave shows a very steep slope at the resonance angle (shown by the arrow), none of the four interferograms (which the phase is calculated from) show any unusual behavior.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The optical system used for the comparison measurements. (1) LED source, (2) collimation lens, (3) rotatable polarizer, (4) Kretschman prism, (5) objective lens, (6) phaseshifter, (7) rotatable analyzer, (8) imaging lens, (9) CCD. Angle scanning was provided by a linear motion of the LED source.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The refractive index measurement accuracy Δn as a function of the input photon flux, plotted to show dependence on N . The effect of using averages over different numbers of CCD pixels is shown. In each case the theoretical curves (full lines) include correction for readout noise, R N , with broken lines for R N =0. (a) refers to the intensity mode and (b) to the interferometric mode of measurement.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The error in the refractive index measurement in the interferometric mode, when the phase difference between the S- and P-polarizations was varied with the phase shifter. The agreement between the simulated and observed values indicates that phase-shifter errors could not account for the poorer performance of the interferometric mode. The optimum phase difference was the value used in the experiments.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulated experiments and theoretical model for sensitivity as a function of Au film thickness. The error bars shown indicate numerical uncertainties, arising from finite-number simulations. The poor value of the phase mode at 50nm arises from resonant absorption.

Equations (14)

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I ( n , θ ) = I 0 2 [ R ( n , θ ) 2 cos 2 ( α ) cos 2 ( β ) + R ( n , θ ) P sin 2 ( α ) sin 2 ( β ) +
1 2 R ( n , θ ) S R ( n , θ ) P sin ( 2 α ) sin ( 2 β ) cos ( φ ( n , θ ) P φ ( n , θ ) S + Δ ψ ) ]
I ( n , θ ) = I 0 2 R ( n , θ ) P
I ( n , θ ) I 0 M ( n , θ ) = I 0 2 [ R ( n , θ ) S 4 + R ( n , θ ) P 4 + 1 2 R ( n , θ ) S R ( n , θ ) P cos ( φ ( n , θ ) P φ ( n , θ ) S + Δ ψ ) ]
φ ( n , θ ) = arctan ( I ( n , θ , 4 ) I ( n , θ , 2 ) I ( n , θ , 1 ) I ( n , θ , 3 ) )
Δ n ( n , θ ) = ( N 0 R ( n , θ ) + R N 2 b ) 1 2 ( N 0 R ( n , θ ) P n ) 1
Δ n ( n , θ ) = R N 0 R ( n , θ ) ( N 0 R ( n , θ ) n ) 1
Δ n ( n , θ ) = ( N 0 M ( n , θ ) + R N 2 b ) 1 2 ( N 0 M ( n , θ ) n ) 1
Δ n ( n , θ ) = ( A 2 ( Δ I ( n , θ , 1 ) 2 + Δ I ( n , θ , 3 ) 2 ) + Δ I ( n , θ , 2 ) 2 + Δ I ( n , θ , 4 ) 2 ) 1 2 N 0 φ ( n , θ ) n ( 1 + A 2 ) M ( n , θ , 1 ) M ( n , θ , 3 )
A M ( n , θ , 4 ) M ( n , θ , 2 ) M ( n , θ , 1 ) M ( n , θ , 3 ) Δ I j ( N 0 M ( n , θ , j ) + R N 2 b ) 1 2
Δ n ( n , θ ) ( N 0 φ ( n , θ ) n R ( n , θ ) S R ( n , θ ) P ) 1
n wav = [ k w k ] 1 k w k n ( θ k )
Δ n wav = [ k w k ] 1 = [ k Δ n ( θ k ) 2 ] 1
M ( n ) n = 1 2 [ 1 4 R ( n ) P n + R ( n ) S 2 ( 1 2 1 R ( n ) P cos ( φ ( n ) P φ ( n ) S ) R ( n ) P n R ( n ) P sin ( φ ( n ) P φ ( n ) S ) φ ( n ) P n ) ]

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