Abstract

We report on the design, fabrication process and characterization of liquid crystal cells for investigation of optical spatial solitons. Controlling of the director orientation at the input interface, as well as in the bulk, allows to obtain configurations that can produce distinct optical phenomena in a light beam propagating in the cell. For a particular director configuration, it is possible to produce two waves inside the nematic liquid crystal cell: the extraordinary and the ordinary one. With a different director configuration, the extraordinary wave only is obtained, which propagates inside the cell at an angle of more than 7° with respect to the impinging wave vector direction. Under this peculiar configuration and by applying an external voltage, it is possible to have a good control of the propagation direction of the optical spatial soliton.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: Universality and Diversity," Science 286, 1518 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Stegeman, D. Christodoulides, and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons: historical perspectives," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1419 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. D. Boardman and A. P. Sukhorukov "Soliton Driven Photonics" (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2001).
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  4. S. Trillo and W.E. Torruellas, "Spatial Solitons" (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
  5. Y. Kivhsar and G. Agrawal, "Optical Solitons: From Fibers to Photonic Crystals" (Academic Press, London, 2003).
  6. C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. V. Tabyrian, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Y. Zel’dovich, "The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. C. Khoo, "Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena" (Wiley, New York, 1995).
  9. M. Segev and G. I. Stegeman, "Self-Trapping of Optical Beams: Spatial Solitons," Phys. Today 51, 42 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Route to nonlocality and observation of accessible solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 073901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzadkiewicz, and G. Assanto, "Nonlocal spatial soliton interactions in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 27, 1460 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Routing of anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals," Nature 432, 733 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. B. Kosmowski, M. E. Becker, and D. A. Mlynski, "A novel technique for the accurate determination of average tilt angle in twisted nematic cells," Displays 5, 104 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Komitow, G. Hauch, and H. D. Koswig, Cryst. Res. Technol.,  19, 253 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. E Torruellas, Z. Wang, L. Torner, and G. I. Stegeman, "Observation of mutual trapping and dragging of two-dimensional spatial solitary waves in a quadratic medium," Opt. Lett. 20, 1949-1951 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. E. Torruellas, G. Assanto, B. L. Lawrence, R. A. Fuerst, and G. I. Stegeman, "All-optical switching by spatial walk-off compensation and solitary-wave locking," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1449-1451 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Crosignani and G. Salamo, "Photorefractive solitons," Opt. Photonics. News 13 (2), 38 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Shiek, Y. Baek, G. I. Stegeman, and W. Sohler, "One-dimensional quadratic walking solitons," Opt. Lett. 24, 83-85 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Friedrich, J. S. Aitchison, P. Millar, and G. I. Stegeman, "Dynamic, electronically controlled, angle steering of spatial solitons in AlGaAs slab waveguides," Opt. Lett. 23, 1438-1440 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 18 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. C. Khoo, "Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  77, 7 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, M. A. Karpierz, and I. C. Khoo, "Light self-confinement in planar cells with Nematic liquid crystals," J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 47, 790 (2002).
  23. G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, C. Umeton, A. De Luca, and I. C. Khoo, "Coherent and incoherent spatial soliton in bulk Nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 617 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Nonlocal optical propagation in Nonlinear Nematic liquid crystals," J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 12, N°4, 525 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzd_akiewicz, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Nonlinear wave propagation and spatial solitons in Nematic liquid crystals, " J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 12, N°2, 123 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Alberucci, G. Coschignano, M. Peccianti, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and G. Assanto, "Self-healing generation of spatial solitone in liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 1381 (2005)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Routing of anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals," Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Route to nonlocality and observation of accessible solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 073901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Nonlocal optical propagation in Nonlinear Nematic liquid crystals," J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 12, N°4, 525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzd_akiewicz, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Nonlinear wave propagation and spatial solitons in Nematic liquid crystals, " J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 12, N°2, 123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

B. Crosignani and G. Salamo, "Photorefractive solitons," Opt. Photonics. News 13 (2), 38 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 18 (2002)
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, M. A. Karpierz, and I. C. Khoo, "Light self-confinement in planar cells with Nematic liquid crystals," J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 47, 790 (2002).

G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, C. Umeton, A. De Luca, and I. C. Khoo, "Coherent and incoherent spatial soliton in bulk Nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzadkiewicz, and G. Assanto, "Nonlocal spatial soliton interactions in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 27, 1460 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. C. Khoo, "Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  77, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Stegeman, D. Christodoulides, and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons: historical perspectives," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1419 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: Universality and Diversity," Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Shiek, Y. Baek, G. I. Stegeman, and W. Sohler, "One-dimensional quadratic walking solitons," Opt. Lett. 24, 83-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

W. E. Torruellas, G. Assanto, B. L. Lawrence, R. A. Fuerst, and G. I. Stegeman, "All-optical switching by spatial walk-off compensation and solitary-wave locking," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1449-1451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1986

N. V. Tabyrian, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Y. Zel’dovich, "The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

B. B. Kosmowski, M. E. Becker, and D. A. Mlynski, "A novel technique for the accurate determination of average tilt angle in twisted nematic cells," Displays 5, 104 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Komitow, G. Hauch, and H. D. Koswig, Cryst. Res. Technol.,  19, 253 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Alberucci, A.

Assanto, G.

A. Alberucci, G. Coschignano, M. Peccianti, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and G. Assanto, "Self-healing generation of spatial solitone in liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 1381 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Routing of anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals," Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Route to nonlocality and observation of accessible solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 073901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Nonlocal optical propagation in Nonlinear Nematic liquid crystals," J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 12, N°4, 525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzd_akiewicz, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Nonlinear wave propagation and spatial solitons in Nematic liquid crystals, " J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 12, N°2, 123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 18 (2002)
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, M. A. Karpierz, and I. C. Khoo, "Light self-confinement in planar cells with Nematic liquid crystals," J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 47, 790 (2002).

G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, C. Umeton, A. De Luca, and I. C. Khoo, "Coherent and incoherent spatial soliton in bulk Nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzadkiewicz, and G. Assanto, "Nonlocal spatial soliton interactions in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 27, 1460 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. C. Khoo, "Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  77, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Torruellas, G. Assanto, B. L. Lawrence, R. A. Fuerst, and G. I. Stegeman, "All-optical switching by spatial walk-off compensation and solitary-wave locking," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1449-1451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baek, Y.

Becker, M. E.

B. B. Kosmowski, M. E. Becker, and D. A. Mlynski, "A novel technique for the accurate determination of average tilt angle in twisted nematic cells," Displays 5, 104 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brzadkiewicz, K. A.

Christodoulides, D.

G. Stegeman, D. Christodoulides, and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons: historical perspectives," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1419 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Conti, C.

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Routing of anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals," Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Route to nonlocality and observation of accessible solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 073901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Nonlocal optical propagation in Nonlinear Nematic liquid crystals," J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 12, N°4, 525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 18 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Coschignano, G.

Crosignani, B.

B. Crosignani and G. Salamo, "Photorefractive solitons," Opt. Photonics. News 13 (2), 38 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Luca, A.

A. Alberucci, G. Coschignano, M. Peccianti, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and G. Assanto, "Self-healing generation of spatial solitone in liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 1381 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Routing of anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals," Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Nonlocal optical propagation in Nonlinear Nematic liquid crystals," J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 12, N°4, 525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, C. Umeton, A. De Luca, and I. C. Khoo, "Coherent and incoherent spatial soliton in bulk Nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 18 (2002)
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, M. A. Karpierz, and I. C. Khoo, "Light self-confinement in planar cells with Nematic liquid crystals," J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 47, 790 (2002).

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. C. Khoo, "Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  77, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Rossi, A.

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, M. A. Karpierz, and I. C. Khoo, "Light self-confinement in planar cells with Nematic liquid crystals," J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 47, 790 (2002).

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. C. Khoo, "Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  77, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, L.

Fuerst, R. A.

W. E. Torruellas, G. Assanto, B. L. Lawrence, R. A. Fuerst, and G. I. Stegeman, "All-optical switching by spatial walk-off compensation and solitary-wave locking," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1449-1451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hauch, G.

A. Komitow, G. Hauch, and H. D. Koswig, Cryst. Res. Technol.,  19, 253 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Karpierz, M. A.

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, M. A. Karpierz, and I. C. Khoo, "Light self-confinement in planar cells with Nematic liquid crystals," J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 47, 790 (2002).

Khoo, I. C.

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, M. A. Karpierz, and I. C. Khoo, "Light self-confinement in planar cells with Nematic liquid crystals," J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 47, 790 (2002).

G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, C. Umeton, A. De Luca, and I. C. Khoo, "Coherent and incoherent spatial soliton in bulk Nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. C. Khoo, "Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  77, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Komitow, A.

A. Komitow, G. Hauch, and H. D. Koswig, Cryst. Res. Technol.,  19, 253 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kosmowski, B. B.

B. B. Kosmowski, M. E. Becker, and D. A. Mlynski, "A novel technique for the accurate determination of average tilt angle in twisted nematic cells," Displays 5, 104 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Koswig, H. D.

A. Komitow, G. Hauch, and H. D. Koswig, Cryst. Res. Technol.,  19, 253 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, B. L.

W. E. Torruellas, G. Assanto, B. L. Lawrence, R. A. Fuerst, and G. I. Stegeman, "All-optical switching by spatial walk-off compensation and solitary-wave locking," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1449-1451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Millar, P.

Mlynski, D. A.

B. B. Kosmowski, M. E. Becker, and D. A. Mlynski, "A novel technique for the accurate determination of average tilt angle in twisted nematic cells," Displays 5, 104 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Peccianti, M.

A. Alberucci, G. Coschignano, M. Peccianti, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and G. Assanto, "Self-healing generation of spatial solitone in liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 1381 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Routing of anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals," Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Route to nonlocality and observation of accessible solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 073901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Nonlocal optical propagation in Nonlinear Nematic liquid crystals," J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 12, N°4, 525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzd_akiewicz, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Nonlinear wave propagation and spatial solitons in Nematic liquid crystals, " J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 12, N°2, 123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, M. A. Karpierz, and I. C. Khoo, "Light self-confinement in planar cells with Nematic liquid crystals," J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 47, 790 (2002).

G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, C. Umeton, A. De Luca, and I. C. Khoo, "Coherent and incoherent spatial soliton in bulk Nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 18 (2002)
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzadkiewicz, and G. Assanto, "Nonlocal spatial soliton interactions in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 27, 1460 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. C. Khoo, "Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  77, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G.

B. Crosignani and G. Salamo, "Photorefractive solitons," Opt. Photonics. News 13 (2), 38 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

G. Stegeman, D. Christodoulides, and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons: historical perspectives," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1419 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: Universality and Diversity," Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev and G. I. Stegeman, "Self-Trapping of Optical Beams: Spatial Solitons," Phys. Today 51, 42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shiek, R.

Sohler, W.

Stegeman, G.

G. Stegeman, D. Christodoulides, and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons: historical perspectives," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1419 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: Universality and Diversity," Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Shiek, Y. Baek, G. I. Stegeman, and W. Sohler, "One-dimensional quadratic walking solitons," Opt. Lett. 24, 83-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev and G. I. Stegeman, "Self-Trapping of Optical Beams: Spatial Solitons," Phys. Today 51, 42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Friedrich, J. S. Aitchison, P. Millar, and G. I. Stegeman, "Dynamic, electronically controlled, angle steering of spatial solitons in AlGaAs slab waveguides," Opt. Lett. 23, 1438-1440 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Torruellas, G. Assanto, B. L. Lawrence, R. A. Fuerst, and G. I. Stegeman, "All-optical switching by spatial walk-off compensation and solitary-wave locking," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1449-1451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. E Torruellas, Z. Wang, L. Torner, and G. I. Stegeman, "Observation of mutual trapping and dragging of two-dimensional spatial solitary waves in a quadratic medium," Opt. Lett. 20, 1949-1951 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukhov, A. V.

N. V. Tabyrian, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Y. Zel’dovich, "The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tabyrian, N. V.

N. V. Tabyrian, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Y. Zel’dovich, "The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Torner, L.

Torruellas, W. E

Torruellas, W. E.

W. E. Torruellas, G. Assanto, B. L. Lawrence, R. A. Fuerst, and G. I. Stegeman, "All-optical switching by spatial walk-off compensation and solitary-wave locking," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1449-1451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

A. Alberucci, G. Coschignano, M. Peccianti, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and G. Assanto, "Self-healing generation of spatial solitone in liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 1381 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Routing of anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals," Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Nonlocal optical propagation in Nonlinear Nematic liquid crystals," J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 12, N°4, 525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 18 (2002)
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, C. Umeton, A. De Luca, and I. C. Khoo, "Coherent and incoherent spatial soliton in bulk Nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, M. A. Karpierz, and I. C. Khoo, "Light self-confinement in planar cells with Nematic liquid crystals," J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 47, 790 (2002).

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. C. Khoo, "Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  77, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Zel’dovich, B. Y.

N. V. Tabyrian, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Y. Zel’dovich, "The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 18 (2002)
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. C. Khoo, "Electrically assisted self-confinement and waveguiding in planar nematic liquid crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  77, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Torruellas, G. Assanto, B. L. Lawrence, R. A. Fuerst, and G. I. Stegeman, "All-optical switching by spatial walk-off compensation and solitary-wave locking," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1449-1451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Res. Technol.

A. Komitow, G. Hauch, and H. D. Koswig, Cryst. Res. Technol.,  19, 253 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Displays

B. B. Kosmowski, M. E. Becker, and D. A. Mlynski, "A novel technique for the accurate determination of average tilt angle in twisted nematic cells," Displays 5, 104 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

G. Stegeman, D. Christodoulides, and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons: historical perspectives," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1419 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Commun. Technol. Electron.

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, M. A. Karpierz, and I. C. Khoo, "Light self-confinement in planar cells with Nematic liquid crystals," J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 47, 790 (2002).

J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Nonlocal optical propagation in Nonlinear Nematic liquid crystals," J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 12, N°4, 525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzd_akiewicz, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Nonlinear wave propagation and spatial solitons in Nematic liquid crystals, " J. Nonlinear. Opt. Phys. Mater. 12, N°2, 123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

G. Assanto, M. Peccianti, C. Umeton, A. De Luca, and I. C. Khoo, "Coherent and incoherent spatial soliton in bulk Nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 617 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Tabyrian, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Y. Zel’dovich, "The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Routing of anisotropic spatial solitons and modulational instability in liquid crystals," Nature 432, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Photonics. News

B. Crosignani and G. Salamo, "Photorefractive solitons," Opt. Photonics. News 13 (2), 38 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Route to nonlocality and observation of accessible solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 073901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Observation of optical spatial solitons in a highly nonlocal medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today

M. Segev and G. I. Stegeman, "Self-Trapping of Optical Beams: Spatial Solitons," Phys. Today 51, 42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science

G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: Universality and Diversity," Science 286, 1518 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

I. C. Khoo, "Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena" (Wiley, New York, 1995).

A. D. Boardman and A. P. Sukhorukov "Soliton Driven Photonics" (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Trillo and W.E. Torruellas, "Spatial Solitons" (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).

Y. Kivhsar and G. Agrawal, "Optical Solitons: From Fibers to Photonic Crystals" (Academic Press, London, 2003).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketch of the director orientation obtained by using the anchoring conditions imposed both at the input interface and in the bulk (0° in the x-y plane with respect to the x axis and 0° in the y-z plane with respect to the z axis, the so called “standard configuration” [0°/0°]). (a) 3D view of the obtained configuration; rod-like molecules reproduce the anchoring orientation imposed on the substrates (input and bulk). (b) and (c): top and side view of the possible director orientation trend in the first 100 µm of the cell respectively; estimations are deduced from optical microscopy observations.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sketch of the [0°/45°] configuration obtained by changing the director orientation on the substrate in the bulk. (a): 3D view of the obtained configuration; rod-like molecules reproduce the anchoring orientation imposed on the substrates (input and bulk). (b) and (c): top and side view of the possible director orientation trend in the first 100 µm of the cell respectively; estimations are deduced from optical microscopy observations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Sketch of the [45°/45°] director configuration obtained by changing the director orientation both at the input interface and in the bulk. (a): 3D view of the obtained configuration; rod-like molecules reproduce the anchoring orientation imposed on the substrates (input and bulk). (b) and (c): top and side view of the possible director orientation trend in the first 100 µm of the cell respectively; estimations are deduced from optical microscopy observations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a): Sketch of a thin cell with two additional (input and output) optical glass interfaces. (b): Image of the cell obtained by using the fabrication process described in the text.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Color-coded images acquired from the top of a cell with standard configuration [0°/0°] (a): an x-polarized focused beam diffracts in a linear regime. (b): formation of the self-induced waveguide (spatial soliton) obtained by applying an external ac voltage.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Color-coded images acquired from the top of a cell with the [0°/45°] director configuration. (a): By impinging with an x-polarized beam, both e-wave (beam 1) and o-wave (beam 2) excitations are obtained. (b): By applying an external ac voltage, an optical waveguide (spatial soliton) is obtained.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Color-coded images acquired from the top of a cell with the [45°/45°] director configuration. (a): By putting the input polarization at 45° in the x-y plane, it is possible to produce the e-wave only, at an angle (γ) of about 7° with respect to the input beam wavevector. (b): Application of an external ac voltage is used to control the walk-off angle γ, thus steering and routing the created solitary wave from 7° to 0°.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ φ = 2 π d λ [ n o 2 n e 2 n 2 sin θ 0 cos θ 0 sin θ + n o n e n 2 n 2 sin 2 θ n o 2 sin 2 θ ]
n 2 = n o 2 cos 2 θ 0 + n e 2 sin 2 θ 0

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