Abstract

A monolithic structured polymer preform was formed by in-situ chemical polymerization of high-purity MMA monomer in a home-made mould. The conditions for fabrication of the preforms were optimized and the preform was drawn to microstructured polymer optical fibre. The optical properties of the resultant elliptical-core fibre were measured. This technique provides advantages over alternative preform fabrication methods such as drilling and capillary stacking, which are less suitable for mass production.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, A. Bachmann, G. Barton, M. C. J. Large, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, K. F. Klein, H. Poisel, W. Pok, L. Poladian, S. Manos, and J. Zagari, "Bandwidth and loss measurements of graded-index microstructured polymer optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 592-593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C. J. Large, and J. Zagari, "Fabrication of microstructured polymer optical fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325-335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes," Opt. Lett. 29, 1336-1338 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

N. Broderick, T. Monro, P. Bennett, and D. Richardson, "Nonlinearity in holeyoptical fibers: measurement and futureopportunities," Opt. Lett. 24, 1395-1397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. -P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Argyros, A.

Arriaga, J.

Bachmann, A.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, A. Bachmann, G. Barton, M. C. J. Large, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, K. F. Klein, H. Poisel, W. Pok, L. Poladian, S. Manos, and J. Zagari, "Bandwidth and loss measurements of graded-index microstructured polymer optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 592-593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barton, G.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, A. Bachmann, G. Barton, M. C. J. Large, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, K. F. Klein, H. Poisel, W. Pok, L. Poladian, S. Manos, and J. Zagari, "Bandwidth and loss measurements of graded-index microstructured polymer optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 592-593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C. J. Large, and J. Zagari, "Fabrication of microstructured polymer optical fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325-335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bassett, I.

Bassett, I. M.

Bennett, P.

Berghmans, F.

Birks, T. A.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1325-1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. -P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broderick, N.

Cox, F.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. -P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Sandro, J. -P.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. -P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

Eggleton, B. J.

Fellew, M.

Fleming, S.

Hale, A.

Hasegawa, T.

Henry, G.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, A. Bachmann, G. Barton, M. C. J. Large, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, K. F. Klein, H. Poisel, W. Pok, L. Poladian, S. Manos, and J. Zagari, "Bandwidth and loss measurements of graded-index microstructured polymer optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 592-593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C. J. Large, and J. Zagari, "Fabrication of microstructured polymer optical fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325-335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes," Opt. Lett. 29, 1336-1338 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Issa, N. A.

Kerbage, C.

Klein, K. F.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, A. Bachmann, G. Barton, M. C. J. Large, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, K. F. Klein, H. Poisel, W. Pok, L. Poladian, S. Manos, and J. Zagari, "Bandwidth and loss measurements of graded-index microstructured polymer optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 592-593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klimek, J.

Knight, J. C.

Koshiba, M.

Large, M. C. J.

A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, and I. M. Bassett, "Hollow-core microstructured polymer optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 172-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, A. Bachmann, G. Barton, M. C. J. Large, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, K. F. Klein, H. Poisel, W. Pok, L. Poladian, S. Manos, and J. Zagari, "Bandwidth and loss measurements of graded-index microstructured polymer optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 592-593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes," Opt. Lett. 29, 1336-1338 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C. J. Large, and J. Zagari, "Fabrication of microstructured polymer optical fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325-335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, N. A. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. P. Nicorovici, "Microstructured polymer optical fibre," Opt. Express 9,319-327 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makara, M.

Mangan, B. J.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1325-1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manos, S.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, A. Bachmann, G. Barton, M. C. J. Large, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, K. F. Klein, H. Poisel, W. Pok, L. Poladian, S. Manos, and J. Zagari, "Bandwidth and loss measurements of graded-index microstructured polymer optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 592-593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, N. A. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. P. Nicorovici, "Microstructured polymer optical fibre," Opt. Express 9,319-327 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martynkien, T.

McPhedran, R. C.

Monro, T.

Nasilowski, T.

Nicorovici, N. A. P.

Olszewski, J.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Osgood, R. M.

Poisel, H.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, A. Bachmann, G. Barton, M. C. J. Large, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, K. F. Klein, H. Poisel, W. Pok, L. Poladian, S. Manos, and J. Zagari, "Bandwidth and loss measurements of graded-index microstructured polymer optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 592-593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pok, W.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, A. Bachmann, G. Barton, M. C. J. Large, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, K. F. Klein, H. Poisel, W. Pok, L. Poladian, S. Manos, and J. Zagari, "Bandwidth and loss measurements of graded-index microstructured polymer optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 592-593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poladian, L.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, A. Bachmann, G. Barton, M. C. J. Large, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, K. F. Klein, H. Poisel, W. Pok, L. Poladian, S. Manos, and J. Zagari, "Bandwidth and loss measurements of graded-index microstructured polymer optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 592-593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, W. H.

Ren, L Y.

Reyes, P.

Richardson, D.

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russel, P. St. J.

Russell, P. S. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. -P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, K.

Sasaoka, E.

Statkiewicz, G.

Steel, M. J.

Steinvurzel, P.

Szpulak, M.

Thienpont, H.

Urbanczyk, W.

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, and I. M. Bassett, "Hollow-core microstructured polymer optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 172-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, A. Bachmann, G. Barton, M. C. J. Large, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, K. F. Klein, H. Poisel, W. Pok, L. Poladian, S. Manos, and J. Zagari, "Bandwidth and loss measurements of graded-index microstructured polymer optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 592-593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C. J. Large, and J. Zagari, "Fabrication of microstructured polymer optical fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325-335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes," Opt. Lett. 29, 1336-1338 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, N. A. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. P. Nicorovici, "Microstructured polymer optical fibre," Opt. Express 9,319-327 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, L.

Wang, X.

Westbrook, P. S.

Windeler, R. S.

Wójcik, J.

Zagari, J.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, A. Bachmann, G. Barton, M. C. J. Large, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, K. F. Klein, H. Poisel, W. Pok, L. Poladian, S. Manos, and J. Zagari, "Bandwidth and loss measurements of graded-index microstructured polymer optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 592-593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C. J. Large, and J. Zagari, "Fabrication of microstructured polymer optical fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325-335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, N. A. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. P. Nicorovici, "Microstructured polymer optical fibre," Opt. Express 9,319-327 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. N.

Zhao, W.

Appl. Opt.

Chin. Opt. Lett.

Electron. Lett.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. -P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, A. Bachmann, G. Barton, M. C. J. Large, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, K. F. Klein, H. Poisel, W. Pok, L. Poladian, S. Manos, and J. Zagari, "Bandwidth and loss measurements of graded-index microstructured polymer optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 592-593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C. J. Large, and J. Zagari, "Fabrication of microstructured polymer optical fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 325-335 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Science

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. S. Windeler, "Improving microstructure fibers including preform fabrication, fiber draw, splicing and postproduction dispersion tailoring," in Proceedings of the 14th international workshop on optical waveguide theory and numerical modelling, (Sydney, Australia, 2005), pp. 123-135.

H.-H. Park, B-G Shin, and J-J Kim, "Fabrication of plastic holey polymer fibers," in Proceedings of the 11th international Plastic Optical Fibers Conference, 18-20 Sept. 2002, Post deadline paper.

C. W. Huang, M. C. Ho, H. H. Chien, K. J. Ma, Z. P. Zheng., C. P. Yu, H. C. Chang, and C. C. Yang, "Design, Fabrication and Characterization of Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers," session TU3C (16) 8 1242, Photonics West San Jose.

S. Kondo, T. Ishigure, and Y. Koike, "Fabrication of Polymer Photonic Crystal Fiber," 10th Microoptics Conference, (Jena, Germany 2004), paper B-7 2004.

E. Heidepriem, Heike, T.  Monro, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, and M. C. J. Large, "Extruded polymer preforms for high-NA polymer microstructured fiber," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Conference (Anaheim, USA, 2006), Paper OThH4.

R. T. Bise, R. S. Windeler, K. S. Kranz, C. Kerbage, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Trevor, "Tunable photonic band gap fiber," in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (TOPS) Vol. 70, Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest, Postconference Edition (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2002), pp. 466-468.

M. Arimondi and G. S. Roba, "Process for manufacturing a micro-structured optical fibre," U.S. Patent 2005/0072192 A1, published 7 Apr, 2005.

Y. N. Zhang, L. Wang, L. Y. Ren, T.H. Li, X. Wang, W. Zhao, and R. C. Miao, "Fabrication of microstructured polymer optical fiber perform," in 2nd International Symposium on Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing Technologies: Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies; L. Yang, S. M. Wen, Y. L. Chen and Ernst-Bernhard Kley, eds, Proc. SPIE 6149, 426-431(2005).

L. Wang, Y. N. Zhang, L. Y. Ren, X. Wang, and W. Zhao, "Chemical fabrication techniques of microstructured polymer optical fiber preforms," in proceedings of 14th International conference on Polymer Optical Fiber, (Hong Kong, China, 2005), pp. 89-92.

L. Wang and X. Chen, "Extrusion technique of microstructured polymer optical fiber preform," in proceedings of 14th International conference on Polymer Optical Fiber, (HongKong, China, 2005), pp. 85-87.

J. Choi, D. Y. Kim, and U. C. Paek, "Fabrication and properties of polymer photonic crystal fibers," in Proceedings of the Plastic Optical Fiber Conference (POF) 2001, pp. 355-360.

D. Asnaghi, A. Gambirasio, A. Macchetta, D. Sarchi, and F. Tassone, "Fabrication of a large-effective-area microstructured plastic optical fibre: design and transmission tests," in proceedings of ECOC-IOOC 2003, pp. 632-633.

United States Patent Application 20050286847 Kind Code A1 Arimondi, Marco; et al. December 29, 2005 Inventors: Arimondi, Marco; Macchetta, Andrea; Asnaghi, Daniela; Castaldo, Anna; Serial No.: 511145 Series Code: 10 Filed: July 12, 2005 PCT Filed: April 16, 2002 PCT NO: PCT/EP02/04203 U.S. Current Class: 385/123; 264/1.24 U.S. Class at Publication: 385/123; 264/001.24.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Moulds used to make the preforms: (a) a mould core and (b) two assembled moulds.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The temperature cycle used during the polymerization process.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A casted 88-holes PMMA microstructured preform with the hole diameter of 2mm, overall length of 40 cm and preform diameter of 7 cm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Electron microscope images of the elliptical mPOF cross-section (a) and SEM of the core region (b).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The near-field pattern (a) and far-field pattern (b) of a resultant elliptical core mPOF.

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