Abstract

We measure the transmission of ps-pulses through silicon-on-insulator submicron waveguides for excitation wavelengths between 1400 and 1650 nm and peak powers covering four orders of magnitude. Self-phase- modulation induced spectral broadening is found to be significant at coupled peak powers of even a few tens of mW. The nonlinear-index coefficient, extracted from the experimental data, is estimated as n2 ~5·10-18 m2/W at 1500 nm. The experimental results show good agreement with model calculations that take into account nonlinear phase shift, first- and second order dispersion, mode confinement, frequency dispersion of n2 , and dynamics of two-photon-absorption-generated free carriers. Comparison with theory indicates that an observed twofold increase of spectral broadening between 1400 and 1650 nm can be assigned to the dispersion of n2 as well as first order- rather than second-order dispersion effects. The analysis of pulse broadening, spectral shift and transmission saturation allows estimating a power threshold for nonlinearity-induced signal impairment in nanophotonic devices.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (6)

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, H. M. van Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs waveguides," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4341-4349 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4629-4637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yamada, M. Shirane, T. Chu, H. Yokoyama, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Nonlinear-optic silicon-nanowire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  44, Part 1 6541-6545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (9)

Y. A. Vlasov, and S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Express 12, 1622-1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, and A. L. Gaeta, "Ultra-low threshold supercontinuum generation in sub-wavelength waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3137-3143 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, "Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions," Opt. Express 12, 2880-2887 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 829-834 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, and B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4094-4102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3713-3718 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  43, Part 2 L673-L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, "Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 mu m pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900-902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

2002 (2)

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Delalamo, "Carrier-Induced Change In Refractive-Index Of InP, GaAs, And InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref, and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical Effects In Silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. H. Stolen, and C. Lin, "Self-Phase-Modulation In Silica Optical Fibers," Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448-1453 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, R. U.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, H. M. van Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs waveguides," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

H. Yamada, M. Shirane, T. Chu, H. Yokoyama, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Nonlinear-optic silicon-nanowire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  44, Part 1 6541-6545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  43, Part 2 L673-L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, B. R.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Delalamo, "Carrier-Induced Change In Refractive-Index Of InP, GaAs, And InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical Effects In Silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Boyraz, O.

Bramerie, L.

Camarda, G. S.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, T.

Chen, X. G.

X. G. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

H. Yamada, M. Shirane, T. Chu, H. Yokoyama, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Nonlinear-optic silicon-nanowire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  44, Part 1 6541-6545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

Cohen, O.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dadap, J. I.

Day, I. E.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Angelis, C.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, H. M. van Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs waveguides," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delalamo, J. A.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Delalamo, "Carrier-Induced Change In Refractive-Index Of InP, GaAs, And InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drake, J.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

Dulkeith, E.

Espinola, R. L.

Fan, S. H.

Fang, A.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foresi, J. S.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

Fukazawa, T.

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  43, Part 2 L673-L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

Gaeta, A. L.

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gay, M.

Green, W. M. J.

Greene, W.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

Guzdar, P. N.

Hak, D.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harpin, A.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High-density integrated optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1682-1692 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Indukuri, T.

Ippen, E. P.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, S.

H. Yamada, M. Shirane, T. Chu, H. Yokoyama, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Nonlinear-optic silicon-nanowire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  44, Part 1 6541-6545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

Jalali, B.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Joindot, M.

Jones, R.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khubchandani, B.

Kimerling, L. C.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kimmel, M.

Kleckner, T. C.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, H. M. van Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs waveguides," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koonath, P.

Liang, T. K.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

R. H. Stolen, and C. Lin, "Self-Phase-Modulation In Silica Optical Fibers," Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448-1453 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, H. M. van Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs waveguides," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. S.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Locatelli, A.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, H. M. van Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs waveguides," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

McNab, S. J.

Modotto, D.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, H. M. van Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs waveguides," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moll, K. D.

Moll, N.

Mondia, J. P.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, H. M. van Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs waveguides," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, H. M. van Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs waveguides," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, T.

Nicolaescu, R.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohno, F.

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  43, Part 2 L673-L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

X. G. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4341-4349 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3713-3718 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

X. G. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pizzuto, F.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, V.

Rao, H.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rieger, G. W.

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, "Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 mu m pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900-902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S. W.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H. S.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, R.

Schares, L.

Shirane, M.

H. Yamada, M. Shirane, T. Chu, H. Yokoyama, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Nonlinear-optic silicon-nanowire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  44, Part 1 6541-6545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

Shreenath, A. P.

Silva, A. C.

Simon, J.

Soref, R. A.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Delalamo, "Carrier-Induced Change In Refractive-Index Of InP, GaAs, And InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical Effects In Silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, C. R.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, H. M. van Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs waveguides," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, and C. Lin, "Self-Phase-Modulation In Silica Optical Fibers," Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448-1453 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

Takahashi, M.

Tan, H. W.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, H. M. van Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs waveguides," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

Tsang, H. K.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

van Driel, H. M.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, H. M. van Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs waveguides," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

Virk, K. S.

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, "Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 mu m pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900-902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watanabe, T.

Windeler, R. S.

Wong, C. S.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

Yamada, H.

H. Yamada, M. Shirane, T. Chu, H. Yokoyama, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Nonlinear-optic silicon-nanowire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  44, Part 1 6541-6545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Yokoyama, H.

H. Yamada, M. Shirane, T. Chu, H. Yokoyama, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Nonlinear-optic silicon-nanowire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  44, Part 1 6541-6545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, "Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 mu m pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900-902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, "Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 mu m pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900-902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 mu m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Delalamo, "Carrier-Induced Change In Refractive-Index Of InP, GaAs, And InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical Effects In Silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys (2)

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  43, Part 2 L673-L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, M. Shirane, T. Chu, H. Yokoyama, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Nonlinear-optic silicon-nanowire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  44, Part 1 6541-6545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, H. M. van Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs waveguides," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (13)

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon on insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 14, 3853-3863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nguyen, M. Gay, L. Bramerie, T. Chartier, J. Simon, and M. Joindot, "Noise reduction in 2R-regeneration technique utilizing self-phase modulation and filtering," Opt. Express 14, 1737-1747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 829-834 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, and B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4094-4102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3713-3718 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4341-4349 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, and A. L. Gaeta, "Ultra-low threshold supercontinuum generation in sub-wavelength waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3137-3143 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, "Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions," Opt. Express 12, 2880-2887 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4629-4637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gu, M. Kimmel, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, and R. S. Windeler, "Experimental studies of the coherence of microstructure-fiber supercontinuum," Opt. Express 11, 2697-2703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, and S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Express 12, 1622-1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Khubchandani, A. C. Silva, P. N. Guzdar, and R. Roy, "Using GRENOUILLE to characterize asymmetric femtosecond pulses undergoing self- and cross-phase modulation in a polarization-maintaining optical fiber," Opt. Express 11, 3063-3073 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 2927-2939 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. H. Stolen, and C. Lin, "Self-Phase-Modulation In Silica Optical Fibers," Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448-1453 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

P. V. Mamyshev, "All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect," Proceedings of the 1998 European Conference of Optical Communications 1, 475-476 (1998).

H. I-W., X. Chen, J. Dadap, N. Panoiu, R. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and S. McNab, "Cross-Phase Modulation in Si Photonic Wire Waveguides," CLEO Conference Proceedings, Anaheim, CA (2006).

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1982).

Photon Design, "FimmWave Manual 4.3.4, http://www.photond.com," (2005).

Rsoft Design Group, "BeamPROP 5.1.1 Manual, http://www.rsoftdesign.com," (2005).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2003).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, 2001).

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, "Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEICE Trans. Electron. E85C, 1033-1038 (2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmission spectra of a 4 mm long SOI waveguide as a function of coupled peak power. Linear optical response is observed for low powers (black and red) whereas SPM-induced spectral broadening occurs for high powers (green and blue). Inset: Time- and spectrally resolved FROG trace of input pulses at 1500 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured output peak power (black squares) of the SOI waveguide as a function of coupled peak power at 1500 nm and compared with model calculations (blue line). The saturation in transmission is caused by two-photon absorption (TPA) induced free-carrier absorption (FCA). Inset: Double logarithmic plot for very low coupled powers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Series of transmission spectra as a function of increasing coupled power. Inset: FCA-induced spectral blue-shift at 1500 nm as a function of the coupled peak power. (b) SPM-induced spectral broadening at 1500 nm measured at 4 different crosstalk levels (-3, -5, -10 and -15 dB). The black dotted line indicates where the broadening exceeds 0.8 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SPM-induced spectral broadening of optical pulses for the same coupled peak power (6.85 W) injected into the SOI waveguide at 1400, 1500 and 1600 nm. The spectral broadening increases with the wavelength.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured SPM-induced spectral broadening (asterisks) for the same coupled peak power (6.85 W) as a function of the coupled pulse wavelength. The spectral broadening increases twofold between 1400 and 1650 nm. Reasonable agreement is found with model calculations indicating no significant influence of group velocity dispersion (black and red line). Inset: Spectral broadening at 1500 nm as a function of high coupled powers (blue and red squares) compared to model calculations (blue and red line).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i ψ z + i β 1 ψ t β 2 2 2 ψ t 2 = i c β 1 κ 2 n ( α in + α FC ) ψ ω β 1 δ n FC n ψ 3 ω β 1 2 P Γ ε 0 A 0 ψ 2 ψ
( Δ N ) t = Δ N t c + 6 ε 0 A 0 2 β 1 2 Γ 2 P 2 ψ 4
n 2 = 3 Γ 4 ε 0 cn 2 ; α 2 = 3 ω Γ 4 nc

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