Abstract

When methanol microdroplets of 15mm size are irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses of moderate intensities (<2×1016W cm-2), we observe a ‘red-light flash’ from the microplasma. We report on the presence of a large ‘blue shoulder’ (that extends to about 200 nm from the incident laser wavelength) in the scattered spectra that corresponds to the red-light flash. A prepulse is found to be essential for producing the large blue shift, which is attributed to the rapid subsequent ionization of a near-critical density preplasma when the main pulse is incident.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Schwoerer, P. Gibbon, S. Düsterer, R. Behrens, C. Ziener, C. Reich, and R. Sauerbrey, “MeV X Rays and Photoneutrons from Femtosecond Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2317–2320 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431, 541–544 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. H.C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I.P. Christov, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X Rays from Lasers,” Physics Today,  58, 39–44 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Hein, S. Podleska, M. Siebold, M. Hellwing, R. Bödefeld, G. Quednau, R. Sauerbrey, D. Ehrt, and W. Wintzer,“Diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification to the joule level,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 419–422 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, K. Oguri, N. Uesugi, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Nanohole-array size dependence of soft x-ray generation enhancement from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma,” J. App. Phys. 96, 7537–7534 (2004) and references therein.
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Düsterer, H. Schwoerer, W. Ziegler, D. Salzmann, and R. Sauerbrey, “Effects of a prepulse on laser-induced EUV radiation conversion efficiency,” Appl. Phys. B. 76, 17–21, (2003). and references therein.
    [Crossref]
  7. L. Malmqvist, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “Droplet-target laser-plasma source for proximity x-ray lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2627–2629 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Anand, C.P. Safvan, and M. Krishnamurthy, “Hard X-ray generation from microdroplets in intense laser fields,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 469–477 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Anand, A. S. Sandhu, S. Kahaly, G. Ravindra Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, and P. Gibbon, “Enhanced hard X-ray emission from microdroplet preplasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (in press).
  10. W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer,“Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. B. M. Penetrante, J. N. Bardsley, Wm. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Ionization-induced frequency shifts in intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 92032–2040, (1992).
    [Crossref]
  12. H. Singhal, V. Arora, P. A. Naik, and P. D. Gupta, “Spectral blueshifts in laser light scattered from argon-gascluster plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 043201 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, A. Gupta, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg,“Spectral redshifts in the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011201 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Farve, V. Boutou, S.C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R.K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.P. Wolf, “White-Light Nanosource with Directional Emission,” Phys. Rev Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2005 (4)

H.C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I.P. Christov, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X Rays from Lasers,” Physics Today,  58, 39–44 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Anand, C.P. Safvan, and M. Krishnamurthy, “Hard X-ray generation from microdroplets in intense laser fields,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 469–477 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Singhal, V. Arora, P. A. Naik, and P. D. Gupta, “Spectral blueshifts in laser light scattered from argon-gascluster plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 043201 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, A. Gupta, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg,“Spectral redshifts in the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011201 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431, 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hein, S. Podleska, M. Siebold, M. Hellwing, R. Bödefeld, G. Quednau, R. Sauerbrey, D. Ehrt, and W. Wintzer,“Diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification to the joule level,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 419–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, K. Oguri, N. Uesugi, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Nanohole-array size dependence of soft x-ray generation enhancement from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma,” J. App. Phys. 96, 7537–7534 (2004) and references therein.
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. Düsterer, H. Schwoerer, W. Ziegler, D. Salzmann, and R. Sauerbrey, “Effects of a prepulse on laser-induced EUV radiation conversion efficiency,” Appl. Phys. B. 76, 17–21, (2003). and references therein.
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. Farve, V. Boutou, S.C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R.K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.P. Wolf, “White-Light Nanosource with Directional Emission,” Phys. Rev Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

H. Schwoerer, P. Gibbon, S. Düsterer, R. Behrens, C. Ziener, C. Reich, and R. Sauerbrey, “MeV X Rays and Photoneutrons from Femtosecond Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2317–2320 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

L. Malmqvist, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “Droplet-target laser-plasma source for proximity x-ray lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2627–2629 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer,“Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexeev, I.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, A. Gupta, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg,“Spectral redshifts in the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Anand, M.

M. Anand, C.P. Safvan, and M. Krishnamurthy, “Hard X-ray generation from microdroplets in intense laser fields,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 469–477 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Anand, A. S. Sandhu, S. Kahaly, G. Ravindra Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, and P. Gibbon, “Enhanced hard X-ray emission from microdroplet preplasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (in press).

Antonsen, T. M.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, A. Gupta, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg,“Spectral redshifts in the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Arora, V.

H. Singhal, V. Arora, P. A. Naik, and P. D. Gupta, “Spectral blueshifts in laser light scattered from argon-gascluster plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 043201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bardsley, J. N.

Behrens, R.

H. Schwoerer, P. Gibbon, S. Düsterer, R. Behrens, C. Ziener, C. Reich, and R. Sauerbrey, “MeV X Rays and Photoneutrons from Femtosecond Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2317–2320 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bödefeld, R.

J. Hein, S. Podleska, M. Siebold, M. Hellwing, R. Bödefeld, G. Quednau, R. Sauerbrey, D. Ehrt, and W. Wintzer,“Diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification to the joule level,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 419–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boutou, V.

C. Farve, V. Boutou, S.C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R.K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.P. Wolf, “White-Light Nanosource with Directional Emission,” Phys. Rev Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[Crossref]

Burgy, F.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431, 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, R.K.

C. Farve, V. Boutou, S.C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R.K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.P. Wolf, “White-Light Nanosource with Directional Emission,” Phys. Rev Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[Crossref]

Christov, I.P.

H.C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I.P. Christov, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X Rays from Lasers,” Physics Today,  58, 39–44 (2005).
[Crossref]

Downer, M. C.

B. M. Penetrante, J. N. Bardsley, Wm. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Ionization-induced frequency shifts in intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 92032–2040, (1992).
[Crossref]

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer,“Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Düsterer, S.

S. Düsterer, H. Schwoerer, W. Ziegler, D. Salzmann, and R. Sauerbrey, “Effects of a prepulse on laser-induced EUV radiation conversion efficiency,” Appl. Phys. B. 76, 17–21, (2003). and references therein.
[Crossref]

H. Schwoerer, P. Gibbon, S. Düsterer, R. Behrens, C. Ziener, C. Reich, and R. Sauerbrey, “MeV X Rays and Photoneutrons from Femtosecond Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2317–2320 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ehrt, D.

J. Hein, S. Podleska, M. Siebold, M. Hellwing, R. Bödefeld, G. Quednau, R. Sauerbrey, D. Ehrt, and W. Wintzer,“Diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification to the joule level,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 419–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Farve, C.

C. Farve, V. Boutou, S.C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R.K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.P. Wolf, “White-Light Nanosource with Directional Emission,” Phys. Rev Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[Crossref]

Faure, J.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431, 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gibbon, P.

H. Schwoerer, P. Gibbon, S. Düsterer, R. Behrens, C. Ziener, C. Reich, and R. Sauerbrey, “MeV X Rays and Photoneutrons from Femtosecond Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2317–2320 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Anand, A. S. Sandhu, S. Kahaly, G. Ravindra Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, and P. Gibbon, “Enhanced hard X-ray emission from microdroplet preplasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (in press).

Glinec, Y.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431, 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordienko, S.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431, 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, A.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, A. Gupta, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg,“Spectral redshifts in the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gupta, P. D.

H. Singhal, V. Arora, P. A. Naik, and P. D. Gupta, “Spectral blueshifts in laser light scattered from argon-gascluster plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 043201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hein, J.

J. Hein, S. Podleska, M. Siebold, M. Hellwing, R. Bödefeld, G. Quednau, R. Sauerbrey, D. Ehrt, and W. Wintzer,“Diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification to the joule level,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 419–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hellwing, M.

J. Hein, S. Podleska, M. Siebold, M. Hellwing, R. Bödefeld, G. Quednau, R. Sauerbrey, D. Ehrt, and W. Wintzer,“Diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification to the joule level,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 419–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hertz, H. M.

L. Malmqvist, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “Droplet-target laser-plasma source for proximity x-ray lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2627–2629 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hill, S.C.

C. Farve, V. Boutou, S.C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R.K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.P. Wolf, “White-Light Nanosource with Directional Emission,” Phys. Rev Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kahaly, S.

M. Anand, A. S. Sandhu, S. Kahaly, G. Ravindra Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, and P. Gibbon, “Enhanced hard X-ray emission from microdroplet preplasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (in press).

Kapteyn, H.C.

H.C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I.P. Christov, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X Rays from Lasers,” Physics Today,  58, 39–44 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. Y.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, A. Gupta, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg,“Spectral redshifts in the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kiselev, S.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431, 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krenz, M.

C. Farve, V. Boutou, S.C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R.K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.P. Wolf, “White-Light Nanosource with Directional Emission,” Phys. Rev Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[Crossref]

Krishnamurthy, M.

M. Anand, C.P. Safvan, and M. Krishnamurthy, “Hard X-ray generation from microdroplets in intense laser fields,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 469–477 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Anand, A. S. Sandhu, S. Kahaly, G. Ravindra Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, and P. Gibbon, “Enhanced hard X-ray emission from microdroplet preplasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (in press).

Kumarappan, V.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, A. Gupta, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg,“Spectral redshifts in the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lambrecht, H.

C. Farve, V. Boutou, S.C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R.K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.P. Wolf, “White-Light Nanosource with Directional Emission,” Phys. Rev Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lefebvre, E.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431, 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malka, V.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431, 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malmqvist, L.

L. Malmqvist, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “Droplet-target laser-plasma source for proximity x-ray lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2627–2629 (1996).
[Crossref]

Masuda, H.

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, K. Oguri, N. Uesugi, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Nanohole-array size dependence of soft x-ray generation enhancement from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma,” J. App. Phys. 96, 7537–7534 (2004) and references therein.
[Crossref]

Milchberg, H. M.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, A. Gupta, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg,“Spectral redshifts in the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

H.C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I.P. Christov, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X Rays from Lasers,” Physics Today,  58, 39–44 (2005).
[Crossref]

Naik, P. A.

H. Singhal, V. Arora, P. A. Naik, and P. D. Gupta, “Spectral blueshifts in laser light scattered from argon-gascluster plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 043201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nakano, H.

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, K. Oguri, N. Uesugi, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Nanohole-array size dependence of soft x-ray generation enhancement from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma,” J. App. Phys. 96, 7537–7534 (2004) and references therein.
[Crossref]

Nishikawa, T.

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, K. Oguri, N. Uesugi, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Nanohole-array size dependence of soft x-ray generation enhancement from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma,” J. App. Phys. 96, 7537–7534 (2004) and references therein.
[Crossref]

Nishio, K.

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, K. Oguri, N. Uesugi, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Nanohole-array size dependence of soft x-ray generation enhancement from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma,” J. App. Phys. 96, 7537–7534 (2004) and references therein.
[Crossref]

Oguri, K.

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, K. Oguri, N. Uesugi, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Nanohole-array size dependence of soft x-ray generation enhancement from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma,” J. App. Phys. 96, 7537–7534 (2004) and references therein.
[Crossref]

Penetrante, B. M.

Podleska, S.

J. Hein, S. Podleska, M. Siebold, M. Hellwing, R. Bödefeld, G. Quednau, R. Sauerbrey, D. Ehrt, and W. Wintzer,“Diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification to the joule level,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 419–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pukhov, A.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431, 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quednau, G.

J. Hein, S. Podleska, M. Siebold, M. Hellwing, R. Bödefeld, G. Quednau, R. Sauerbrey, D. Ehrt, and W. Wintzer,“Diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification to the joule level,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 419–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ravindra Kumar, G.

M. Anand, A. S. Sandhu, S. Kahaly, G. Ravindra Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, and P. Gibbon, “Enhanced hard X-ray emission from microdroplet preplasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (in press).

Reich, C.

H. Schwoerer, P. Gibbon, S. Düsterer, R. Behrens, C. Ziener, C. Reich, and R. Sauerbrey, “MeV X Rays and Photoneutrons from Femtosecond Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2317–2320 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rousseau, J.-P.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431, 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rymell, L.

L. Malmqvist, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “Droplet-target laser-plasma source for proximity x-ray lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2627–2629 (1996).
[Crossref]

Safvan, C.P.

M. Anand, C.P. Safvan, and M. Krishnamurthy, “Hard X-ray generation from microdroplets in intense laser fields,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 469–477 (2005).
[Crossref]

Salzmann, D.

S. Düsterer, H. Schwoerer, W. Ziegler, D. Salzmann, and R. Sauerbrey, “Effects of a prepulse on laser-induced EUV radiation conversion efficiency,” Appl. Phys. B. 76, 17–21, (2003). and references therein.
[Crossref]

Sandhu, A. S.

M. Anand, A. S. Sandhu, S. Kahaly, G. Ravindra Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, and P. Gibbon, “Enhanced hard X-ray emission from microdroplet preplasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (in press).

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Hein, S. Podleska, M. Siebold, M. Hellwing, R. Bödefeld, G. Quednau, R. Sauerbrey, D. Ehrt, and W. Wintzer,“Diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification to the joule level,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 419–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Düsterer, H. Schwoerer, W. Ziegler, D. Salzmann, and R. Sauerbrey, “Effects of a prepulse on laser-induced EUV radiation conversion efficiency,” Appl. Phys. B. 76, 17–21, (2003). and references therein.
[Crossref]

H. Schwoerer, P. Gibbon, S. Düsterer, R. Behrens, C. Ziener, C. Reich, and R. Sauerbrey, “MeV X Rays and Photoneutrons from Femtosecond Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2317–2320 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwoerer, H.

S. Düsterer, H. Schwoerer, W. Ziegler, D. Salzmann, and R. Sauerbrey, “Effects of a prepulse on laser-induced EUV radiation conversion efficiency,” Appl. Phys. B. 76, 17–21, (2003). and references therein.
[Crossref]

H. Schwoerer, P. Gibbon, S. Düsterer, R. Behrens, C. Ziener, C. Reich, and R. Sauerbrey, “MeV X Rays and Photoneutrons from Femtosecond Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2317–2320 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siders, C. W.

B. M. Penetrante, J. N. Bardsley, Wm. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Ionization-induced frequency shifts in intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 92032–2040, (1992).
[Crossref]

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer,“Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siebold, M.

J. Hein, S. Podleska, M. Siebold, M. Hellwing, R. Bödefeld, G. Quednau, R. Sauerbrey, D. Ehrt, and W. Wintzer,“Diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification to the joule level,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 419–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Singhal, H.

H. Singhal, V. Arora, P. A. Naik, and P. D. Gupta, “Spectral blueshifts in laser light scattered from argon-gascluster plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 043201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Uesugi, N.

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, K. Oguri, N. Uesugi, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Nanohole-array size dependence of soft x-ray generation enhancement from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma,” J. App. Phys. 96, 7537–7534 (2004) and references therein.
[Crossref]

Wintzer, W.

J. Hein, S. Podleska, M. Siebold, M. Hellwing, R. Bödefeld, G. Quednau, R. Sauerbrey, D. Ehrt, and W. Wintzer,“Diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification to the joule level,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 419–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Woeste, L.

C. Farve, V. Boutou, S.C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R.K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.P. Wolf, “White-Light Nanosource with Directional Emission,” Phys. Rev Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wolf, J.P.

C. Farve, V. Boutou, S.C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R.K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.P. Wolf, “White-Light Nanosource with Directional Emission,” Phys. Rev Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wood, W. M.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer,“Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, Wm. M.

Yu, J.

C. Farve, V. Boutou, S.C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R.K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.P. Wolf, “White-Light Nanosource with Directional Emission,” Phys. Rev Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, W.

S. Düsterer, H. Schwoerer, W. Ziegler, D. Salzmann, and R. Sauerbrey, “Effects of a prepulse on laser-induced EUV radiation conversion efficiency,” Appl. Phys. B. 76, 17–21, (2003). and references therein.
[Crossref]

Ziener, C.

H. Schwoerer, P. Gibbon, S. Düsterer, R. Behrens, C. Ziener, C. Reich, and R. Sauerbrey, “MeV X Rays and Photoneutrons from Femtosecond Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2317–2320 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmer, W.

C. Farve, V. Boutou, S.C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R.K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.P. Wolf, “White-Light Nanosource with Directional Emission,” Phys. Rev Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

J. Hein, S. Podleska, M. Siebold, M. Hellwing, R. Bödefeld, G. Quednau, R. Sauerbrey, D. Ehrt, and W. Wintzer,“Diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification to the joule level,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 419–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Anand, C.P. Safvan, and M. Krishnamurthy, “Hard X-ray generation from microdroplets in intense laser fields,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 469–477 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B. (1)

S. Düsterer, H. Schwoerer, W. Ziegler, D. Salzmann, and R. Sauerbrey, “Effects of a prepulse on laser-induced EUV radiation conversion efficiency,” Appl. Phys. B. 76, 17–21, (2003). and references therein.
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Malmqvist, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “Droplet-target laser-plasma source for proximity x-ray lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2627–2629 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. App. Phys. (1)

T. Nishikawa, H. Nakano, K. Oguri, N. Uesugi, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Nanohole-array size dependence of soft x-ray generation enhancement from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma,” J. App. Phys. 96, 7537–7534 (2004) and references therein.
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431, 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev Lett. (1)

C. Farve, V. Boutou, S.C. Hill, W. Zimmer, M. Krenz, H. Lambrecht, J. Yu, R.K. Chang, L. Woeste, and J.P. Wolf, “White-Light Nanosource with Directional Emission,” Phys. Rev Lett. 89, 035002 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

H. Singhal, V. Arora, P. A. Naik, and P. D. Gupta, “Spectral blueshifts in laser light scattered from argon-gascluster plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 043201 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, A. Gupta, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg,“Spectral redshifts in the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. Schwoerer, P. Gibbon, S. Düsterer, R. Behrens, C. Ziener, C. Reich, and R. Sauerbrey, “MeV X Rays and Photoneutrons from Femtosecond Laser-Produced Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2317–2320 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer,“Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physics Today (1)

H.C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I.P. Christov, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X Rays from Lasers,” Physics Today,  58, 39–44 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. Anand, A. S. Sandhu, S. Kahaly, G. Ravindra Kumar, M. Krishnamurthy, and P. Gibbon, “Enhanced hard X-ray emission from microdroplet preplasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (in press).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Hard x-ray spectrum observed with 15mm droplets (image shown in the inset) are exposed to intensities of 6×1015Wcm-2. The fitted line shows an electron temperature of 52 keV. (b) Spectra of the light transmitted though a 15mm methanol microdroplet at 1×1016 W cm-2(thick line). A prepulse of 0.73mJ is used with the main pulse (4.2mJ/pulse) that is about 10 ns ahead of the main laser pulse. The spectra of light though the mirco-droplet in the absence of the prepulse is also shown as a dotted line in red.The spectral characteristics of the nascent laser pulse in shown in the inset.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Increase in the yield of the blue-shifted light with main pulse energy. The line is drawn to guide the eye. (b) Spectral shift with the increase in prepulse energy.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured x-ray yield and the yield of the blues shifted red light as a function of the prepulse energy. The lines are drawn to guide the eye. Increase in the red light also appears to result in larger x-ray yield, indicating that efficient ionization with optimum density preplasma is a prerequisite for the efficient generation of hard x-rays in microdroplet plasmas.

Equations (1)

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Δ ω = ω 0 c 0 z n ( x ) t dx

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