Abstract

We reported a type-I difference-frequency generator (DFG), based on erbium doped GaSe (Er:GaSe) crystals as a coherent infrared source tunable from 2.4 µm to 28 µm. The two mixing beams used for the DFG are a tunable near infrared output (1.1–1.8 µm) from an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and the fundamental beam of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser at 1.064 µm. The system can produce a maximum output pulse energy of 5 µJ at wavelength of 3.5 µm, corresponding to a photon conversion efficiency of 8 % at a pump intensity of 1.7 GW/cm2. The nonlinear coefficient (deff ) of 0.5 atom % erbium doped GaSe crystal was found to be 55.3 pm/V or 24 % higher than that of a pure GaSe crystal. The improvement of deff is attributed to the substitutive and interstitial doping of Er ion in GaSe unit cell. The optical properties of GaSe influenced by the erbium doping are also presented.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. L. Vodopyanov, “Mid-infrared optical parametric generator with extra-wide (319-m) tunability: applications for spectroscopy of two-dimensional electrons in quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1579–1586 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Haidar, Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and H. Ito, “Difference-frequency mixing of output waves from a periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator in a GaSe crystal,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1932–1935 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Henningsen and J. Hald, “Quantitative analysis of dilute mixtures of SO2 in N2 at 7.4 µm by difference frequency spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 441–449 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals (Springer, Berlin, 1997), pp. 166–16.
  5. Y. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Shrestov, “Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 31, 1075–1078 (1991).
  6. D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, V. Balakrishna, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, “Improved crystal quality and harmonic generation in GaSe doped with indium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 775–777 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, “Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588–592 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Das, C. Ghosh, O. G. Voevodina, Yu. M. Andreev, and S. Yu. Sarkisov, “Modified GaSe crystal as a parametric frequency converter,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 43–46 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Photoluminescence study of GaSe doped with Er,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4222–4225 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and W. C. Huang, “Electrical properties of GaSe doped with Er,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 1563–1567 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  11. N. B. Singh, T. Henningsen, V. Balakrishna, D. R. Suhre, N. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, and D. E. Zelmon, “Growth and characterization of gallium selenide crystals for far-infrared conversion applications,” J. Crystal Growth 163, 398–402 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. A. Maradudin, E. A. Montrol, and G. N. Weiss, Theory of Lattice Dynamics in the Harmonic Approximation (Academic Press, New York, 1963) p. 319.
  13. K. Allakhverdiev, T. Baykara, S. Ellialtioglu, F. Hashimzade, D. Huseinova, K. Kawamura, A. A. Kaya, A. M. Kulibekov, and S. Onari, “Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe,” Materials Research Bulletin 41, 751–763 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, “New dispersion relationships for GaSe in the 0.65–18 µm spectral region,” Opt. Commun. 118, 375–378 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Dahinten, U. Plodereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1 picosecond duration tunable between 4 µm and 18 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  16. K. Finsterbusch, A. Bayer, and H. Zacharias, “Tunable, narrow-band picosecond radiation in the mid-infrared by difference frequency mixing in GaSe and CdSe,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 457–462 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. R. Allakhverdiev, “Two-photon absorption in layered TlGaSe2, TlInS2, TlGaS2, and GaSe crystals,” Solid State Commun. 111, 253–257 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  18. W. K. Jang, Q. Ye, D. Hammons, J. Eichenholz, J. Lim, M. Richardson, B. H. T. Chai, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Improved second-harmonic generation by selective Yb ion doping in a new nonlinear optical crystal YCa4O(BO3)3,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 35, 1826–1833 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. Das, C. Ghosh, O. G. Voevodina, Yu. M. Andreev, and S. Yu. Sarkisov, “Modified GaSe crystal as a parametric frequency converter,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 43–46 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Allakhverdiev, T. Baykara, S. Ellialtioglu, F. Hashimzade, D. Huseinova, K. Kawamura, A. A. Kaya, A. M. Kulibekov, and S. Onari, “Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe,” Materials Research Bulletin 41, 751–763 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and W. C. Huang, “Electrical properties of GaSe doped with Er,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 1563–1567 (2004)
[Crossref]

K. Finsterbusch, A. Bayer, and H. Zacharias, “Tunable, narrow-band picosecond radiation in the mid-infrared by difference frequency mixing in GaSe and CdSe,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 457–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Photoluminescence study of GaSe doped with Er,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4222–4225 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Henningsen and J. Hald, “Quantitative analysis of dilute mixtures of SO2 in N2 at 7.4 µm by difference frequency spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 441–449 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Haidar, Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and H. Ito, “Difference-frequency mixing of output waves from a periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator in a GaSe crystal,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1932–1935 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (4)

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Mid-infrared optical parametric generator with extra-wide (319-m) tunability: applications for spectroscopy of two-dimensional electrons in quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1579–1586 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, “Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588–592 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. R. Allakhverdiev, “Two-photon absorption in layered TlGaSe2, TlInS2, TlGaS2, and GaSe crystals,” Solid State Commun. 111, 253–257 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. K. Jang, Q. Ye, D. Hammons, J. Eichenholz, J. Lim, M. Richardson, B. H. T. Chai, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Improved second-harmonic generation by selective Yb ion doping in a new nonlinear optical crystal YCa4O(BO3)3,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 35, 1826–1833 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

N. B. Singh, T. Henningsen, V. Balakrishna, D. R. Suhre, N. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, and D. E. Zelmon, “Growth and characterization of gallium selenide crystals for far-infrared conversion applications,” J. Crystal Growth 163, 398–402 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, “New dispersion relationships for GaSe in the 0.65–18 µm spectral region,” Opt. Commun. 118, 375–378 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

T. Dahinten, U. Plodereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1 picosecond duration tunable between 4 µm and 18 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Y. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Shrestov, “Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 31, 1075–1078 (1991).

Allakhverdiev, K.

K. Allakhverdiev, T. Baykara, S. Ellialtioglu, F. Hashimzade, D. Huseinova, K. Kawamura, A. A. Kaya, A. M. Kulibekov, and S. Onari, “Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe,” Materials Research Bulletin 41, 751–763 (2006).
[Crossref]

Allakhverdiev, K. R.

K. R. Allakhverdiev, “Two-photon absorption in layered TlGaSe2, TlInS2, TlGaS2, and GaSe crystals,” Solid State Commun. 111, 253–257 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Dahinten, U. Plodereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1 picosecond duration tunable between 4 µm and 18 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
[Crossref]

Andreev, Y. M.

Y. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Shrestov, “Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 31, 1075–1078 (1991).

Andreev, Yu. M.

S. Das, C. Ghosh, O. G. Voevodina, Yu. M. Andreev, and S. Yu. Sarkisov, “Modified GaSe crystal as a parametric frequency converter,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 43–46 (2006).
[Crossref]

Badikov, V. V.

Y. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Shrestov, “Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 31, 1075–1078 (1991).

Balakrishna, V.

D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, V. Balakrishna, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, “Improved crystal quality and harmonic generation in GaSe doped with indium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 775–777 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. B. Singh, T. Henningsen, V. Balakrishna, D. R. Suhre, N. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, and D. E. Zelmon, “Growth and characterization of gallium selenide crystals for far-infrared conversion applications,” J. Crystal Growth 163, 398–402 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bayer, A.

K. Finsterbusch, A. Bayer, and H. Zacharias, “Tunable, narrow-band picosecond radiation in the mid-infrared by difference frequency mixing in GaSe and CdSe,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 457–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Baykara, T.

K. Allakhverdiev, T. Baykara, S. Ellialtioglu, F. Hashimzade, D. Huseinova, K. Kawamura, A. A. Kaya, A. M. Kulibekov, and S. Onari, “Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe,” Materials Research Bulletin 41, 751–763 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chai, B. H. T.

W. K. Jang, Q. Ye, D. Hammons, J. Eichenholz, J. Lim, M. Richardson, B. H. T. Chai, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Improved second-harmonic generation by selective Yb ion doping in a new nonlinear optical crystal YCa4O(BO3)3,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 35, 1826–1833 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. S.

Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and W. C. Huang, “Electrical properties of GaSe doped with Er,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 1563–1567 (2004)
[Crossref]

Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Photoluminescence study of GaSe doped with Er,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4222–4225 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Haidar, Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and H. Ito, “Difference-frequency mixing of output waves from a periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator in a GaSe crystal,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1932–1935 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dahinten, T.

T. Dahinten, U. Plodereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1 picosecond duration tunable between 4 µm and 18 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
[Crossref]

Das, S.

S. Das, C. Ghosh, O. G. Voevodina, Yu. M. Andreev, and S. Yu. Sarkisov, “Modified GaSe crystal as a parametric frequency converter,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 43–46 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dmitriev, V. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals (Springer, Berlin, 1997), pp. 166–16.

Eichenholz, J.

W. K. Jang, Q. Ye, D. Hammons, J. Eichenholz, J. Lim, M. Richardson, B. H. T. Chai, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Improved second-harmonic generation by selective Yb ion doping in a new nonlinear optical crystal YCa4O(BO3)3,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 35, 1826–1833 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ellialtioglu, S.

K. Allakhverdiev, T. Baykara, S. Ellialtioglu, F. Hashimzade, D. Huseinova, K. Kawamura, A. A. Kaya, A. M. Kulibekov, and S. Onari, “Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe,” Materials Research Bulletin 41, 751–763 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fernelius, N.

N. B. Singh, T. Henningsen, V. Balakrishna, D. R. Suhre, N. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, and D. E. Zelmon, “Growth and characterization of gallium selenide crystals for far-infrared conversion applications,” J. Crystal Growth 163, 398–402 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fernelius, N. C.

N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, “Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588–592 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, V. Balakrishna, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, “Improved crystal quality and harmonic generation in GaSe doped with indium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 775–777 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Finsterbusch, K.

K. Finsterbusch, A. Bayer, and H. Zacharias, “Tunable, narrow-band picosecond radiation in the mid-infrared by difference frequency mixing in GaSe and CdSe,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 457–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Geiko, L. G.

Y. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Shrestov, “Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 31, 1075–1078 (1991).

Geiko, P. P.

Y. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Shrestov, “Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 31, 1075–1078 (1991).

Ghosh, C.

S. Das, C. Ghosh, O. G. Voevodina, Yu. M. Andreev, and S. Yu. Sarkisov, “Modified GaSe crystal as a parametric frequency converter,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 43–46 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gurzadyan, G. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals (Springer, Berlin, 1997), pp. 166–16.

Haidar, S.

S. Haidar, Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and H. Ito, “Difference-frequency mixing of output waves from a periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator in a GaSe crystal,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1932–1935 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hald, J.

J. Henningsen and J. Hald, “Quantitative analysis of dilute mixtures of SO2 in N2 at 7.4 µm by difference frequency spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 441–449 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hammons, D.

W. K. Jang, Q. Ye, D. Hammons, J. Eichenholz, J. Lim, M. Richardson, B. H. T. Chai, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Improved second-harmonic generation by selective Yb ion doping in a new nonlinear optical crystal YCa4O(BO3)3,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 35, 1826–1833 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hashimzade, F.

K. Allakhverdiev, T. Baykara, S. Ellialtioglu, F. Hashimzade, D. Huseinova, K. Kawamura, A. A. Kaya, A. M. Kulibekov, and S. Onari, “Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe,” Materials Research Bulletin 41, 751–763 (2006).
[Crossref]

Henningsen, J.

J. Henningsen and J. Hald, “Quantitative analysis of dilute mixtures of SO2 in N2 at 7.4 µm by difference frequency spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 441–449 (2003).
[Crossref]

Henningsen, T.

N. B. Singh, T. Henningsen, V. Balakrishna, D. R. Suhre, N. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, and D. E. Zelmon, “Growth and characterization of gallium selenide crystals for far-infrared conversion applications,” J. Crystal Growth 163, 398–402 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hopkins, F. K.

N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, “Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588–592 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, V. Balakrishna, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, “Improved crystal quality and harmonic generation in GaSe doped with indium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 775–777 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. B. Singh, T. Henningsen, V. Balakrishna, D. R. Suhre, N. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, and D. E. Zelmon, “Growth and characterization of gallium selenide crystals for far-infrared conversion applications,” J. Crystal Growth 163, 398–402 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, W. F.

Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Photoluminescence study of GaSe doped with Er,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4222–4225 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hsu, Y. K.

Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and W. C. Huang, “Electrical properties of GaSe doped with Er,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 1563–1567 (2004)
[Crossref]

Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Photoluminescence study of GaSe doped with Er,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4222–4225 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Haidar, Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and H. Ito, “Difference-frequency mixing of output waves from a periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator in a GaSe crystal,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1932–1935 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huang, W. C.

Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and W. C. Huang, “Electrical properties of GaSe doped with Er,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 1563–1567 (2004)
[Crossref]

Huseinova, D.

K. Allakhverdiev, T. Baykara, S. Ellialtioglu, F. Hashimzade, D. Huseinova, K. Kawamura, A. A. Kaya, A. M. Kulibekov, and S. Onari, “Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe,” Materials Research Bulletin 41, 751–763 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ibragimov, Z. A.

T. Dahinten, U. Plodereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1 picosecond duration tunable between 4 µm and 18 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ito, H.

S. Haidar, Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and H. Ito, “Difference-frequency mixing of output waves from a periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator in a GaSe crystal,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1932–1935 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ivashchenko, M. V.

Y. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Shrestov, “Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 31, 1075–1078 (1991).

Jang, W. K.

W. K. Jang, Q. Ye, D. Hammons, J. Eichenholz, J. Lim, M. Richardson, B. H. T. Chai, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Improved second-harmonic generation by selective Yb ion doping in a new nonlinear optical crystal YCa4O(BO3)3,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 35, 1826–1833 (1999).
[Crossref]

Karapuzikov, A. I.

Y. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Shrestov, “Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 31, 1075–1078 (1991).

Kawamura, K.

K. Allakhverdiev, T. Baykara, S. Ellialtioglu, F. Hashimzade, D. Huseinova, K. Kawamura, A. A. Kaya, A. M. Kulibekov, and S. Onari, “Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe,” Materials Research Bulletin 41, 751–763 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kaya, A. A.

K. Allakhverdiev, T. Baykara, S. Ellialtioglu, F. Hashimzade, D. Huseinova, K. Kawamura, A. A. Kaya, A. M. Kulibekov, and S. Onari, “Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe,” Materials Research Bulletin 41, 751–763 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kulevskii, L. A.

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, “New dispersion relationships for GaSe in the 0.65–18 µm spectral region,” Opt. Commun. 118, 375–378 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kulibekov, A. M.

K. Allakhverdiev, T. Baykara, S. Ellialtioglu, F. Hashimzade, D. Huseinova, K. Kawamura, A. A. Kaya, A. M. Kulibekov, and S. Onari, “Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe,” Materials Research Bulletin 41, 751–763 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.

W. K. Jang, Q. Ye, D. Hammons, J. Eichenholz, J. Lim, M. Richardson, B. H. T. Chai, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Improved second-harmonic generation by selective Yb ion doping in a new nonlinear optical crystal YCa4O(BO3)3,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 35, 1826–1833 (1999).
[Crossref]

Marable, M.

N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, “Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588–592 (1999).
[Crossref]

Maradudin, A. A.

A. A. Maradudin, E. A. Montrol, and G. N. Weiss, Theory of Lattice Dynamics in the Harmonic Approximation (Academic Press, New York, 1963) p. 319.

Meyer, R.

N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, “Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588–592 (1999).
[Crossref]

Montrol, E. A.

A. A. Maradudin, E. A. Montrol, and G. N. Weiss, Theory of Lattice Dynamics in the Harmonic Approximation (Academic Press, New York, 1963) p. 319.

Narayanan, R.

N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, “Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588–592 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals (Springer, Berlin, 1997), pp. 166–16.

Onari, S.

K. Allakhverdiev, T. Baykara, S. Ellialtioglu, F. Hashimzade, D. Huseinova, K. Kawamura, A. A. Kaya, A. M. Kulibekov, and S. Onari, “Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe,” Materials Research Bulletin 41, 751–763 (2006).
[Crossref]

Plodereder, U.

T. Dahinten, U. Plodereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1 picosecond duration tunable between 4 µm and 18 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
[Crossref]

Richardson, M.

W. K. Jang, Q. Ye, D. Hammons, J. Eichenholz, J. Lim, M. Richardson, B. H. T. Chai, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Improved second-harmonic generation by selective Yb ion doping in a new nonlinear optical crystal YCa4O(BO3)3,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 35, 1826–1833 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rosch, W.

N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, “Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588–592 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sarkisov, S. Yu.

S. Das, C. Ghosh, O. G. Voevodina, Yu. M. Andreev, and S. Yu. Sarkisov, “Modified GaSe crystal as a parametric frequency converter,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 43–46 (2006).
[Crossref]

Seilmeier, A.

T. Dahinten, U. Plodereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1 picosecond duration tunable between 4 µm and 18 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
[Crossref]

Shrestov, I. V.

Y. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Shrestov, “Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 31, 1075–1078 (1991).

Singh, N. B.

N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, “Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588–592 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, V. Balakrishna, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, “Improved crystal quality and harmonic generation in GaSe doped with indium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 775–777 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. B. Singh, T. Henningsen, V. Balakrishna, D. R. Suhre, N. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, and D. E. Zelmon, “Growth and characterization of gallium selenide crystals for far-infrared conversion applications,” J. Crystal Growth 163, 398–402 (1996).
[Crossref]

Suhre, D. R.

N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, “Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588–592 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, V. Balakrishna, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, “Improved crystal quality and harmonic generation in GaSe doped with indium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 775–777 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. B. Singh, T. Henningsen, V. Balakrishna, D. R. Suhre, N. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, and D. E. Zelmon, “Growth and characterization of gallium selenide crystals for far-infrared conversion applications,” J. Crystal Growth 163, 398–402 (1996).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

W. K. Jang, Q. Ye, D. Hammons, J. Eichenholz, J. Lim, M. Richardson, B. H. T. Chai, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Improved second-harmonic generation by selective Yb ion doping in a new nonlinear optical crystal YCa4O(BO3)3,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 35, 1826–1833 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Mid-infrared optical parametric generator with extra-wide (319-m) tunability: applications for spectroscopy of two-dimensional electrons in quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1579–1586 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, “New dispersion relationships for GaSe in the 0.65–18 µm spectral region,” Opt. Commun. 118, 375–378 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Dahinten, U. Plodereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1 picosecond duration tunable between 4 µm and 18 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
[Crossref]

Voevodin, V. G.

Y. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Shrestov, “Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 31, 1075–1078 (1991).

Voevodina, O. G.

S. Das, C. Ghosh, O. G. Voevodina, Yu. M. Andreev, and S. Yu. Sarkisov, “Modified GaSe crystal as a parametric frequency converter,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 43–46 (2006).
[Crossref]

Weiss, G. N.

A. A. Maradudin, E. A. Montrol, and G. N. Weiss, Theory of Lattice Dynamics in the Harmonic Approximation (Academic Press, New York, 1963) p. 319.

Ye, Q.

W. K. Jang, Q. Ye, D. Hammons, J. Eichenholz, J. Lim, M. Richardson, B. H. T. Chai, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Improved second-harmonic generation by selective Yb ion doping in a new nonlinear optical crystal YCa4O(BO3)3,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 35, 1826–1833 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zacharias, H.

K. Finsterbusch, A. Bayer, and H. Zacharias, “Tunable, narrow-band picosecond radiation in the mid-infrared by difference frequency mixing in GaSe and CdSe,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 457–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zelmon, D. E.

N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, “Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588–592 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. B. Singh, T. Henningsen, V. Balakrishna, D. R. Suhre, N. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, and D. E. Zelmon, “Growth and characterization of gallium selenide crystals for far-infrared conversion applications,” J. Crystal Growth 163, 398–402 (1996).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

J. Henningsen and J. Hald, “Quantitative analysis of dilute mixtures of SO2 in N2 at 7.4 µm by difference frequency spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 441–449 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Das, C. Ghosh, O. G. Voevodina, Yu. M. Andreev, and S. Yu. Sarkisov, “Modified GaSe crystal as a parametric frequency converter,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 43–46 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Finsterbusch, A. Bayer, and H. Zacharias, “Tunable, narrow-band picosecond radiation in the mid-infrared by difference frequency mixing in GaSe and CdSe,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 457–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. (1)

W. K. Jang, Q. Ye, D. Hammons, J. Eichenholz, J. Lim, M. Richardson, B. H. T. Chai, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Improved second-harmonic generation by selective Yb ion doping in a new nonlinear optical crystal YCa4O(BO3)3,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 35, 1826–1833 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electon. (2)

T. Dahinten, U. Plodereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1 picosecond duration tunable between 4 µm and 18 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Shrestov, “Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 31, 1075–1078 (1991).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and W. C. Huang, “Electrical properties of GaSe doped with Er,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 1563–1567 (2004)
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, “Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588–592 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Crystal Growth (1)

N. B. Singh, T. Henningsen, V. Balakrishna, D. R. Suhre, N. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, and D. E. Zelmon, “Growth and characterization of gallium selenide crystals for far-infrared conversion applications,” J. Crystal Growth 163, 398–402 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and W. F. Hsieh, “Photoluminescence study of GaSe doped with Er,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4222–4225 (2003).
[Crossref]

Materials Research Bulletin (1)

K. Allakhverdiev, T. Baykara, S. Ellialtioglu, F. Hashimzade, D. Huseinova, K. Kawamura, A. A. Kaya, A. M. Kulibekov, and S. Onari, “Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe,” Materials Research Bulletin 41, 751–763 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, “New dispersion relationships for GaSe in the 0.65–18 µm spectral region,” Opt. Commun. 118, 375–378 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Haidar, Y. K. Hsu, C. S. Chang, and H. Ito, “Difference-frequency mixing of output waves from a periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator in a GaSe crystal,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1932–1935 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. R. Allakhverdiev, “Two-photon absorption in layered TlGaSe2, TlInS2, TlGaS2, and GaSe crystals,” Solid State Commun. 111, 253–257 (1999).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

A. A. Maradudin, E. A. Montrol, and G. N. Weiss, Theory of Lattice Dynamics in the Harmonic Approximation (Academic Press, New York, 1963) p. 319.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals (Springer, Berlin, 1997), pp. 166–16.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup for generating tunable mid-IR radiation based on a Er:GaSe DFG crystal. Here M1–M12 are the dichroic mirrors.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

X-Ray rocking curves of the diffraction peak from the (008) plane of the pure GaSe and 0.5% Er:GaSe crystals.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Infrared transmission spectra of the pure and 0.5% Er:GaSe crystals. Inset, optical transmission spectra of the pure and 0.5% Er:GaSe crystals at near infrared region.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Type-I phase matching wavelength versus external angle for 0.5% Er:GaSe crystal.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Output pulse energy versus wavelength for type-I DFG.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of the SHG conversion efficiencies of pure and 0.5% Er:GaSe crystals with identical crystal length.

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