Abstract

Metamaterial structures are artificial materials that show unconventional electromagnetic properties such as photonic band-gap, extraordinary optical transmission and left-handed propagation. Up to now, relations of photonic crystals and negative refraction have been shown as well as of photonic crystals and sub-wavelength hole arrays. Here we report a left-handed metamaterial engineered by a combination of sub-wavelength hole array plates periodically stacked to form a photonic crystal structure. It is shown the possibility of fine-tuning the metamaterial in order to permit extraordinary optical transmission and left-handed behaviour. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of engineering left-handed metamaterials by just drilling holes in metallic plates and brings together single structure photonic crystals, extraordinary optical transmission and left-handed behaviour.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  6. H.J. Lezec,  et al., "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
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  7. L. Martín-Moreno,  et al., "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
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  8. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-829 (2003).
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  9. J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno and F. J. García-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
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  14. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, I. Campillo and J.S. Dolado, "Increase of the transmission in cut-off metallic hole arrays," IEEE Microwave Wirel. Compon. Lett. 15, 116-118 (2005).
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2006 (1)

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (9)

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, "How to build a superlens," Science 308, 502-503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko,  et al. "Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies," Nature 438, 335-338 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sambles, "Gold loses its lustre," Nature 438, 295-296 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Evanescent growth and tunneling through stacks of frequency-selective surfaces," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.0177-2005 (2005).

M. Beruete,  et al., "Enhanced millimetre wave transmission through quasioptical subwavelength perforated plates," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 1897-1902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, I. Campillo and J.S. Dolado, "Increase of the transmission in cut-off metallic hole arrays," IEEE Microwave Wirel. Compon. Lett. 15, 116-118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y-H Ye and J-Y Zhang, "Enhanced light transmission through cascaded metal films perforated with periodic hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 30, 1521-1523 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Qiu, "Photonic band structures for surface waves on structured metal surfaces," Opt. Express 13, 7583-7588 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

M. Beruete,  et al., "Enhanced millimetre wave transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 29, 2500-2502 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Falcone,  et al., "Babinet principle applied to metasurface and metamaterial design," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 197401-1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno and F. J. García-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-829 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gomez-Santos, "Universal features of the time evolution of evanescent modes in a left-handed perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 077401-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves - negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Pairing an epsilon-negative slab with a mu-negative, slab: resonance, tunneling and transparency," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2558 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Notomi, "Negative refraction in photonic crystals," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 133-143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.J. Lezec,  et al., "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

L. Martín-Moreno,  et al., "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

S. Noda, A. Chutinan and M. Imada, "Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure," Nature 407, 608-610 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolf, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 - 2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486- 2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. Usp 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Alu, A.

A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Evanescent growth and tunneling through stacks of frequency-selective surfaces," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.0177-2005 (2005).

A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Pairing an epsilon-negative slab with a mu-negative, slab: resonance, tunneling and transparency," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2558 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves - negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-829 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beruete, M.

M. Beruete,  et al., "Enhanced millimetre wave transmission through quasioptical subwavelength perforated plates," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 1897-1902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, I. Campillo and J.S. Dolado, "Increase of the transmission in cut-off metallic hole arrays," IEEE Microwave Wirel. Compon. Lett. 15, 116-118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Beruete,  et al., "Enhanced millimetre wave transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 29, 2500-2502 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campillo, I.

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, I. Campillo and J.S. Dolado, "Increase of the transmission in cut-off metallic hole arrays," IEEE Microwave Wirel. Compon. Lett. 15, 116-118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

S. Noda, A. Chutinan and M. Imada, "Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure," Nature 407, 608-610 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves - negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-829 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolado, J.S.

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, I. Campillo and J.S. Dolado, "Increase of the transmission in cut-off metallic hole arrays," IEEE Microwave Wirel. Compon. Lett. 15, 116-118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-829 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolf, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Evanescent growth and tunneling through stacks of frequency-selective surfaces," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.0177-2005 (2005).

A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Pairing an epsilon-negative slab with a mu-negative, slab: resonance, tunneling and transparency," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2558 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Falcone, F.

F. Falcone,  et al., "Babinet principle applied to metasurface and metamaterial design," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 197401-1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Foteinopoulou, S.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves - negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno and F. J. García-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolf, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gomez-Santos, G.

G. Gomez-Santos, "Universal features of the time evolution of evanescent modes in a left-handed perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 077401-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. N. Grigorenko,  et al. "Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies," Nature 438, 335-338 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imada, M.

S. Noda, A. Chutinan and M. Imada, "Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure," Nature 407, 608-610 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486- 2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolf, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H.J.

H.J. Lezec,  et al., "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno and F. J. García-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno,  et al., "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noda, S.

S. Noda, A. Chutinan and M. Imada, "Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure," Nature 407, 608-610 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, "Negative refraction in photonic crystals," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 133-143 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves - negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno and F. J. García-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, M.

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, R.

R. Sambles, "Gold loses its lustre," Nature 438, 295-296 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, "How to build a superlens," Science 308, 502-503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorolla, M.

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, I. Campillo and J.S. Dolado, "Increase of the transmission in cut-off metallic hole arrays," IEEE Microwave Wirel. Compon. Lett. 15, 116-118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves - negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolf, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. Usp 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolf, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 - 2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, Y-H

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J-Y

IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. (1)

A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Evanescent growth and tunneling through stacks of frequency-selective surfaces," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.0177-2005 (2005).

IEEE Microwave Wirel. Compon. Lett. (1)

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, I. Campillo and J.S. Dolado, "Increase of the transmission in cut-off metallic hole arrays," IEEE Microwave Wirel. Compon. Lett. 15, 116-118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (2)

M. Beruete,  et al., "Enhanced millimetre wave transmission through quasioptical subwavelength perforated plates," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 1897-1902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Pairing an epsilon-negative slab with a mu-negative, slab: resonance, tunneling and transparency," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2558 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

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Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: GIF (599 KB)     
» Media 2: GIF (395 KB)     
» Media 3: GIF (512 KB)     
» Media 4: GIF (541 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Picture and dimensions of the photonic crystal made of stacked sub-wavelength metallic hole arrays surrounded of the test bench millimetre wave absorbing material. The number of holes is 54×54 in each plate, being a=2.5 mm, w=0.5 mm, dx=dy=d=5 mm, and dz=2.25 mm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured logarithmic transmission coefficient normalized to the maximum magnitude for N=2 (black), N=3 (red), and N=4 (blue) stacked plates, (b) measured phase varying the number of sub-wavelength hole array plates, N=2 (black), N=3 (red), and N=4 (blue) in the LHM band, and (c) the same as in (b) in the RHM band.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated dispersion diagrams for photonic crystal made by stacking (a) subwavelength hole arrays with dz=2.25 mm, (b) sub-wavelength hole arrays with dz=2.75 mm. (c) First band for sub-wavelength hole arrays structures with different longitudinal periods, dz. (d) Simulated dispersion diagrams for photonic crystal made by stacking propagating hole arrays with dz=2.25 mm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(600 KB each movie) Movies corresponding to the highlighted points (a, b, c and d) in Fig. 3. Movies S1 and S2 correspond to the first band and band-gap of the metamaterial made of sub-wavelength hole arrays (points a and b in Fig. 3(a), respectively) with dz=2.25 mm, whereas movie S3 corresponds to the first band of the metamaterial made sub-wavelength hole arrays but with dz=2.75 mm (point c in Fig. 3(b)). Finally, movie S4 shows electric field propagation at the first band of the photonic crystal made of propagating hole arrays (point d in Fig. 3(d)). Notice that the structures are infinite in the “x” and “y” dimensions and only the unit cell is shown. [Media 1] [Media 2] [Media 3] [Media 4]

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulations for the cases of single sub-wavelength hole array structure (a) in the first band (EOT band) at 57.3 GHz. Single propagating hole array structure (b) at 53.5 GHz. Subwavelength hole array structure with 11 stacked plates spaced dz=2.25 mm (c) at 57.3 GHz. Propagating hole array structure with 11 stacked plates spaced dz=2.25 mm (d) at 53.5 GHz. Sub-wavelength hole array structure with 11 stacked plates spaced dz=2.75 mm (e) at 54.6 GHz and (f) inside the band gap at 57.3 GHz.

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