Abstract

The ability to identify specific chromosomes with certainty has been established by the development of several cytogenetic techniques based on staining. Here, we report the use of a new optical technique, laser tweezers and Raman spectroscopy (LTRS), to capture and manipulate chromosomes in order to obtain their spectral patterns for molecular analysis without the need for staining. The purpose of this study was to obtain Raman spectroscopy patterns for chromosomes number 1, 2, and 3 and to test if the Raman spectroscopy pattern could be used to distinguish these three chromosomes. In our experiment, optical tweezers were used to capture the individual chromosomes and the Raman spectral patterns were collected for the trapped chromosomes. Then, the captured chromosome was manipulated with the optical tweezers and moved to another chamber through a micro - channel, in which the chromosomes were G-banded for positive identification as chromosome number 1, 2, or 3. Generalized discriminate analysis (GDA) was used to compare the Raman signatures. This analysis revealed that chromosomes 1, 2, and 3 could be distinguished and identified based on their Raman spectra. Development of this approach will lead to more rapid automatic methods for chromosome analysis and identification without the use of prior staining. Moreover, the Raman spectral patterns may lend themselves to more detailed analysis of chromosomal structure than is currently available with standard staining protocols. Such analysis may some day be useful for rapid, automated screening and diagnosis for certain cancers.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]

2005

C. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, P. J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Mannie, T. McConnell, C. A. Xie, Y.Q. Li, "Activation-dependent phases of T cells distinguished by use of optical tweezers and near infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Immunol. Methods 297, 53-60 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xie, D. Chen, Y.Q. Li, "Raman sorting and identification of single living micro-organisms with optical tweezers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1800-1802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

H. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Li, B. Han, L. Lou, and K. Wang. "Isolation of a single rice chromosome by optical micromanipulation," J. Opt. A-Pure.Opt. 6, 89-93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Gessner, C. Winter, P. Rosch, M. Schmitt, R. Petry, W. Kiefer, M. Lankers, J. Popp, "Identification of biotic and abiotic particles by using a combination of optical tweezers and in situ Raman spectroscopy," Chemphyschem. 5, 1159-1170 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Chan, A. P. Esposito, C. E. Talley, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, and T. Huser, "Reagentless identification of single bacterial spores in aqueous solution by confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 76, 599-603 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sanderson and A. D. Ward, "Analysis of liposomal membrane composition using Raman tweezers," Chem Commun (Camb),  7, 1120-1121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Mitelman, B. Johansson, F. Mertens. "Fusion genes and rearranged genes as a linear function of chromosome aberrations in cancer," Nat Genet. 36, 331-334 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ramser, K. Logg, M. Goksor, M. Kall, and D. Hanstorp, "Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 593-600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

C. Xie, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie and Y. Q. Li, "Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy of single biological cells using optical trapping and shifted excitation difference techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2982-2986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, S. Haque, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, "Spectroscopic study of human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture: living cells versus dead cells," Biopolymers 72, 230-240 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

J. Jiang, R. Tsenkova, and Y. Ozaki, "Principal discriminant variate method for classification of multicollinear data: principle and applications," Anal. Sci. 17, 471-474 (2001).

1998

J. D. Rowley, "The critical role of chromosome translocations in human leukemias," Annu. Rev. Genet. 32, 495-519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. A. Look, "Oncogenic transcription factors in the human acute leukemias," Science 278, 1059-1064. (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

W. L. Peticolas, T. W. Patapoff, G. A. Thomas, J. Postlewait, and J. W. Powell, "Laser Raman microscopy of chromosomes in living Eukaryotic cells: DNA polymorphism in vivo," J. Raman Spectrosc. 27, 571-578 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. Aasland, T. J. Gibson, and A. F. Stewart, "The PHD Finger: Implications for chromatin-mediated transcriptional regulation," Trends. Biochem. Sci. 20, 56-59 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

G. J. Puppels, F.F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, 1990. "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy," Nature 347, 301-303.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

J. Th. Bijman, "Optimization of mammalian chromosome suspension preparations employed in a flow cytometric analysis," Cytometry 3, 354-358 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Aasland, R.

R. Aasland, T. J. Gibson, and A. F. Stewart, "The PHD Finger: Implications for chromatin-mediated transcriptional regulation," Trends. Biochem. Sci. 20, 56-59 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arndt-Jovin, D. J.

G. J. Puppels, F.F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, 1990. "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy," Nature 347, 301-303.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, A. P. Esposito, C. E. Talley, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, and T. Huser, "Reagentless identification of single bacterial spores in aqueous solution by confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 76, 599-603 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

de Mul, F.F.

G. J. Puppels, F.F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, 1990. "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy," Nature 347, 301-303.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinno, M. A.

C. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, P. J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xie, M. A. Dinno, and Y. Li, "Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of single optically trapped biological cells," Opt. Lett. 27, 249-251(2002).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y.Q. Li, W. Tang, R.J. Newton, and P.J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397.
[PubMed]

Esposito, A. P.

J. W. Chan, A. P. Esposito, C. E. Talley, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, and T. Huser, "Reagentless identification of single bacterial spores in aqueous solution by confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 76, 599-603 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gemperline, P. J.

C. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, P. J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gemperline, P.J.

C. A. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y.Q. Li, W. Tang, R.J. Newton, and P.J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397.
[PubMed]

Gessner, R.

R. Gessner, C. Winter, P. Rosch, M. Schmitt, R. Petry, W. Kiefer, M. Lankers, J. Popp, "Identification of biotic and abiotic particles by using a combination of optical tweezers and in situ Raman spectroscopy," Chemphyschem. 5, 1159-1170 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, T. J.

R. Aasland, T. J. Gibson, and A. F. Stewart, "The PHD Finger: Implications for chromatin-mediated transcriptional regulation," Trends. Biochem. Sci. 20, 56-59 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goksor, M.

K. Ramser, K. Logg, M. Goksor, M. Kall, and D. Hanstorp, "Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 593-600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greve, J.

G. J. Puppels, F.F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, 1990. "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy," Nature 347, 301-303.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, B.

H. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Li, B. Han, L. Lou, and K. Wang. "Isolation of a single rice chromosome by optical micromanipulation," J. Opt. A-Pure.Opt. 6, 89-93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanstorp, D.

K. Ramser, K. Logg, M. Goksor, M. Kall, and D. Hanstorp, "Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 593-600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haque, S.

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, S. Haque, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, "Spectroscopic study of human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture: living cells versus dead cells," Biopolymers 72, 230-240 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hench, L. L.

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, S. Haque, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, "Spectroscopic study of human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture: living cells versus dead cells," Biopolymers 72, 230-240 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollars, C. W.

J. W. Chan, A. P. Esposito, C. E. Talley, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, and T. Huser, "Reagentless identification of single bacterial spores in aqueous solution by confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 76, 599-603 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huser, T.

J. W. Chan, A. P. Esposito, C. E. Talley, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, and T. Huser, "Reagentless identification of single bacterial spores in aqueous solution by confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 76, 599-603 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang, R. Tsenkova, and Y. Ozaki, "Principal discriminant variate method for classification of multicollinear data: principle and applications," Anal. Sci. 17, 471-474 (2001).

Johansson, B.

F. Mitelman, B. Johansson, F. Mertens. "Fusion genes and rearranged genes as a linear function of chromosome aberrations in cancer," Nat Genet. 36, 331-334 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jovin, T. M.

G. J. Puppels, F.F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, 1990. "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy," Nature 347, 301-303.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kall, M.

K. Ramser, K. Logg, M. Goksor, M. Kall, and D. Hanstorp, "Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 593-600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiefer, W.

R. Gessner, C. Winter, P. Rosch, M. Schmitt, R. Petry, W. Kiefer, M. Lankers, J. Popp, "Identification of biotic and abiotic particles by using a combination of optical tweezers and in situ Raman spectroscopy," Chemphyschem. 5, 1159-1170 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lane, S. M.

J. W. Chan, A. P. Esposito, C. E. Talley, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, and T. Huser, "Reagentless identification of single bacterial spores in aqueous solution by confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 76, 599-603 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lankers, M.

R. Gessner, C. Winter, P. Rosch, M. Schmitt, R. Petry, W. Kiefer, M. Lankers, J. Popp, "Identification of biotic and abiotic particles by using a combination of optical tweezers and in situ Raman spectroscopy," Chemphyschem. 5, 1159-1170 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

H. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Li, B. Han, L. Lou, and K. Wang. "Isolation of a single rice chromosome by optical micromanipulation," J. Opt. A-Pure.Opt. 6, 89-93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, M. A. Dinno, and Y. Li, "Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of single optically trapped biological cells," Opt. Lett. 27, 249-251(2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. Q.

C. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, P. J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xie, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie and Y. Q. Li, "Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy of single biological cells using optical trapping and shifted excitation difference techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2982-2986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.Q.

M. D. Mannie, T. McConnell, C. A. Xie, Y.Q. Li, "Activation-dependent phases of T cells distinguished by use of optical tweezers and near infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Immunol. Methods 297, 53-60 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xie, D. Chen, Y.Q. Li, "Raman sorting and identification of single living micro-organisms with optical tweezers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1800-1802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y.Q. Li, W. Tang, R.J. Newton, and P.J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397.
[PubMed]

Liu, X.

H. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Li, B. Han, L. Lou, and K. Wang. "Isolation of a single rice chromosome by optical micromanipulation," J. Opt. A-Pure.Opt. 6, 89-93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Logg, K.

K. Ramser, K. Logg, M. Goksor, M. Kall, and D. Hanstorp, "Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 593-600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Look, T. A.

T. A. Look, "Oncogenic transcription factors in the human acute leukemias," Science 278, 1059-1064. (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lou, L.

H. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Li, B. Han, L. Lou, and K. Wang. "Isolation of a single rice chromosome by optical micromanipulation," J. Opt. A-Pure.Opt. 6, 89-93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mace, J.

C. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, P. J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y.Q. Li, W. Tang, R.J. Newton, and P.J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397.
[PubMed]

Mannie, M. D.

M. D. Mannie, T. McConnell, C. A. Xie, Y.Q. Li, "Activation-dependent phases of T cells distinguished by use of optical tweezers and near infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Immunol. Methods 297, 53-60 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McConnell, T.

M. D. Mannie, T. McConnell, C. A. Xie, Y.Q. Li, "Activation-dependent phases of T cells distinguished by use of optical tweezers and near infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Immunol. Methods 297, 53-60 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mertens, F.

F. Mitelman, B. Johansson, F. Mertens. "Fusion genes and rearranged genes as a linear function of chromosome aberrations in cancer," Nat Genet. 36, 331-334 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitelman, F.

F. Mitelman, B. Johansson, F. Mertens. "Fusion genes and rearranged genes as a linear function of chromosome aberrations in cancer," Nat Genet. 36, 331-334 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newton, R. J.

C. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, P. J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xie, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newton, R.J.

C. A. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y.Q. Li, W. Tang, R.J. Newton, and P.J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397.
[PubMed]

Notingher, I.

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, S. Haque, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, "Spectroscopic study of human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture: living cells versus dead cells," Biopolymers 72, 230-240 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otto, C.

G. J. Puppels, F.F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, 1990. "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy," Nature 347, 301-303.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozaki, Y.

J. Jiang, R. Tsenkova, and Y. Ozaki, "Principal discriminant variate method for classification of multicollinear data: principle and applications," Anal. Sci. 17, 471-474 (2001).

Patapoff, T. W.

W. L. Peticolas, T. W. Patapoff, G. A. Thomas, J. Postlewait, and J. W. Powell, "Laser Raman microscopy of chromosomes in living Eukaryotic cells: DNA polymorphism in vivo," J. Raman Spectrosc. 27, 571-578 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peticolas, W. L.

W. L. Peticolas, T. W. Patapoff, G. A. Thomas, J. Postlewait, and J. W. Powell, "Laser Raman microscopy of chromosomes in living Eukaryotic cells: DNA polymorphism in vivo," J. Raman Spectrosc. 27, 571-578 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Petry, R.

R. Gessner, C. Winter, P. Rosch, M. Schmitt, R. Petry, W. Kiefer, M. Lankers, J. Popp, "Identification of biotic and abiotic particles by using a combination of optical tweezers and in situ Raman spectroscopy," Chemphyschem. 5, 1159-1170 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polak, J. M.

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, S. Haque, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, "Spectroscopic study of human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture: living cells versus dead cells," Biopolymers 72, 230-240 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popp, J.

R. Gessner, C. Winter, P. Rosch, M. Schmitt, R. Petry, W. Kiefer, M. Lankers, J. Popp, "Identification of biotic and abiotic particles by using a combination of optical tweezers and in situ Raman spectroscopy," Chemphyschem. 5, 1159-1170 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Postlewait, J.

W. L. Peticolas, T. W. Patapoff, G. A. Thomas, J. Postlewait, and J. W. Powell, "Laser Raman microscopy of chromosomes in living Eukaryotic cells: DNA polymorphism in vivo," J. Raman Spectrosc. 27, 571-578 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Powell, J. W.

W. L. Peticolas, T. W. Patapoff, G. A. Thomas, J. Postlewait, and J. W. Powell, "Laser Raman microscopy of chromosomes in living Eukaryotic cells: DNA polymorphism in vivo," J. Raman Spectrosc. 27, 571-578 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Puppels, G. J.

G. J. Puppels, F.F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, 1990. "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy," Nature 347, 301-303.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramser, K.

K. Ramser, K. Logg, M. Goksor, M. Kall, and D. Hanstorp, "Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 593-600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robert-Nicoud, M.

G. J. Puppels, F.F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, 1990. "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy," Nature 347, 301-303.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosch, P.

R. Gessner, C. Winter, P. Rosch, M. Schmitt, R. Petry, W. Kiefer, M. Lankers, J. Popp, "Identification of biotic and abiotic particles by using a combination of optical tweezers and in situ Raman spectroscopy," Chemphyschem. 5, 1159-1170 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rowley, J. D.

J. D. Rowley, "The critical role of chromosome translocations in human leukemias," Annu. Rev. Genet. 32, 495-519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sanderson, J. M.

J. M. Sanderson and A. D. Ward, "Analysis of liposomal membrane composition using Raman tweezers," Chem Commun (Camb),  7, 1120-1121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, M.

R. Gessner, C. Winter, P. Rosch, M. Schmitt, R. Petry, W. Kiefer, M. Lankers, J. Popp, "Identification of biotic and abiotic particles by using a combination of optical tweezers and in situ Raman spectroscopy," Chemphyschem. 5, 1159-1170 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, A. F.

R. Aasland, T. J. Gibson, and A. F. Stewart, "The PHD Finger: Implications for chromatin-mediated transcriptional regulation," Trends. Biochem. Sci. 20, 56-59 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talley, C. E.

J. W. Chan, A. P. Esposito, C. E. Talley, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, and T. Huser, "Reagentless identification of single bacterial spores in aqueous solution by confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 76, 599-603 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, W.

C. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, P. J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xie, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y.Q. Li, W. Tang, R.J. Newton, and P.J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397.
[PubMed]

Thomas, G. A.

W. L. Peticolas, T. W. Patapoff, G. A. Thomas, J. Postlewait, and J. W. Powell, "Laser Raman microscopy of chromosomes in living Eukaryotic cells: DNA polymorphism in vivo," J. Raman Spectrosc. 27, 571-578 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsenkova, R.

J. Jiang, R. Tsenkova, and Y. Ozaki, "Principal discriminant variate method for classification of multicollinear data: principle and applications," Anal. Sci. 17, 471-474 (2001).

Verrier, S.

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, S. Haque, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, "Spectroscopic study of human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture: living cells versus dead cells," Biopolymers 72, 230-240 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Li, B. Han, L. Lou, and K. Wang. "Isolation of a single rice chromosome by optical micromanipulation," J. Opt. A-Pure.Opt. 6, 89-93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

H. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Li, B. Han, L. Lou, and K. Wang. "Isolation of a single rice chromosome by optical micromanipulation," J. Opt. A-Pure.Opt. 6, 89-93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ward, A. D.

J. M. Sanderson and A. D. Ward, "Analysis of liposomal membrane composition using Raman tweezers," Chem Commun (Camb),  7, 1120-1121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winter, C.

R. Gessner, C. Winter, P. Rosch, M. Schmitt, R. Petry, W. Kiefer, M. Lankers, J. Popp, "Identification of biotic and abiotic particles by using a combination of optical tweezers and in situ Raman spectroscopy," Chemphyschem. 5, 1159-1170 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, C.

C. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, P. J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xie, D. Chen, Y.Q. Li, "Raman sorting and identification of single living micro-organisms with optical tweezers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1800-1802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xie and Y. Q. Li, "Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy of single biological cells using optical trapping and shifted excitation difference techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2982-2986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, M. A. Dinno, and Y. Li, "Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of single optically trapped biological cells," Opt. Lett. 27, 249-251(2002).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C. A.

M. D. Mannie, T. McConnell, C. A. Xie, Y.Q. Li, "Activation-dependent phases of T cells distinguished by use of optical tweezers and near infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Immunol. Methods 297, 53-60 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y.Q. Li, W. Tang, R.J. Newton, and P.J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397.
[PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

J. W. Chan, A. P. Esposito, C. E. Talley, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, and T. Huser, "Reagentless identification of single bacterial spores in aqueous solution by confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 76, 599-603 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, P. J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Xie, J. Mace, M. A. Dinno, Y.Q. Li, W. Tang, R.J. Newton, and P.J. Gemperline, "Identification of single bacterial cells in aqueous solution using confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 4390-4397.
[PubMed]

Anal. Sci.

J. Jiang, R. Tsenkova, and Y. Ozaki, "Principal discriminant variate method for classification of multicollinear data: principle and applications," Anal. Sci. 17, 471-474 (2001).

Annu. Rev. Genet.

J. D. Rowley, "The critical role of chromosome translocations in human leukemias," Annu. Rev. Genet. 32, 495-519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biopolymers

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, S. Haque, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, "Spectroscopic study of human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture: living cells versus dead cells," Biopolymers 72, 230-240 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem Commun (Camb)

J. M. Sanderson and A. D. Ward, "Analysis of liposomal membrane composition using Raman tweezers," Chem Commun (Camb),  7, 1120-1121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chemphyschem.

R. Gessner, C. Winter, P. Rosch, M. Schmitt, R. Petry, W. Kiefer, M. Lankers, J. Popp, "Identification of biotic and abiotic particles by using a combination of optical tweezers and in situ Raman spectroscopy," Chemphyschem. 5, 1159-1170 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cytometry

J. Th. Bijman, "Optimization of mammalian chromosome suspension preparations employed in a flow cytometric analysis," Cytometry 3, 354-358 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Genomics

Younsook Cho, Anthony Griswold, Catherine Campbell and Kyung-Tai Min. "Individual histone deacetylases in Drosophila modulate transcription of distinct genes," Genomics 86, 606-617.
[PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. Xie and Y. Q. Li, "Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy of single biological cells using optical trapping and shifted excitation difference techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2982-2986 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

K. Ramser, K. Logg, M. Goksor, M. Kall, and D. Hanstorp, "Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 593-600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Immunol. Methods

M. D. Mannie, T. McConnell, C. A. Xie, Y.Q. Li, "Activation-dependent phases of T cells distinguished by use of optical tweezers and near infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Immunol. Methods 297, 53-60 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Raman Spectrosc.

W. L. Peticolas, T. W. Patapoff, G. A. Thomas, J. Postlewait, and J. W. Powell, "Laser Raman microscopy of chromosomes in living Eukaryotic cells: DNA polymorphism in vivo," J. Raman Spectrosc. 27, 571-578 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nat Genet.

F. Mitelman, B. Johansson, F. Mertens. "Fusion genes and rearranged genes as a linear function of chromosome aberrations in cancer," Nat Genet. 36, 331-334 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

G. J. Puppels, F.F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, 1990. "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy," Nature 347, 301-303.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt.

H. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Li, B. Han, L. Lou, and K. Wang. "Isolation of a single rice chromosome by optical micromanipulation," J. Opt. A-Pure.Opt. 6, 89-93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Science

T. A. Look, "Oncogenic transcription factors in the human acute leukemias," Science 278, 1059-1064. (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trends. Biochem. Sci.

R. Aasland, T. J. Gibson, and A. F. Stewart, "The PHD Finger: Implications for chromatin-mediated transcriptional regulation," Trends. Biochem. Sci. 20, 56-59 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. L. Gersen and M. B. Keagle, The Principles of Clinical Cytogenetics, 2nd Edn, (Humana Press, Totowa, N.J. 2005).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Moore, and G. P. McCabe, Introduction to the practice of statistics, (New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of the Raman sorter for this study. The slide has three wells, one large and two smaller. The chromosomes start out in the large well and are transported using the optical tweezers to the third well, where they are fixed to the slide and then G-banded. A cytogeneticist then identified the chromosome number when possible. The chromosomes here were identified as follows: from left to right: Top row - #2, nv, #2; Middle row — nv, #2, #3; Bottom row — nv, #2, #3 (nv - not verifiable).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical Raman spectra and G-banding images of individual chromosomes. The purpose of this Fig. is to show what the Raman spectrum of an individual chromosome looks like and how it is related to the positive identification with G-banding.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The averaged Raman spectra of three groups and the differences among them. The different spectra are multiplied by 3 for visualization. a: #1; b: #2, and c: #3. For d,e, and f, each peak is a difference between chromosomes 1 and 2, 1 and 3, and 2 and 3, respectively. (b) The variance among the ratios of Rama peak intensity of main peaks to that at 1004 cm-1 of the three chromosomes. The variance was calculated over 22 chromosomes per group.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Generalized discriminate analysis (GDA) plots of all three chromosome numbers. GDA plot using all data collected from all three chromosomes and normalizing the peaks by a chosen standard of 783cm-1. Chromosome 1 is represented as black circles, chromosome 2 as red squares, and chromosome 3 as blue triangles. (a) are the Raman spectra of chromosomes isolated from 6 donors over 12 different days. (b) are Raman spectra from the chromosomes of a single individual over 6 different days.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. (a). The statistical results of the three groups of chromosomes at the main Raman peak positions. (b) The statistical results of the ratio of the main Raman peak positions to that at 1004 cm-1 for three groups of chromosomes. (AV, average value; SD, standard deviation)

Metrics