Abstract

We investigate the interaction of high-power nanosecond-laser pulses at different frequencies with damage initiating defect structures in bulk KDxH2-xPO4 (DKDP) crystals in order to enhance the understanding of a) the nature and behavior of the defects involved and b) the laser-induced defect reactions leading to improvement to the material performance. The experimental results indicate that there is more than one type of defect structure giving rise to damage initiation over two different spectral ranges. Moreover, within one set of defects we observe two different damage behaviors depending on the pre-irradiation parameters, pointing to more than one defect reaction pathway.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2005 (5)

C. Y. Wei, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, T. Wang, D. P. Zhang, Z. X. Fan, "Effects of CO2 laser conditioning of the antireflection Y2O3/SiO2 coatings at 351 nm," Opt. Commun. 252, 336-343 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, T. Wang, D. Zhang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, "Laser conditioning and multi-shot laser damage accumulation effects of HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings," Appl. Surf. Sci. 245, 335-339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, C. J. Hou, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4," Phys. Rev. B 72, 134110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Negres, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, "Investigation of laser annealing parameters for optimal laser-damage performance in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate," Opt. Lett. 30, 2677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Multi-wavelength investigation of laser-damage performance in KDP and DKDP following laser annealing," Opt. Lett. 30, 221 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

B. Canaud, X. Fortin, F. Garaude, C. Meyer, F. Philippe, M. Temporal, S. Atzeni, and A. Schiavi, "High-gain direct-drive target design for the Laser Megajoule," Nucl. Fusion 44, 1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, C. W Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75,3298-3301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

M. M. Chirilia, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys.,  94, 6456-6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, "Bulk defect formations in KH2PO4 crystals investigated using fluorescence microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 67, 224102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electron-or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Wavelength dependence of laser-induced damage: Determining the damage initiation mechanisms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 127402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, M. D. Feit, A.M. Rubenchik, R. L. Floyd, T. A. Land, W. J. Siekhaus, and R. A. Hawley-Fedder, "Laser-induced damage in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate," Appl. Opt. 42, 5483-5495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electron-or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in Hydrogen-bonded KDP," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

Y. J. Fu, Z. S. Gao, J. M. Liu, Y. P. Li, H. Zeng, and M. H. Jiang, "The effects of anionic impurities on the growth habit and optical properties of KDP," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 682-686 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Noaker, "Fast-growth method sets crystal size record," Laser Focus World,  3515, (1999).

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, P. Kelly, "Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials," Opt. Eng. 28, 1039-1068 (1989).

1987 (1)

M. E. Frink, J. W. Arenberg, D. W. Mordaunt, S. C. Seitel, M. T. Babb, E. A. Teppo, "Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, "The effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 350 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. R. Meyer, M. R. Kruer, and F. J. Bartoli, "Optical heating in semiconductors: Laser damage in Ge, Si, InSb, and GaAs," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 5513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Schmid, P. Kelly, and P. Braunlich, "Optical-breakdown in Alkali-Halides," Phys. Rev. B, Solid State 16, 4569-4582 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

N. Bloembergen, "Laser-induced electric breakdown in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10375-386 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Adams, J. J.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, J. J. Adams, "Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation," Meas. Sci. Technol. (to be published).

Anton, B.

Arenberg, J. W.

M. E. Frink, J. W. Arenberg, D. W. Mordaunt, S. C. Seitel, M. T. Babb, E. A. Teppo, "Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Atzeni, S.

B. Canaud, X. Fortin, F. Garaude, C. Meyer, F. Philippe, M. Temporal, S. Atzeni, and A. Schiavi, "High-gain direct-drive target design for the Laser Megajoule," Nucl. Fusion 44, 1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Babb, M. T.

M. E. Frink, J. W. Arenberg, D. W. Mordaunt, S. C. Seitel, M. T. Babb, E. A. Teppo, "Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F. J.

J. R. Meyer, M. R. Kruer, and F. J. Bartoli, "Optical heating in semiconductors: Laser damage in Ge, Si, InSb, and GaAs," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 5513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, "Laser-induced electric breakdown in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10375-386 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Braunlich, P.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, P. Kelly, "Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials," Opt. Eng. 28, 1039-1068 (1989).

A. Schmid, P. Kelly, and P. Braunlich, "Optical-breakdown in Alkali-Halides," Phys. Rev. B, Solid State 16, 4569-4582 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, A. K.

Canaud, B.

B. Canaud, X. Fortin, F. Garaude, C. Meyer, F. Philippe, M. Temporal, S. Atzeni, and A. Schiavi, "High-gain direct-drive target design for the Laser Megajoule," Nucl. Fusion 44, 1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carr, C. W

P. DeMange, C. W Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75,3298-3301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carr, C. W.

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Multi-wavelength investigation of laser-damage performance in KDP and DKDP following laser annealing," Opt. Lett. 30, 221 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Wavelength dependence of laser-induced damage: Determining the damage initiation mechanisms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 127402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, J. J. Adams, "Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation," Meas. Sci. Technol. (to be published).

Casper, R. T.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, P. Kelly, "Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials," Opt. Eng. 28, 1039-1068 (1989).

Chirilia, M. M.

M. M. Chirilia, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys.,  94, 6456-6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DeMange, P.

R. A. Negres, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, "Investigation of laser annealing parameters for optimal laser-damage performance in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate," Opt. Lett. 30, 2677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Multi-wavelength investigation of laser-damage performance in KDP and DKDP following laser annealing," Opt. Lett. 30, 221 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, C. W Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75,3298-3301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Differentiation of defect populations responsible for bulk laser-induced damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals," Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Demos, S. G.

C. S. Liu, C. J. Hou, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4," Phys. Rev. B 72, 134110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Negres, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, "Investigation of laser annealing parameters for optimal laser-damage performance in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate," Opt. Lett. 30, 2677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Multi-wavelength investigation of laser-damage performance in KDP and DKDP following laser annealing," Opt. Lett. 30, 221 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, C. W Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75,3298-3301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electron-or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in Hydrogen-bonded KDP," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Chirilia, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys.,  94, 6456-6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Wavelength dependence of laser-induced damage: Determining the damage initiation mechanisms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 127402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, "Bulk defect formations in KH2PO4 crystals investigated using fluorescence microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 67, 224102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electron-or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Differentiation of defect populations responsible for bulk laser-induced damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals," Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Eva, E.

Fan, Z.

Y. Zhao, T. Wang, D. Zhang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, "Laser conditioning and multi-shot laser damage accumulation effects of HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings," Appl. Surf. Sci. 245, 335-339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z. X.

C. Y. Wei, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, T. Wang, D. P. Zhang, Z. X. Fan, "Effects of CO2 laser conditioning of the antireflection Y2O3/SiO2 coatings at 351 nm," Opt. Commun. 252, 336-343 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, M. D. Feit, A.M. Rubenchik, R. L. Floyd, T. A. Land, W. J. Siekhaus, and R. A. Hawley-Fedder, "Laser-induced damage in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate," Appl. Opt. 42, 5483-5495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, J. J. Adams, "Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation," Meas. Sci. Technol. (to be published).

Floyd, R. L.

Fortin, X.

B. Canaud, X. Fortin, F. Garaude, C. Meyer, F. Philippe, M. Temporal, S. Atzeni, and A. Schiavi, "High-gain direct-drive target design for the Laser Megajoule," Nucl. Fusion 44, 1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frink, M. E.

M. E. Frink, J. W. Arenberg, D. W. Mordaunt, S. C. Seitel, M. T. Babb, E. A. Teppo, "Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y. J.

Y. J. Fu, Z. S. Gao, J. M. Liu, Y. P. Li, H. Zeng, and M. H. Jiang, "The effects of anionic impurities on the growth habit and optical properties of KDP," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 682-686 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, H.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Z. S.

Y. J. Fu, Z. S. Gao, J. M. Liu, Y. P. Li, H. Zeng, and M. H. Jiang, "The effects of anionic impurities on the growth habit and optical properties of KDP," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 682-686 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garaude, F.

B. Canaud, X. Fortin, F. Garaude, C. Meyer, F. Philippe, M. Temporal, S. Atzeni, and A. Schiavi, "High-gain direct-drive target design for the Laser Megajoule," Nucl. Fusion 44, 1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garces, N. Y.

M. M. Chirilia, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys.,  94, 6456-6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hacker, E.

Halliburton, L. E.

M. M. Chirilia, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys.,  94, 6456-6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hawley-Fedder, R. A.

He, H. B.

C. Y. Wei, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, T. Wang, D. P. Zhang, Z. X. Fan, "Effects of CO2 laser conditioning of the antireflection Y2O3/SiO2 coatings at 351 nm," Opt. Commun. 252, 336-343 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henking, R.

Hou, C. J.

C. S. Liu, C. J. Hou, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4," Phys. Rev. B 72, 134110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M. H.

Y. J. Fu, Z. S. Gao, J. M. Liu, Y. P. Li, H. Zeng, and M. H. Jiang, "The effects of anionic impurities on the growth habit and optical properties of KDP," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 682-686 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jitsuno, T.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jones, S. C.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, P. Kelly, "Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials," Opt. Eng. 28, 1039-1068 (1989).

Kaiser, N.

Kapteyn, H.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, P.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, P. Kelly, "Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials," Opt. Eng. 28, 1039-1068 (1989).

A. Schmid, P. Kelly, and P. Braunlich, "Optical-breakdown in Alkali-Halides," Phys. Rev. B, Solid State 16, 4569-4582 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kioussis, N.

C. S. Liu, C. J. Hou, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4," Phys. Rev. B 72, 134110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electron-or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in Hydrogen-bonded KDP," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electron-or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruer, M. R.

J. R. Meyer, M. R. Kruer, and F. J. Bartoli, "Optical heating in semiconductors: Laser damage in Ge, Si, InSb, and GaAs," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 5513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Land, T. A.

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, M. D. Feit, A.M. Rubenchik, R. L. Floyd, T. A. Land, W. J. Siekhaus, and R. A. Hawley-Fedder, "Laser-induced damage in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate," Appl. Opt. 42, 5483-5495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Chirilia, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys.,  94, 6456-6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. P.

Y. J. Fu, Z. S. Gao, J. M. Liu, Y. P. Li, H. Zeng, and M. H. Jiang, "The effects of anionic impurities on the growth habit and optical properties of KDP," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 682-686 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. S.

C. S. Liu, C. J. Hou, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4," Phys. Rev. B 72, 134110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electron-or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in Hydrogen-bonded KDP," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electron-or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. M.

Y. J. Fu, Z. S. Gao, J. M. Liu, Y. P. Li, H. Zeng, and M. H. Jiang, "The effects of anionic impurities on the growth habit and optical properties of KDP," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 682-686 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mademann, D.

Mann, K.

Meyer, C.

B. Canaud, X. Fortin, F. Garaude, C. Meyer, F. Philippe, M. Temporal, S. Atzeni, and A. Schiavi, "High-gain direct-drive target design for the Laser Megajoule," Nucl. Fusion 44, 1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. R.

J. R. Meyer, M. R. Kruer, and F. J. Bartoli, "Optical heating in semiconductors: Laser damage in Ge, Si, InSb, and GaAs," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 5513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, "The effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 350 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mordaunt, D. W.

M. E. Frink, J. W. Arenberg, D. W. Mordaunt, S. C. Seitel, M. T. Babb, E. A. Teppo, "Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, M.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Negres, R. A.

R. A. Negres, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, "Investigation of laser annealing parameters for optimal laser-damage performance in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate," Opt. Lett. 30, 2677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Multi-wavelength investigation of laser-damage performance in KDP and DKDP following laser annealing," Opt. Lett. 30, 221 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Differentiation of defect populations responsible for bulk laser-induced damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals," Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Noaker, P. M.

P. M. Noaker, "Fast-growth method sets crystal size record," Laser Focus World,  3515, (1999).

Nostrand, M. C.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, J. J. Adams, "Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation," Meas. Sci. Technol. (to be published).

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philippe, F.

B. Canaud, X. Fortin, F. Garaude, C. Meyer, F. Philippe, M. Temporal, S. Atzeni, and A. Schiavi, "High-gain direct-drive target design for the Laser Megajoule," Nucl. Fusion 44, 1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Radousky, H. B.

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Multi-wavelength investigation of laser-damage performance in KDP and DKDP following laser annealing," Opt. Lett. 30, 221 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Liu, C. J. Hou, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4," Phys. Rev. B 72, 134110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, C. W Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75,3298-3301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electron-or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in Hydrogen-bonded KDP," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Chirilia, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys.,  94, 6456-6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Wavelength dependence of laser-induced damage: Determining the damage initiation mechanisms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 127402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, "Bulk defect formations in KH2PO4 crystals investigated using fluorescence microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 67, 224102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electron-or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Differentiation of defect populations responsible for bulk laser-induced damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals," Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Rainer, F.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, "The effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 350 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Raupach, L.

Ristau, D.

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubenchik, A.M.

Runkel, M.

Sasaki, T.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schiavi, A.

B. Canaud, X. Fortin, F. Garaude, C. Meyer, F. Philippe, M. Temporal, S. Atzeni, and A. Schiavi, "High-gain direct-drive target design for the Laser Megajoule," Nucl. Fusion 44, 1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, A.

A. Schmid, P. Kelly, and P. Braunlich, "Optical-breakdown in Alkali-Halides," Phys. Rev. B, Solid State 16, 4569-4582 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Seitel, S. C.

M. E. Frink, J. W. Arenberg, D. W. Mordaunt, S. C. Seitel, M. T. Babb, E. A. Teppo, "Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J.

Y. Zhao, T. Wang, D. Zhang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, "Laser conditioning and multi-shot laser damage accumulation effects of HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings," Appl. Surf. Sci. 245, 335-339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J. D.

C. Y. Wei, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, T. Wang, D. P. Zhang, Z. X. Fan, "Effects of CO2 laser conditioning of the antireflection Y2O3/SiO2 coatings at 351 nm," Opt. Commun. 252, 336-343 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X. A.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, P. Kelly, "Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials," Opt. Eng. 28, 1039-1068 (1989).

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siekhaus, W. J.

Staggs, M.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, "Bulk defect formations in KH2PO4 crystals investigated using fluorescence microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 67, 224102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stokowski, S.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, "The effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 350 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swain, J.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, "The effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 350 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Temporal, M.

B. Canaud, X. Fortin, F. Garaude, C. Meyer, F. Philippe, M. Temporal, S. Atzeni, and A. Schiavi, "High-gain direct-drive target design for the Laser Megajoule," Nucl. Fusion 44, 1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teppo, E. A.

M. E. Frink, J. W. Arenberg, D. W. Mordaunt, S. C. Seitel, M. T. Babb, E. A. Teppo, "Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tien, A. C.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Y. Zhao, T. Wang, D. Zhang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, "Laser conditioning and multi-shot laser damage accumulation effects of HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings," Appl. Surf. Sci. 245, 335-339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wei, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, T. Wang, D. P. Zhang, Z. X. Fan, "Effects of CO2 laser conditioning of the antireflection Y2O3/SiO2 coatings at 351 nm," Opt. Commun. 252, 336-343 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C. Y.

C. Y. Wei, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, T. Wang, D. P. Zhang, Z. X. Fan, "Effects of CO2 laser conditioning of the antireflection Y2O3/SiO2 coatings at 351 nm," Opt. Commun. 252, 336-343 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weissbrodt, P.

Yoshida, H.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, M.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

Y. J. Fu, Z. S. Gao, J. M. Liu, Y. P. Li, H. Zeng, and M. H. Jiang, "The effects of anionic impurities on the growth habit and optical properties of KDP," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 682-686 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

Y. Zhao, T. Wang, D. Zhang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, "Laser conditioning and multi-shot laser damage accumulation effects of HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings," Appl. Surf. Sci. 245, 335-339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. P.

C. Y. Wei, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, T. Wang, D. P. Zhang, Z. X. Fan, "Effects of CO2 laser conditioning of the antireflection Y2O3/SiO2 coatings at 351 nm," Opt. Commun. 252, 336-343 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, T. Wang, D. Zhang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, "Laser conditioning and multi-shot laser damage accumulation effects of HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings," Appl. Surf. Sci. 245, 335-339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, "Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength," Appl. Phys. B 70, 195-201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, "The effect of baking and pulsed laser irradiation on the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 350 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Frink, J. W. Arenberg, D. W. Mordaunt, S. C. Seitel, M. T. Babb, E. A. Teppo, "Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

Y. Zhao, T. Wang, D. Zhang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, "Laser conditioning and multi-shot laser damage accumulation effects of HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings," Appl. Surf. Sci. 245, 335-339 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Bloembergen, "Laser-induced electric breakdown in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10375-386 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. R. Meyer, M. R. Kruer, and F. J. Bartoli, "Optical heating in semiconductors: Laser damage in Ge, Si, InSb, and GaAs," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 5513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Chirilia, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, H. B. Radousky, "Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KD2PO4 crystals," J. Appl. Phys.,  94, 6456-6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Y. J. Fu, Z. S. Gao, J. M. Liu, Y. P. Li, H. Zeng, and M. H. Jiang, "The effects of anionic impurities on the growth habit and optical properties of KDP," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 682-686 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus World (1)

P. M. Noaker, "Fast-growth method sets crystal size record," Laser Focus World,  3515, (1999).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, J. J. Adams, "Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation," Meas. Sci. Technol. (to be published).

Nucl. Fusion (1)

B. Canaud, X. Fortin, F. Garaude, C. Meyer, F. Philippe, M. Temporal, S. Atzeni, and A. Schiavi, "High-gain direct-drive target design for the Laser Megajoule," Nucl. Fusion 44, 1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Y. Wei, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, T. Wang, D. P. Zhang, Z. X. Fan, "Effects of CO2 laser conditioning of the antireflection Y2O3/SiO2 coatings at 351 nm," Opt. Commun. 252, 336-343 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Differentiation of defect populations responsible for bulk laser-induced damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals," Opt. Eng. (to be published).

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, P. Kelly, "Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials," Opt. Eng. 28, 1039-1068 (1989).

Opt. Lett. (2)

R. A. Negres, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, "Investigation of laser annealing parameters for optimal laser-damage performance in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate," Opt. Lett. 30, 2677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Multi-wavelength investigation of laser-damage performance in KDP and DKDP following laser annealing," Opt. Lett. 30, 221 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

C. S. Liu, C. J. Hou, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4," Phys. Rev. B 72, 134110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, "Bulk defect formations in KH2PO4 crystals investigated using fluorescence microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 67, 224102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electron-or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, "Electron-or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in Hydrogen-bonded KDP," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Other (4)

J. B. Trenholme, M. D. Feit, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Size-selection initiation model extended to include shape and random factors," in Laser-induced damage in Optical Materials XXXVII, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, D. Ristau, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910X (2006).

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D.A. Willard, "Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4", in Laser-induced damage in Optical Materials XXXVII, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, D. Ristau, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2006).

M. Runkel, S. Maricle, R. Torres, J. Auerbach, R. Floyd, R. Hawley-Fedder, and A. K. Burnham, "The effect of thermal annealing and second harmonic generation on bulk damage performance of rapid-growth KDP type I doublers at 1064 nm," in Laser-induced damage in Optical Materials XXXII, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. K. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE, 4347, 389-399 (2001).

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, "Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling, and laser conditioning," in Laser-induced damage in Optical Materials XXXV, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. K. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds., Proc. SPIE 5273, 74-81 (2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The PPD in bulk DKDP resulting from testing at a) 46 J/cm2 at 1ω, b) 31 J/cm2 at 2ω, and c) 26 J/cm2 at 3ω following pre-exposure at 1ω, 2ω, and 3ω (filled data points, representing the PPD from both damage testing and pre-exposure [DT(i,j)]). The PPD from pre-exposure only at each frequency (PE(i)) is also shown (unfilled data points). Lines are drawn in for each data set as a guide to the eye.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized PPD following damage testing and pre-exposure at fixed fluences at both 2ω (green) and 3ω (blue) as a function of the number of pre-exposure pulses.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) PPD versus damage testing fluence at 2ω (green) and 3ω (blue) in pristine (unfilled circles) and pre-exposed material (filled circles). Lines represent best fits to each PPD profile. (b) The derivatives of the best fits to the profiles shown in (a) illustrating the density of precursors as a function of the fluence that they initiate damage (within a Δfluence=0.5 J/cm2).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

PPD from damage testing at fixed fluence at 3ω following pre-exposure at 3ω as a function of the pre-exposure fluence, for four samples cut from different KDP and DKDP crystal boules. The testing fluences were varied between samples.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

PPD from damage testing at fixed fluence at 3ω following pre-exposure at 3ω as a function of the pre-exposure fluence, in a single DKDP sample. Two different fluences were used for testing.

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