Abstract

We report on an all-optical XNOR-gate using simultaneous Four-Wave Mixing (FWM) and Cross-Gain Modulation (XGM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). FWM generates the bitwise AND output corresponding to the two input data streams while XGM is used to generate the NOR output. These two outputs are combined using a coupler to obtain the final XNOR output. Error-free operation for RZ data with <2dB power-penalty is reported.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005

Z. Li, Y. Liu, S. Zhang, H. Ju, H. deWaardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, and D. Lenstra, "All-optical logic gates using semiconductor optical amplifier assisted by an optical filter," Electron. Lett. 41, 1397-1398 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Webb, X. Yang, R. J. Manning, R. Giller,."All-optical 40 Gbit/s XOR gate with dual ultrafast nonlinear interferometer," Electron. Lett. 41, 1396-1397, (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, "Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, J. Park, K. Lee, D. Eom, S. Lee and J. H. Kim, "All-optical exclusive NOR logic gate using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1155-L1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Fjelde, A. Kloch, D. Wolfson, B. Dagens, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, and M. Renaud, "Novel scheme for simple label-swapping employing XOR logic in an integrated interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 750-752 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, R. J. Manning, and A. E. Kelly, "All-optical pseudorandom number generator," Opt. Commun. 159, 208-214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Poulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, "All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168-1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. Lykke Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942-954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P. P.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, "Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bannister, J.

Blow, K. J.

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, R. J. Manning, and A. E. Kelly, "All-optical pseudorandom number generator," Opt. Commun. 159, 208-214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coquelin, A.

T. Fjelde, A. Kloch, D. Wolfson, B. Dagens, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, and M. Renaud, "Novel scheme for simple label-swapping employing XOR logic in an integrated interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 750-752 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dagens, B.

T. Fjelde, A. Kloch, D. Wolfson, B. Dagens, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, and M. Renaud, "Novel scheme for simple label-swapping employing XOR logic in an integrated interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 750-752 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Danielsen, S. L.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Poulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, "All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168-1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Daub, K.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Poulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, "All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168-1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

deWaardt, H.

Z. Li, Y. Liu, S. Zhang, H. Ju, H. deWaardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, and D. Lenstra, "All-optical logic gates using semiconductor optical amplifier assisted by an optical filter," Electron. Lett. 41, 1397-1398 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dorren, H. J. S.

Z. Li, Y. Liu, S. Zhang, H. Ju, H. deWaardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, and D. Lenstra, "All-optical logic gates using semiconductor optical amplifier assisted by an optical filter," Electron. Lett. 41, 1397-1398 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Doussiere, P.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Poulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, "All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168-1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Durhuus, T.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. Lykke Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942-954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eom, D.

S. Lee, J. Park, K. Lee, D. Eom, S. Lee and J. H. Kim, "All-optical exclusive NOR logic gate using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1155-L1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fjelde, T.

T. Fjelde, A. Kloch, D. Wolfson, B. Dagens, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, and M. Renaud, "Novel scheme for simple label-swapping employing XOR logic in an integrated interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 750-752 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gaborit, F.

T. Fjelde, A. Kloch, D. Wolfson, B. Dagens, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, and M. Renaud, "Novel scheme for simple label-swapping employing XOR logic in an integrated interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 750-752 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Giller, R.

R. P. Webb, X. Yang, R. J. Manning, R. Giller,."All-optical 40 Gbit/s XOR gate with dual ultrafast nonlinear interferometer," Electron. Lett. 41, 1396-1397, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grover, R.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, "Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guillemot, I.

T. Fjelde, A. Kloch, D. Wolfson, B. Dagens, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, and M. Renaud, "Novel scheme for simple label-swapping employing XOR logic in an integrated interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 750-752 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gurkan, D.

Hansen, P. B.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Poulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, "All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168-1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P.-T.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, "Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, T. A.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, "Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Idler, W.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Poulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, "All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168-1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joergensen, C.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Poulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, "All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168-1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. Lykke Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942-954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, F. G.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, "Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ju, H.

Z. Li, Y. Liu, S. Zhang, H. Ju, H. deWaardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, and D. Lenstra, "All-optical logic gates using semiconductor optical amplifier assisted by an optical filter," Electron. Lett. 41, 1397-1398 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, A. E.

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, R. J. Manning, and A. E. Kelly, "All-optical pseudorandom number generator," Opt. Commun. 159, 208-214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G. D.

Z. Li, Y. Liu, S. Zhang, H. Ju, H. deWaardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, and D. Lenstra, "All-optical logic gates using semiconductor optical amplifier assisted by an optical filter," Electron. Lett. 41, 1397-1398 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

S. Lee, J. Park, K. Lee, D. Eom, S. Lee and J. H. Kim, "All-optical exclusive NOR logic gate using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1155-L1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kloch, A.

T. Fjelde, A. Kloch, D. Wolfson, B. Dagens, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, and M. Renaud, "Novel scheme for simple label-swapping employing XOR logic in an integrated interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 750-752 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Poulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, "All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168-1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

Lach, E.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Poulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, "All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168-1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laube, G.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Poulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, "All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168-1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

S. Lee, J. Park, K. Lee, D. Eom, S. Lee and J. H. Kim, "All-optical exclusive NOR logic gate using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1155-L1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

S. Lee, J. Park, K. Lee, D. Eom, S. Lee and J. H. Kim, "All-optical exclusive NOR logic gate using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1155-L1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, J. Park, K. Lee, D. Eom, S. Lee and J. H. Kim, "All-optical exclusive NOR logic gate using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1155-L1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lenstra, D.

Z. Li, Y. Liu, S. Zhang, H. Ju, H. deWaardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, and D. Lenstra, "All-optical logic gates using semiconductor optical amplifier assisted by an optical filter," Electron. Lett. 41, 1397-1398 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, Y. Liu, S. Zhang, H. Ju, H. deWaardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, and D. Lenstra, "All-optical logic gates using semiconductor optical amplifier assisted by an optical filter," Electron. Lett. 41, 1397-1398 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Z. Li, Y. Liu, S. Zhang, H. Ju, H. deWaardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, and D. Lenstra, "All-optical logic gates using semiconductor optical amplifier assisted by an optical filter," Electron. Lett. 41, 1397-1398 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lykke Danielsen, S.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. Lykke Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942-954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Manning, R. J.

R. P. Webb, X. Yang, R. J. Manning, R. Giller,."All-optical 40 Gbit/s XOR gate with dual ultrafast nonlinear interferometer," Electron. Lett. 41, 1396-1397, (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, R. J. Manning, and A. E. Kelly, "All-optical pseudorandom number generator," Opt. Commun. 159, 208-214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McGeehan, J. E.

Mikkelsen, B.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Poulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, "All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168-1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. Lykke Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942-954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nezam, S. M. R. M

Parameswaran, K. R.

Park, J.

S. Lee, J. Park, K. Lee, D. Eom, S. Lee and J. H. Kim, "All-optical exclusive NOR logic gate using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1155-L1157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poingt, F.

T. Fjelde, A. Kloch, D. Wolfson, B. Dagens, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, and M. Renaud, "Novel scheme for simple label-swapping employing XOR logic in an integrated interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 750-752 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pommerau, F.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Poulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, "All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168-1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, H. N.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Poulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, "All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168-1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poustie, A. J.

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, R. J. Manning, and A. E. Kelly, "All-optical pseudorandom number generator," Opt. Commun. 159, 208-214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, M.

T. Fjelde, A. Kloch, D. Wolfson, B. Dagens, A. Coquelin, I. Guillemot, F. Gaborit, F. Poingt, and M. Renaud, "Novel scheme for simple label-swapping employing XOR logic in an integrated interferometric wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 750-752 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Poulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, "All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168-1180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stubkjaer, K. E.

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C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Poulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, "All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168-1180 (1997).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Truth table of an XNOR gate. The XNOR logic is equivalent to combining the results obtained from a NOR operation and an AND operation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical equivalent circuit for XNOR gate. FWM in the SOA generates the AND output while the NOR is obtained using XGM. These two outputs are combined using a coupler to obtain the XNOR output.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Signal flow through the XNOR gate. FWM in the SOA generates the AND output while the NOR output is obtained from the XGM process. The two outputs are combined to generate the final XNOR signal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup for the all-optical XNOR gate.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Inputs to the SOA. λ1 and λ2 are the signals and λp is the pulse train, (b) FWM spectrum for the SOA, (c) Output of the SOA: NOR output on λp and AND output on λa

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Bit patterns showing the XNOR gate’s performance. The AND output is ‘on’ only when both the input signals are ‘on’ while the NOR output is ‘on’ only when both the inputs are ‘off’. The XNOR output is obtained by combining the NOR and AND outputs.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

BER curves for the XNOR gate. The NOR output suffers a power penalty of 0.5 dB for BER=1e-9, and an additional 1 dB penalty is incurred by the AND output. The final XNOR signal exhibits a power penalty of 2 dB. The primary source of penalty is the ASE noise introduced by the SOA and the low efficiency of the FWM process.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Switching window measurements for the AND component of the XNOR output. The peak power in the FWM product’s pulses is maintained above 90% of its maximum for a +/- 8 ps time offset between the two input signals.

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