Abstract

We analyzed the probability of errors in the measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) by using the polarization-nulling method, when the amplified spontaneous emission noise (ASE) is partially polarized due to the polarization-dependent loss (PDL) in the transmission link.

©2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. C. Chung , “Performance monitoring in optical networks (Tutorial)”, in Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Optoelectronics Conferece, 5282-46, 2003. in Asia-Pacific Optical and Wireless Communications, S. J. Ben Yoo, K. W. Cheung, Y. C. Chung, and G. Li, eds., Proc. SPIE5282, 5282-46 (2003).
  2. J. H. Lee and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88–90 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. H. Lee and Y. C. Chung, “Improved OSNR monitoring technique based on polarization-nulling method,” Electron. Lett. 37, 972–973 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. D. Feuer, “Measurement of OSNR in the presence of partially polarized ASE,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 435–437 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. H. Lee, D. M. Yeo, and Y. C. Chung, “Effect of partially polarized amplified spontaneous Emission Noise on Q-factor estimation using optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 463–465 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. I. T. Lima, A. O. Lima, Y. Sun, H. Jiao, J. Zweck, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, “A receiver model for optical fiber communication systems with arbitrarily polarized noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1478–1490 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. H. Lee, D. M. Yeo, and Y. C. Chung, “Effect of partially polarized amplified spontaneous Emission Noise on Q-factor estimation using optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 463–465 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2001 (2)

J. H. Lee and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88–90 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee and Y. C. Chung, “Improved OSNR monitoring technique based on polarization-nulling method,” Electron. Lett. 37, 972–973 (2001).
[Crossref]

Carter, G. M.

Chung, Y. C.

J. H. Lee, D. M. Yeo, and Y. C. Chung, “Effect of partially polarized amplified spontaneous Emission Noise on Q-factor estimation using optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 463–465 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88–90 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee and Y. C. Chung, “Improved OSNR monitoring technique based on polarization-nulling method,” Electron. Lett. 37, 972–973 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chung , “Performance monitoring in optical networks (Tutorial)”, in Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Optoelectronics Conferece, 5282-46, 2003. in Asia-Pacific Optical and Wireless Communications, S. J. Ben Yoo, K. W. Cheung, Y. C. Chung, and G. Li, eds., Proc. SPIE5282, 5282-46 (2003).

Feuer, M. D.

M. D. Feuer, “Measurement of OSNR in the presence of partially polarized ASE,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 435–437 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jiao, H.

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, D. M. Yeo, and Y. C. Chung, “Effect of partially polarized amplified spontaneous Emission Noise on Q-factor estimation using optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 463–465 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88–90 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee and Y. C. Chung, “Improved OSNR monitoring technique based on polarization-nulling method,” Electron. Lett. 37, 972–973 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lima, A. O.

Lima, I. T.

Menyuk, C. R.

Sun, Y.

Yeo, D. M.

J. H. Lee, D. M. Yeo, and Y. C. Chung, “Effect of partially polarized amplified spontaneous Emission Noise on Q-factor estimation using optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 463–465 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zweck, J.

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. H. Lee and Y. C. Chung, “Improved OSNR monitoring technique based on polarization-nulling method,” Electron. Lett. 37, 972–973 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. D. Feuer, “Measurement of OSNR in the presence of partially polarized ASE,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 435–437 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, D. M. Yeo, and Y. C. Chung, “Effect of partially polarized amplified spontaneous Emission Noise on Q-factor estimation using optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 463–465 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88–90 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Other (1)

Y. C. Chung , “Performance monitoring in optical networks (Tutorial)”, in Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Optoelectronics Conferece, 5282-46, 2003. in Asia-Pacific Optical and Wireless Communications, S. J. Ben Yoo, K. W. Cheung, Y. C. Chung, and G. Li, eds., Proc. SPIE5282, 5282-46 (2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Errors in the OSNR values measured by using the polarization-nulling method (shown in dB scale) caused by the partially polarized ASE noise. ŝ·p̂ represents the inner product of the normalized Stokes vectors of the signal and ASE noise.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup to measure the Stokes parameters of the signal and ASE noise in the transmission link consisted of 15 EDFA spans with PDL. The average value of the PDL/span was 0.57 dB. (Sw: optical switch, Att.: optical attenuator, Pol. Cont.: polarization controller, BPF: bandpass filter.)
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) DOP distribution of the ASE noise measured after the transmission of 15 EDFA spans in comparison with the theoretically calculated Maxwellian curve. (b) Distribution of ŝ·p̂ measured after the transmission of 15 EDFA spans in comparison with the line indicating uniform distribution.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Cross-correlation between the DOP of ASE noise and ŝ·p̂ measured after the transmission of 15 spans (average PDL/span=0.57 dB). (b) Cumulative probability of the errors in the OSNR values measured by using the polarization-nulling method (due to the partially polarized ASE noise) in a transmission link consisted of 15 spans (average PDL/span=0.57 dB) in comparison with the theoretically calculated curve obtained by using equations (3).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Probability that the error in the OSNR measured by using the polarization-nulling method becomes larger than 1 dB (due to the partially polarized ASE noise caused by PDL).

Equations (3)

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Error ( dB ) = 10 log [ 1 DOP ASE ( s ̂ · p ̂ ) ]
< DOP n > 2 = ( 1 + 2 3 Γ 2 ) ( 1 1 n ) 2 < DOP n 1 > 2 16 9 π ( 1 1 n ) Γ 2 < DOP n 1 > + 8 3 π Γ 2
Probability { OSNR error x ( dB ) } 1 2 { erfc ( 2 ( 10 x 10 1 ) π < DOP n > ) + erfc ( 2 ( 1 10 x 10 ) π < DOP n > ) }

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