Abstract

The conversion of light fields in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) capitalizes on the dramatic enhancement of several optical nonlinearities. We present here spectrally smooth, highly broadband supercontinuum radiation in a short piece of high-nonlinearity soft-glass PCF. This supercontinuum spans several optical octaves, with a spectral range extending from 350 nm to beyond 3000 nm. The selection of an appropriate propagation-length determines the spectral quality of the supercontinuum generated. Experimentally, we clearly identify two regimes of nonlinear pulse transformation: when the fiber length is much shorter than the dispersion length, soliton propagation is not important and a symmetric supercontinuum spectrum arises from almost pure self-phase modulation. For longer fiber lengths the supercontinuum is formed by the breakup of multiple Raman-shifting solitons. In both regions very broad supercontinuum radiation is produced.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source (Springer, NY, 1989).
  3. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 2001).
  4. V. Kumar, A. K. George, W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, "Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 10(25), 1520-1525 (2002).
  5. V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. R. Kumar, and A. K. George, "Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6PCF using a compact Cr4+: YAG laser," Appl. Phys.B-Lasers and Optics 79, 591-596 (2004).
  6. H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, V. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation with 200 pJ laser pulses in an extruded SF6 fiber at 1560 nm," Opt. Express 11, 3196-3201 (2003).
  7. N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, "Widely wavelength-tunable ultrashort pulse generation using polarization maintaining optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 518-524 (2001).
  8. T. Hori, J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, and T. Goto, "Flatly broadened, wideband and low noise supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear hybrid fiber," Opt. Express 12, 317-324 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Hori, N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, and M. Yoshida, "Experimental and numerical analysis of widely broadened supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with a femtosecond pulse," J. Opt. Soc.Am. B 21, 1969-1980 (2004).
  10. A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation, four-wave mixing, and fission of higher-order solitons in photonic-crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2171-2182 (2002).
  11. J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev.Lett. 88 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Sansone, G. Steinmeyer, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, K. Starke, D. Ristau, B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, A. Gosteva, and U. Keller, "Mirror dispersion control of a hollow fiber supercontinuum," Appl.Phys. B 78, 551-555 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Kibler, J. M. Dudley, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation and nonlinear pulse propagation in photonic crystal fiber: influence of the frequency-dependent effective mode area," Appl. Phys. B 81, 337-342 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Proulx, J. M. Menard, N. Ho, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallee, and C. Pare, "Intensity and polarization dependences of the supercontinuum generation in birefringent and highly nonlinear microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 11, 3338-3345 (2003).
  15. L. Tartara, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, F. Carbone, D. Faccio, M. Romagnoli, and W. Belardi, "Phase-matched nonlinear interactions in a holey fiber induced by infrared super-continuum generation," Opt. Commun. 215, 191-197 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am.B 19, 753-764 (2002).
  17. A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Yulin, "Theory of the soliton self-frequency shift compensation by the resonant radiation in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. E 70 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Y. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Competition between spectral splitting and Raman frequency shift in negative-dispersion slope photonic crystal fiber," Optics Commun. 248, 281-285 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Polarization dependent harmonic generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 11, 61-67 (2003).
  22. For the specific set of measurements presented here we are not able to include data in the 1750-2000 nm region. The presence of supercontinuum in this spectral region has been previously verified in this PCF by the authors [3].
  23. The total average power through the fiber is determined using a thermal head power meter, with NIST traceable calibration and sensitivity in the 250nm-10 μm range (+/- 5% accuracy).
  24. J. M. Dudley, X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O'Shea, R. Trebino, S. Coen, and R. S. Windeler, "Cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating analysis of broadband continuum generation in photonic crystal fiber: simulations and experiments," Opt. Express 10, 1215-1221 (2002).
  25. A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8720, (2001).

2005

B. Kibler, J. M. Dudley, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation and nonlinear pulse propagation in photonic crystal fiber: influence of the frequency-dependent effective mode area," Appl. Phys. B 81, 337-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Competition between spectral splitting and Raman frequency shift in negative-dispersion slope photonic crystal fiber," Optics Commun. 248, 281-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Yulin, "Theory of the soliton self-frequency shift compensation by the resonant radiation in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. E 70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, G. Steinmeyer, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, K. Starke, D. Ristau, B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, A. Gosteva, and U. Keller, "Mirror dispersion control of a hollow fiber supercontinuum," Appl.Phys. B 78, 551-555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. R. Kumar, and A. K. George, "Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6PCF using a compact Cr4+: YAG laser," Appl. Phys.B-Lasers and Optics 79, 591-596 (2004).

T. Hori, N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, and M. Yoshida, "Experimental and numerical analysis of widely broadened supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with a femtosecond pulse," J. Opt. Soc.Am. B 21, 1969-1980 (2004).

T. Hori, J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, and T. Goto, "Flatly broadened, wideband and low noise supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear hybrid fiber," Opt. Express 12, 317-324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Tartara, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, F. Carbone, D. Faccio, M. Romagnoli, and W. Belardi, "Phase-matched nonlinear interactions in a holey fiber induced by infrared super-continuum generation," Opt. Commun. 215, 191-197 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Polarization dependent harmonic generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 11, 61-67 (2003).

H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, V. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation with 200 pJ laser pulses in an extruded SF6 fiber at 1560 nm," Opt. Express 11, 3196-3201 (2003).

A. Proulx, J. M. Menard, N. Ho, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallee, and C. Pare, "Intensity and polarization dependences of the supercontinuum generation in birefringent and highly nonlinear microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 11, 3338-3345 (2003).

2002

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation, four-wave mixing, and fission of higher-order solitons in photonic-crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2171-2182 (2002).

J. M. Dudley, X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O'Shea, R. Trebino, S. Coen, and R. S. Windeler, "Cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating analysis of broadband continuum generation in photonic crystal fiber: simulations and experiments," Opt. Express 10, 1215-1221 (2002).

V. Kumar, A. K. George, W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, "Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 10(25), 1520-1525 (2002).

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am.B 19, 753-764 (2002).

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev.Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, "Widely wavelength-tunable ultrashort pulse generation using polarization maintaining optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 518-524 (2001).

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8720, (2001).

Belardi, W.

L. Tartara, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, F. Carbone, D. Faccio, M. Romagnoli, and W. Belardi, "Phase-matched nonlinear interactions in a holey fiber induced by infrared super-continuum generation," Opt. Commun. 215, 191-197 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, F.

F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Yulin, "Theory of the soliton self-frequency shift compensation by the resonant radiation in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. E 70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

G. Sansone, G. Steinmeyer, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, K. Starke, D. Ristau, B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, A. Gosteva, and U. Keller, "Mirror dispersion control of a hollow fiber supercontinuum," Appl.Phys. B 78, 551-555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carbone, F.

L. Tartara, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, F. Carbone, D. Faccio, M. Romagnoli, and W. Belardi, "Phase-matched nonlinear interactions in a holey fiber induced by infrared super-continuum generation," Opt. Commun. 215, 191-197 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chau, A. H. L.

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am.B 19, 753-764 (2002).

Coen, S.

B. Kibler, J. M. Dudley, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation and nonlinear pulse propagation in photonic crystal fiber: influence of the frequency-dependent effective mode area," Appl. Phys. B 81, 337-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O'Shea, R. Trebino, S. Coen, and R. S. Windeler, "Cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating analysis of broadband continuum generation in photonic crystal fiber: simulations and experiments," Opt. Express 10, 1215-1221 (2002).

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am.B 19, 753-764 (2002).

Cristiani, I.

L. Tartara, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, F. Carbone, D. Faccio, M. Romagnoli, and W. Belardi, "Phase-matched nonlinear interactions in a holey fiber induced by infrared super-continuum generation," Opt. Commun. 215, 191-197 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, G. Steinmeyer, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, K. Starke, D. Ristau, B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, A. Gosteva, and U. Keller, "Mirror dispersion control of a hollow fiber supercontinuum," Appl.Phys. B 78, 551-555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

L. Tartara, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, F. Carbone, D. Faccio, M. Romagnoli, and W. Belardi, "Phase-matched nonlinear interactions in a holey fiber induced by infrared super-continuum generation," Opt. Commun. 215, 191-197 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

B. Kibler, J. M. Dudley, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation and nonlinear pulse propagation in photonic crystal fiber: influence of the frequency-dependent effective mode area," Appl. Phys. B 81, 337-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O'Shea, R. Trebino, S. Coen, and R. S. Windeler, "Cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating analysis of broadband continuum generation in photonic crystal fiber: simulations and experiments," Opt. Express 10, 1215-1221 (2002).

Efimov, A.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Competition between spectral splitting and Raman frequency shift in negative-dispersion slope photonic crystal fiber," Optics Commun. 248, 281-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Polarization dependent harmonic generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 11, 61-67 (2003).

Faccio, D.

L. Tartara, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, F. Carbone, D. Faccio, M. Romagnoli, and W. Belardi, "Phase-matched nonlinear interactions in a holey fiber induced by infrared super-continuum generation," Opt. Commun. 215, 191-197 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fallnich, C.

George, A. K.

Gosteva, A.

G. Sansone, G. Steinmeyer, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, K. Starke, D. Ristau, B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, A. Gosteva, and U. Keller, "Mirror dispersion control of a hollow fiber supercontinuum," Appl.Phys. B 78, 551-555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goto, T.

T. Hori, J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, and T. Goto, "Flatly broadened, wideband and low noise supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear hybrid fiber," Opt. Express 12, 317-324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Hori, N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, and M. Yoshida, "Experimental and numerical analysis of widely broadened supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with a femtosecond pulse," J. Opt. Soc.Am. B 21, 1969-1980 (2004).

N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, "Widely wavelength-tunable ultrashort pulse generation using polarization maintaining optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 518-524 (2001).

Griebner, U.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev.Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

Harvey, J. D.

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am.B 19, 753-764 (2002).

Herrmann, J.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation, four-wave mixing, and fission of higher-order solitons in photonic-crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2171-2182 (2002).

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev.Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8720, (2001).

Ho, N.

Hori, T.

T. Hori, J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, and T. Goto, "Flatly broadened, wideband and low noise supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear hybrid fiber," Opt. Express 12, 317-324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Hori, N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, and M. Yoshida, "Experimental and numerical analysis of widely broadened supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with a femtosecond pulse," J. Opt. Soc.Am. B 21, 1969-1980 (2004).

Hundertmark, H.

Husakou, A.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev.Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Husakou, A. V.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation, four-wave mixing, and fission of higher-order solitons in photonic-crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2171-2182 (2002).

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8720, (2001).

Joly, N.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joly, N. Y.

N. Y. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Competition between spectral splitting and Raman frequency shift in negative-dispersion slope photonic crystal fiber," Optics Commun. 248, 281-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kalashnikov, V. L.

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. R. Kumar, and A. K. George, "Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6PCF using a compact Cr4+: YAG laser," Appl. Phys.B-Lasers and Optics 79, 591-596 (2004).

Keller, U.

G. Sansone, G. Steinmeyer, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, K. Starke, D. Ristau, B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, A. Gosteva, and U. Keller, "Mirror dispersion control of a hollow fiber supercontinuum," Appl.Phys. B 78, 551-555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kibler, B.

B. Kibler, J. M. Dudley, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation and nonlinear pulse propagation in photonic crystal fiber: influence of the frequency-dependent effective mode area," Appl. Phys. B 81, 337-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimmel, M.

Knight, J. C.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Competition between spectral splitting and Raman frequency shift in negative-dispersion slope photonic crystal fiber," Optics Commun. 248, 281-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, V. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation with 200 pJ laser pulses in an extruded SF6 fiber at 1560 nm," Opt. Express 11, 3196-3201 (2003).

F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Polarization dependent harmonic generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 11, 61-67 (2003).

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Kumar, A. K. George, W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, "Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 10(25), 1520-1525 (2002).

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am.B 19, 753-764 (2002).

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev.Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev.Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kracht, D.

Kumar, V.

Kumar, V. V. R.

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. R. Kumar, and A. K. George, "Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6PCF using a compact Cr4+: YAG laser," Appl. Phys.B-Lasers and Optics 79, 591-596 (2004).

Laniel, J. M.

Leonhardt, R.

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am.B 19, 753-764 (2002).

Luan, F.

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Menard, J. M.

Naumov, S.

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. R. Kumar, and A. K. George, "Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6PCF using a compact Cr4+: YAG laser," Appl. Phys.B-Lasers and Optics 79, 591-596 (2004).

Nickel, D.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev.Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, N.

T. Hori, N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, and M. Yoshida, "Experimental and numerical analysis of widely broadened supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with a femtosecond pulse," J. Opt. Soc.Am. B 21, 1969-1980 (2004).

T. Hori, J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, and T. Goto, "Flatly broadened, wideband and low noise supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear hybrid fiber," Opt. Express 12, 317-324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, "Widely wavelength-tunable ultrashort pulse generation using polarization maintaining optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 518-524 (2001).

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, G. Steinmeyer, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, K. Starke, D. Ristau, B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, A. Gosteva, and U. Keller, "Mirror dispersion control of a hollow fiber supercontinuum," Appl.Phys. B 78, 551-555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Omenetto, F. G.

N. Y. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Competition between spectral splitting and Raman frequency shift in negative-dispersion slope photonic crystal fiber," Optics Commun. 248, 281-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Polarization dependent harmonic generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 11, 61-67 (2003).

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Kumar, A. K. George, W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, "Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 10(25), 1520-1525 (2002).

O'Shea, P.

Pare, C.

Proulx, A.

Reeves, W. H.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Kumar, A. K. George, W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, "Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 10(25), 1520-1525 (2002).

Ristau, D.

G. Sansone, G. Steinmeyer, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, K. Starke, D. Ristau, B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, A. Gosteva, and U. Keller, "Mirror dispersion control of a hollow fiber supercontinuum," Appl.Phys. B 78, 551-555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Romagnoli, M.

L. Tartara, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, F. Carbone, D. Faccio, M. Romagnoli, and W. Belardi, "Phase-matched nonlinear interactions in a holey fiber induced by infrared super-continuum generation," Opt. Commun. 215, 191-197 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S.

N. Y. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Competition between spectral splitting and Raman frequency shift in negative-dispersion slope photonic crystal fiber," Optics Commun. 248, 281-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, V. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation with 200 pJ laser pulses in an extruded SF6 fiber at 1560 nm," Opt. Express 11, 3196-3201 (2003).

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Kumar, A. K. George, W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, "Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 10(25), 1520-1525 (2002).

Russell, P. S. J.

F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Polarization dependent harmonic generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 11, 61-67 (2003).

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am.B 19, 753-764 (2002).

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev.Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, G. Steinmeyer, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, K. Starke, D. Ristau, B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, A. Gosteva, and U. Keller, "Mirror dispersion control of a hollow fiber supercontinuum," Appl.Phys. B 78, 551-555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schenkel, B.

G. Sansone, G. Steinmeyer, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, K. Starke, D. Ristau, B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, A. Gosteva, and U. Keller, "Mirror dispersion control of a hollow fiber supercontinuum," Appl.Phys. B 78, 551-555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Skryabin, D. V.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Yulin, "Theory of the soliton self-frequency shift compensation by the resonant radiation in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. E 70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sorokin, E.

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. R. Kumar, and A. K. George, "Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6PCF using a compact Cr4+: YAG laser," Appl. Phys.B-Lasers and Optics 79, 591-596 (2004).

Sorokina, I. T.

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. R. Kumar, and A. K. George, "Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6PCF using a compact Cr4+: YAG laser," Appl. Phys.B-Lasers and Optics 79, 591-596 (2004).

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, G. Steinmeyer, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, K. Starke, D. Ristau, B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, A. Gosteva, and U. Keller, "Mirror dispersion control of a hollow fiber supercontinuum," Appl.Phys. B 78, 551-555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Starke, K.

G. Sansone, G. Steinmeyer, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, K. Starke, D. Ristau, B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, A. Gosteva, and U. Keller, "Mirror dispersion control of a hollow fiber supercontinuum," Appl.Phys. B 78, 551-555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

G. Sansone, G. Steinmeyer, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, K. Starke, D. Ristau, B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, A. Gosteva, and U. Keller, "Mirror dispersion control of a hollow fiber supercontinuum," Appl.Phys. B 78, 551-555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takayanagi, J.

Tartara, L.

L. Tartara, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, F. Carbone, D. Faccio, M. Romagnoli, and W. Belardi, "Phase-matched nonlinear interactions in a holey fiber induced by infrared super-continuum generation," Opt. Commun. 215, 191-197 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Competition between spectral splitting and Raman frequency shift in negative-dispersion slope photonic crystal fiber," Optics Commun. 248, 281-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Polarization dependent harmonic generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 11, 61-67 (2003).

V. Kumar, A. K. George, W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, "Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 10(25), 1520-1525 (2002).

Trebino, R.

Vallee, R.

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, G. Steinmeyer, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, K. Starke, D. Ristau, B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, A. Gosteva, and U. Keller, "Mirror dispersion control of a hollow fiber supercontinuum," Appl.Phys. B 78, 551-555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Polarization dependent harmonic generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 11, 61-67 (2003).

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am.B 19, 753-764 (2002).

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev.Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wandt, D.

Windeler, R. S.

Xu, L.

Yoshida, M.

T. Hori, N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, and M. Yoshida, "Experimental and numerical analysis of widely broadened supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with a femtosecond pulse," J. Opt. Soc.Am. B 21, 1969-1980 (2004).

Yulin, A. V.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Yulin, "Theory of the soliton self-frequency shift compensation by the resonant radiation in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. E 70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zeek, E.

Zhavoronkov, N.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev.Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

B. Kibler, J. M. Dudley, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation and nonlinear pulse propagation in photonic crystal fiber: influence of the frequency-dependent effective mode area," Appl. Phys. B 81, 337-342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl.Phys. B

G. Sansone, G. Steinmeyer, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, K. Starke, D. Ristau, B. Schenkel, J. Biegert, A. Gosteva, and U. Keller, "Mirror dispersion control of a hollow fiber supercontinuum," Appl.Phys. B 78, 551-555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B-Lasers and Optics

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. R. Kumar, and A. K. George, "Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6PCF using a compact Cr4+: YAG laser," Appl. Phys.B-Lasers and Optics 79, 591-596 (2004).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, "Widely wavelength-tunable ultrashort pulse generation using polarization maintaining optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 518-524 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Opt. Soc. Am.B

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am.B 19, 753-764 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc.Am. B

T. Hori, N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, and M. Yoshida, "Experimental and numerical analysis of widely broadened supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with a femtosecond pulse," J. Opt. Soc.Am. B 21, 1969-1980 (2004).

Nature

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

L. Tartara, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, F. Carbone, D. Faccio, M. Romagnoli, and W. Belardi, "Phase-matched nonlinear interactions in a holey fiber induced by infrared super-continuum generation," Opt. Commun. 215, 191-197 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Optics Commun.

N. Y. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Competition between spectral splitting and Raman frequency shift in negative-dispersion slope photonic crystal fiber," Optics Commun. 248, 281-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Yulin, "Theory of the soliton self-frequency shift compensation by the resonant radiation in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. E 70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8720, (2001).

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, "Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.Lett.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev.Lett. 88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

For the specific set of measurements presented here we are not able to include data in the 1750-2000 nm region. The presence of supercontinuum in this spectral region has been previously verified in this PCF by the authors [3].

The total average power through the fiber is determined using a thermal head power meter, with NIST traceable calibration and sensitivity in the 250nm-10 μm range (+/- 5% accuracy).

R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source (Springer, NY, 1989).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 2001).

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