Abstract

We present preparation of Ge nanostructures formed using by femtosecond laser pulse and origin of visible photoluminescence (PL) properties. High intensity of incident laser energy gives rise to make oxidized layer to surface of Ge nanoparticle after irradiation. Moreover, size dependent Raman shift and PL spectrums are observed with different fluences and various process surroundings. It is noted that the oxidation of Ge nanoparticle formed ambient surroundings plays an important role of photoluminescence.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Okamoto and Y. Kanemitsu, "Photoluminescence properties of surface-oxidized Ge nanocrystals: Surface localization of exitons," Phys. Rev. B 54, 16421 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Size-dependent near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7921 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. K. Choi, Y. W. Ho, S. P. Ng, and V. Ng, "Microstructural and photoluminescence studies of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2168 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H.-Ch. Weissker, J. Furthumller, and F. Bechstedt, "Optical properties of Ge and Si nanocrystallites from ab initio calculations. II. Hydrogenated nanocrystallites," Phys. Rev. B 65, 155328 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Yang, X. Wang, H. Shi, S. Xie, F. Wang, X. Gu, and X. Yao, "Photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 glasses fabricated by a sol-gel method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5144 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Kartopu, S. C. Bayliss, R. E. Hummel, and Y. Ekinci, "Simultaneous micro-Raman and photoluminescence study of spark-processed germanium: Report on the origin of the orange photoluminescence emission band," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3466 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Morisaki, F. W. Ping, H. Ono, and K. Yazawa, "Above-band-gap photoluminescence from Si fine particles with oxide shell," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1869 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Sato, S. Nozaki, H. Morisaki, and M. Iwase, "Tetragonal germanium films deposited by the cluster-beam evaporation technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3176 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5694 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Kawat, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. C. Jeoung, H. S. Kim, M. I. Park, J. Lee, C. S. Kim, and C. O. Park, "Preparation of room-temperature photoluminescent nanoparticles by ultrafast laser processing of Single-Crystalline Ge," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5278 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M.-Il Park, C.-O. Park, C. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, "Characterization of femtosecond-laser-ablated a Germanium single crystal in air by using X-ray diffraction," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 46, 531 (2005).Q1
  13. M. A. Seo, D. S. Kim, H. S. Kim, and S. C. Jeoung, "Polarization-induced size control and ablation dynamics of Ge nanostructures formed by a femtosecond laser," Opt. Express 14, 3694 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. R. Choi, M. Yoon, Y-H. Yim, and S. C. Jeoung, "Resonance Raman studies on ZnII tetraphenylporphyrin encapsulated into MCM-41 and CuIIALMCM-41:catalytic ionization of ZnIITPP and its central metal ion exchange," Chem. Phys. Lett.,  351391 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Kim, J. Y. Lee, S. C. Jeoung, "Lifetime enhancement of the exciton in trapezoidal-type InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well structures," Thin Solid Films 478286 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, Cs. Toth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. Horn von Hoegen, D. von der Linde, "Ultrafast x-ray measurement of laser heating in semiconductors: Parameters determining the melting threshold," Phys. Rev. B 63, 193306 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Tognini, A. Stella, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics in germanium nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 208 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Takagahara and K. Takeda, "Theory of the quantum confinement effect on excitons in quantum dots of indirect materials," Phys. Rev. B 46, 15578 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. H. Campbell and P. M. Fauchet, "The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors," Solid State Commun. 58, 739 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, "The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon," Solid State Commun. 39, 625 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  21. X. L. Wu, T. Gao, X. M. Bao, F. Yan, S. S. Jiang, and D. Feng, "Annealing temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Ge+-implanted SiO2 films," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2704 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. K. Choi, V. Ng, S. P. Ng, and H. H. Thio, Z. X. Shen, and W. S. Li, "Raman characterization of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films synthesized by rapid thermal annealing," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1398 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. L. Teo, S. H. Kwok, P. Y. Yu, and S. Guha "Quantum confinement of quasi-two-dimensional E1 excitons in Ge nanocrystals studied by resonant Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B 62, 1584 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. U. Serincan, G. Kartopu, A. Guennes, T. G. Finstad, R. Turan, Y. Ekinci, and S. C. Bayliss, "Characterization of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 by Raman spectroscopy," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 247 (2004).Q2
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, Solid State Commun. 39, 625 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

S. C. Jeoung, H. S. Kim, M. I. Park, J. Lee, C. S. Kim, and C. O. Park, "Preparation of room-temperature photoluminescent nanoparticles by ultrafast laser processing of Single-Crystalline Ge," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M.-Il Park, C.-O. Park, C. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, "Characterization of femtosecond-laser-ablated a Germanium single crystal in air by using X-ray diffraction," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 46, 531 (2005).Q1

K. Kim, J. Y. Lee, S. C. Jeoung, "Lifetime enhancement of the exciton in trapezoidal-type InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well structures," Thin Solid Films 478286 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Kartopu, S. C. Bayliss, R. E. Hummel, and Y. Ekinci, "Simultaneous micro-Raman and photoluminescence study of spark-processed germanium: Report on the origin of the orange photoluminescence emission band," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3466 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Serincan, G. Kartopu, A. Guennes, T. G. Finstad, R. Turan, Y. Ekinci, and S. C. Bayliss, "Characterization of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 by Raman spectroscopy," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 247 (2004).Q2
[CrossRef]

2002

J. R. Choi, M. Yoon, Y-H. Yim, and S. C. Jeoung, "Resonance Raman studies on ZnII tetraphenylporphyrin encapsulated into MCM-41 and CuIIALMCM-41:catalytic ionization of ZnIITPP and its central metal ion exchange," Chem. Phys. Lett.,  351391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.-Ch. Weissker, J. Furthumller, and F. Bechstedt, "Optical properties of Ge and Si nanocrystallites from ab initio calculations. II. Hydrogenated nanocrystallites," Phys. Rev. B 65, 155328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, X. Wang, H. Shi, S. Xie, F. Wang, X. Gu, and X. Yao, "Photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 glasses fabricated by a sol-gel method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. K. Choi, Y. W. Ho, S. P. Ng, and V. Ng, "Microstructural and photoluminescence studies of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawat, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, Cs. Toth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. Horn von Hoegen, D. von der Linde, "Ultrafast x-ray measurement of laser heating in semiconductors: Parameters determining the melting threshold," Phys. Rev. B 63, 193306 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Teo, S. H. Kwok, P. Y. Yu, and S. Guha "Quantum confinement of quasi-two-dimensional E1 excitons in Ge nanocrystals studied by resonant Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B 62, 1584 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

W. K. Choi, V. Ng, S. P. Ng, and H. H. Thio, Z. X. Shen, and W. S. Li, "Raman characterization of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films synthesized by rapid thermal annealing," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Tognini, A. Stella, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics in germanium nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 208 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Size-dependent near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7921 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

X. L. Wu, T. Gao, X. M. Bao, F. Yan, S. S. Jiang, and D. Feng, "Annealing temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Ge+-implanted SiO2 films," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2704 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Okamoto and Y. Kanemitsu, "Photoluminescence properties of surface-oxidized Ge nanocrystals: Surface localization of exitons," Phys. Rev. B 54, 16421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Sato, S. Nozaki, H. Morisaki, and M. Iwase, "Tetragonal germanium films deposited by the cluster-beam evaporation technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3176 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. Takagahara and K. Takeda, "Theory of the quantum confinement effect on excitons in quantum dots of indirect materials," Phys. Rev. B 46, 15578 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. Morisaki, F. W. Ping, H. Ono, and K. Yazawa, "Above-band-gap photoluminescence from Si fine particles with oxide shell," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1869 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986

I. H. Campbell and P. M. Fauchet, "The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors," Solid State Commun. 58, 739 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, "The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon," Solid State Commun. 39, 625 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, Solid State Commun. 39, 625 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X. M.

X. L. Wu, T. Gao, X. M. Bao, F. Yan, S. S. Jiang, and D. Feng, "Annealing temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Ge+-implanted SiO2 films," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2704 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bayliss, S. C.

U. Serincan, G. Kartopu, A. Guennes, T. G. Finstad, R. Turan, Y. Ekinci, and S. C. Bayliss, "Characterization of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 by Raman spectroscopy," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 247 (2004).Q2
[CrossRef]

G. Kartopu, S. C. Bayliss, R. E. Hummel, and Y. Ekinci, "Simultaneous micro-Raman and photoluminescence study of spark-processed germanium: Report on the origin of the orange photoluminescence emission band," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3466 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bechstedt, F.

H.-Ch. Weissker, J. Furthumller, and F. Bechstedt, "Optical properties of Ge and Si nanocrystallites from ab initio calculations. II. Hydrogenated nanocrystallites," Phys. Rev. B 65, 155328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, I. H.

I. H. Campbell and P. M. Fauchet, "The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors," Solid State Commun. 58, 739 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Carey, J. E.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cavalleri, A.

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, Cs. Toth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. Horn von Hoegen, D. von der Linde, "Ultrafast x-ray measurement of laser heating in semiconductors: Parameters determining the melting threshold," Phys. Rev. B 63, 193306 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheyssac, P.

P. Tognini, A. Stella, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics in germanium nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 208 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. R.

J. R. Choi, M. Yoon, Y-H. Yim, and S. C. Jeoung, "Resonance Raman studies on ZnII tetraphenylporphyrin encapsulated into MCM-41 and CuIIALMCM-41:catalytic ionization of ZnIITPP and its central metal ion exchange," Chem. Phys. Lett.,  351391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. K.

W. K. Choi, Y. W. Ho, S. P. Ng, and V. Ng, "Microstructural and photoluminescence studies of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Choi, V. Ng, S. P. Ng, and H. H. Thio, Z. X. Shen, and W. S. Li, "Raman characterization of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films synthesized by rapid thermal annealing," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Crouch, C. H.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

P. Tognini, A. Stella, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics in germanium nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 208 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ekinci, Y.

U. Serincan, G. Kartopu, A. Guennes, T. G. Finstad, R. Turan, Y. Ekinci, and S. C. Bayliss, "Characterization of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 by Raman spectroscopy," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 247 (2004).Q2
[CrossRef]

G. Kartopu, S. C. Bayliss, R. E. Hummel, and Y. Ekinci, "Simultaneous micro-Raman and photoluminescence study of spark-processed germanium: Report on the origin of the orange photoluminescence emission band," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3466 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

I. H. Campbell and P. M. Fauchet, "The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors," Solid State Commun. 58, 739 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

X. L. Wu, T. Gao, X. M. Bao, F. Yan, S. S. Jiang, and D. Feng, "Annealing temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Ge+-implanted SiO2 films," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2704 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Finstad, T. G.

U. Serincan, G. Kartopu, A. Guennes, T. G. Finstad, R. Turan, Y. Ekinci, and S. C. Bayliss, "Characterization of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 by Raman spectroscopy," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 247 (2004).Q2
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Size-dependent near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7921 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Furthumller, J.

H.-Ch. Weissker, J. Furthumller, and F. Bechstedt, "Optical properties of Ge and Si nanocrystallites from ab initio calculations. II. Hydrogenated nanocrystallites," Phys. Rev. B 65, 155328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gao, T.

X. L. Wu, T. Gao, X. M. Bao, F. Yan, S. S. Jiang, and D. Feng, "Annealing temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Ge+-implanted SiO2 films," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2704 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

H. Yang, X. Wang, H. Shi, S. Xie, F. Wang, X. Gu, and X. Yao, "Photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 glasses fabricated by a sol-gel method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guennes, A.

U. Serincan, G. Kartopu, A. Guennes, T. G. Finstad, R. Turan, Y. Ekinci, and S. C. Bayliss, "Characterization of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 by Raman spectroscopy," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 247 (2004).Q2
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

K. L. Teo, S. H. Kwok, P. Y. Yu, and S. Guha "Quantum confinement of quasi-two-dimensional E1 excitons in Ge nanocrystals studied by resonant Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B 62, 1584 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Size-dependent near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7921 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y. W.

W. K. Choi, Y. W. Ho, S. P. Ng, and V. Ng, "Microstructural and photoluminescence studies of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hummel, R. E.

G. Kartopu, S. C. Bayliss, R. E. Hummel, and Y. Ekinci, "Simultaneous micro-Raman and photoluminescence study of spark-processed germanium: Report on the origin of the orange photoluminescence emission band," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3466 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iwase, M.

S. Sato, S. Nozaki, H. Morisaki, and M. Iwase, "Tetragonal germanium films deposited by the cluster-beam evaporation technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3176 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jeoung, S. C.

M. A. Seo, D. S. Kim, H. S. Kim, and S. C. Jeoung, "Polarization-induced size control and ablation dynamics of Ge nanostructures formed by a femtosecond laser," Opt. Express 14, 3694 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Jeoung, H. S. Kim, M. I. Park, J. Lee, C. S. Kim, and C. O. Park, "Preparation of room-temperature photoluminescent nanoparticles by ultrafast laser processing of Single-Crystalline Ge," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, J. Y. Lee, S. C. Jeoung, "Lifetime enhancement of the exciton in trapezoidal-type InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well structures," Thin Solid Films 478286 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Choi, M. Yoon, Y-H. Yim, and S. C. Jeoung, "Resonance Raman studies on ZnII tetraphenylporphyrin encapsulated into MCM-41 and CuIIALMCM-41:catalytic ionization of ZnIITPP and its central metal ion exchange," Chem. Phys. Lett.,  351391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S. S.

X. L. Wu, T. Gao, X. M. Bao, F. Yan, S. S. Jiang, and D. Feng, "Annealing temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Ge+-implanted SiO2 films," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2704 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, R.

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, Cs. Toth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. Horn von Hoegen, D. von der Linde, "Ultrafast x-ray measurement of laser heating in semiconductors: Parameters determining the melting threshold," Phys. Rev. B 63, 193306 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kanemitsu, Y.

S. Okamoto and Y. Kanemitsu, "Photoluminescence properties of surface-oxidized Ge nanocrystals: Surface localization of exitons," Phys. Rev. B 54, 16421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kartopu, G.

G. Kartopu, S. C. Bayliss, R. E. Hummel, and Y. Ekinci, "Simultaneous micro-Raman and photoluminescence study of spark-processed germanium: Report on the origin of the orange photoluminescence emission band," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3466 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Serincan, G. Kartopu, A. Guennes, T. G. Finstad, R. Turan, Y. Ekinci, and S. C. Bayliss, "Characterization of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 by Raman spectroscopy," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 247 (2004).Q2
[CrossRef]

Kawat, S.

S. Kawat, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

S. C. Jeoung, H. S. Kim, M. I. Park, J. Lee, C. S. Kim, and C. O. Park, "Preparation of room-temperature photoluminescent nanoparticles by ultrafast laser processing of Single-Crystalline Ge," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

Kim, H. S.

M. A. Seo, D. S. Kim, H. S. Kim, and S. C. Jeoung, "Polarization-induced size control and ablation dynamics of Ge nanostructures formed by a femtosecond laser," Opt. Express 14, 3694 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Jeoung, H. S. Kim, M. I. Park, J. Lee, C. S. Kim, and C. O. Park, "Preparation of room-temperature photoluminescent nanoparticles by ultrafast laser processing of Single-Crystalline Ge," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

K. Kim, J. Y. Lee, S. C. Jeoung, "Lifetime enhancement of the exciton in trapezoidal-type InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well structures," Thin Solid Films 478286 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kofman, R.

P. Tognini, A. Stella, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics in germanium nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 208 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, S. H.

K. L. Teo, S. H. Kwok, P. Y. Yu, and S. Guha "Quantum confinement of quasi-two-dimensional E1 excitons in Ge nanocrystals studied by resonant Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B 62, 1584 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

S. C. Jeoung, H. S. Kim, M. I. Park, J. Lee, C. S. Kim, and C. O. Park, "Preparation of room-temperature photoluminescent nanoparticles by ultrafast laser processing of Single-Crystalline Ge," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

K. Kim, J. Y. Lee, S. C. Jeoung, "Lifetime enhancement of the exciton in trapezoidal-type InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well structures," Thin Solid Films 478286 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ley, L.

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, Solid State Commun. 39, 625 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, "The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon," Solid State Commun. 39, 625 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. S.

W. K. Choi, V. Ng, S. P. Ng, and H. H. Thio, Z. X. Shen, and W. S. Li, "Raman characterization of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films synthesized by rapid thermal annealing," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morisaki, H.

S. Sato, S. Nozaki, H. Morisaki, and M. Iwase, "Tetragonal germanium films deposited by the cluster-beam evaporation technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3176 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Morisaki, F. W. Ping, H. Ono, and K. Yazawa, "Above-band-gap photoluminescence from Si fine particles with oxide shell," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1869 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ng, S. P.

W. K. Choi, Y. W. Ho, S. P. Ng, and V. Ng, "Microstructural and photoluminescence studies of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Choi, V. Ng, S. P. Ng, and H. H. Thio, Z. X. Shen, and W. S. Li, "Raman characterization of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films synthesized by rapid thermal annealing," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ng, V.

W. K. Choi, Y. W. Ho, S. P. Ng, and V. Ng, "Microstructural and photoluminescence studies of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Choi, V. Ng, S. P. Ng, and H. H. Thio, Z. X. Shen, and W. S. Li, "Raman characterization of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films synthesized by rapid thermal annealing," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

P. Tognini, A. Stella, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics in germanium nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 208 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nozaki, S.

S. Sato, S. Nozaki, H. Morisaki, and M. Iwase, "Tetragonal germanium films deposited by the cluster-beam evaporation technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3176 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, S.

S. Okamoto and Y. Kanemitsu, "Photoluminescence properties of surface-oxidized Ge nanocrystals: Surface localization of exitons," Phys. Rev. B 54, 16421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

H. Morisaki, F. W. Ping, H. Ono, and K. Yazawa, "Above-band-gap photoluminescence from Si fine particles with oxide shell," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1869 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. O.

S. C. Jeoung, H. S. Kim, M. I. Park, J. Lee, C. S. Kim, and C. O. Park, "Preparation of room-temperature photoluminescent nanoparticles by ultrafast laser processing of Single-Crystalline Ge," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, M. I.

S. C. Jeoung, H. S. Kim, M. I. Park, J. Lee, C. S. Kim, and C. O. Park, "Preparation of room-temperature photoluminescent nanoparticles by ultrafast laser processing of Single-Crystalline Ge," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ping, F. W.

H. Morisaki, F. W. Ping, H. Ono, and K. Yazawa, "Above-band-gap photoluminescence from Si fine particles with oxide shell," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1869 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Richter, H.

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, "The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon," Solid State Commun. 39, 625 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, Solid State Commun. 39, 625 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rose-Petruck, C.

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, Cs. Toth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. Horn von Hoegen, D. von der Linde, "Ultrafast x-ray measurement of laser heating in semiconductors: Parameters determining the melting threshold," Phys. Rev. B 63, 193306 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

S. Sato, S. Nozaki, H. Morisaki, and M. Iwase, "Tetragonal germanium films deposited by the cluster-beam evaporation technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3176 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seo, M. A.

Serincan, U.

U. Serincan, G. Kartopu, A. Guennes, T. G. Finstad, R. Turan, Y. Ekinci, and S. C. Bayliss, "Characterization of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 by Raman spectroscopy," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 247 (2004).Q2
[CrossRef]

Shen, M. Y.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

W. K. Choi, V. Ng, S. P. Ng, and H. H. Thio, Z. X. Shen, and W. S. Li, "Raman characterization of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films synthesized by rapid thermal annealing," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shi, H.

H. Yang, X. Wang, H. Shi, S. Xie, F. Wang, X. Gu, and X. Yao, "Photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 glasses fabricated by a sol-gel method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Siders, C. W.

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, Cs. Toth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. Horn von Hoegen, D. von der Linde, "Ultrafast x-ray measurement of laser heating in semiconductors: Parameters determining the melting threshold," Phys. Rev. B 63, 193306 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

P. Tognini, A. Stella, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics in germanium nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 208 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stella, A.

P. Tognini, A. Stella, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics in germanium nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 208 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

S. Kawat, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

S. Kawat, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takagahara, T.

T. Takagahara and K. Takeda, "Theory of the quantum confinement effect on excitons in quantum dots of indirect materials," Phys. Rev. B 46, 15578 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, K.

T. Takagahara and K. Takeda, "Theory of the quantum confinement effect on excitons in quantum dots of indirect materials," Phys. Rev. B 46, 15578 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Takeoka, S.

S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Size-dependent near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7921 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawat, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Teo, K. L.

K. L. Teo, S. H. Kwok, P. Y. Yu, and S. Guha "Quantum confinement of quasi-two-dimensional E1 excitons in Ge nanocrystals studied by resonant Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B 62, 1584 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thio, H. H.

W. K. Choi, V. Ng, S. P. Ng, and H. H. Thio, Z. X. Shen, and W. S. Li, "Raman characterization of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films synthesized by rapid thermal annealing," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tognini, P.

P. Tognini, A. Stella, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics in germanium nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 208 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Turan, R.

U. Serincan, G. Kartopu, A. Guennes, T. G. Finstad, R. Turan, Y. Ekinci, and S. C. Bayliss, "Characterization of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 by Raman spectroscopy," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 247 (2004).Q2
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

H. Yang, X. Wang, H. Shi, S. Xie, F. Wang, X. Gu, and X. Yao, "Photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 glasses fabricated by a sol-gel method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

H. Yang, X. Wang, H. Shi, S. Xie, F. Wang, X. Gu, and X. Yao, "Photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 glasses fabricated by a sol-gel method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. P.

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, "The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon," Solid State Commun. 39, 625 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, Solid State Commun. 39, 625 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Weissker, H.-Ch.

H.-Ch. Weissker, J. Furthumller, and F. Bechstedt, "Optical properties of Ge and Si nanocrystallites from ab initio calculations. II. Hydrogenated nanocrystallites," Phys. Rev. B 65, 155328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

X. L. Wu, T. Gao, X. M. Bao, F. Yan, S. S. Jiang, and D. Feng, "Annealing temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Ge+-implanted SiO2 films," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2704 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S.

H. Yang, X. Wang, H. Shi, S. Xie, F. Wang, X. Gu, and X. Yao, "Photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 glasses fabricated by a sol-gel method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Size-dependent near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7921 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F.

X. L. Wu, T. Gao, X. M. Bao, F. Yan, S. S. Jiang, and D. Feng, "Annealing temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Ge+-implanted SiO2 films," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2704 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, X. Wang, H. Shi, S. Xie, F. Wang, X. Gu, and X. Yao, "Photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 glasses fabricated by a sol-gel method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X.

H. Yang, X. Wang, H. Shi, S. Xie, F. Wang, X. Gu, and X. Yao, "Photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 glasses fabricated by a sol-gel method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yazawa, K.

H. Morisaki, F. W. Ping, H. Ono, and K. Yazawa, "Above-band-gap photoluminescence from Si fine particles with oxide shell," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1869 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yim, Y-H.

J. R. Choi, M. Yoon, Y-H. Yim, and S. C. Jeoung, "Resonance Raman studies on ZnII tetraphenylporphyrin encapsulated into MCM-41 and CuIIALMCM-41:catalytic ionization of ZnIITPP and its central metal ion exchange," Chem. Phys. Lett.,  351391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, M.

J. R. Choi, M. Yoon, Y-H. Yim, and S. C. Jeoung, "Resonance Raman studies on ZnII tetraphenylporphyrin encapsulated into MCM-41 and CuIIALMCM-41:catalytic ionization of ZnIITPP and its central metal ion exchange," Chem. Phys. Lett.,  351391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P. Y.

K. L. Teo, S. H. Kwok, P. Y. Yu, and S. Guha "Quantum confinement of quasi-two-dimensional E1 excitons in Ge nanocrystals studied by resonant Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B 62, 1584 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Yang, X. Wang, H. Shi, S. Xie, F. Wang, X. Gu, and X. Yao, "Photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 glasses fabricated by a sol-gel method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5144 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sato, S. Nozaki, H. Morisaki, and M. Iwase, "Tetragonal germanium films deposited by the cluster-beam evaporation technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3176 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Tognini, A. Stella, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics in germanium nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 208 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

J. R. Choi, M. Yoon, Y-H. Yim, and S. C. Jeoung, "Resonance Raman studies on ZnII tetraphenylporphyrin encapsulated into MCM-41 and CuIIALMCM-41:catalytic ionization of ZnIITPP and its central metal ion exchange," Chem. Phys. Lett.,  351391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Kartopu, S. C. Bayliss, R. E. Hummel, and Y. Ekinci, "Simultaneous micro-Raman and photoluminescence study of spark-processed germanium: Report on the origin of the orange photoluminescence emission band," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3466 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Morisaki, F. W. Ping, H. Ono, and K. Yazawa, "Above-band-gap photoluminescence from Si fine particles with oxide shell," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1869 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Choi, Y. W. Ho, S. P. Ng, and V. Ng, "Microstructural and photoluminescence studies of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Wu, T. Gao, X. M. Bao, F. Yan, S. S. Jiang, and D. Feng, "Annealing temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Ge+-implanted SiO2 films," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2704 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Choi, V. Ng, S. P. Ng, and H. H. Thio, Z. X. Shen, and W. S. Li, "Raman characterization of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films synthesized by rapid thermal annealing," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc.

M.-Il Park, C.-O. Park, C. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, "Characterization of femtosecond-laser-ablated a Germanium single crystal in air by using X-ray diffraction," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 46, 531 (2005).Q1

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S. C. Jeoung, H. S. Kim, M. I. Park, J. Lee, C. S. Kim, and C. O. Park, "Preparation of room-temperature photoluminescent nanoparticles by ultrafast laser processing of Single-Crystalline Ge," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature

S. Kawat, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

T. Takagahara and K. Takeda, "Theory of the quantum confinement effect on excitons in quantum dots of indirect materials," Phys. Rev. B 46, 15578 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H.-Ch. Weissker, J. Furthumller, and F. Bechstedt, "Optical properties of Ge and Si nanocrystallites from ab initio calculations. II. Hydrogenated nanocrystallites," Phys. Rev. B 65, 155328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Okamoto and Y. Kanemitsu, "Photoluminescence properties of surface-oxidized Ge nanocrystals: Surface localization of exitons," Phys. Rev. B 54, 16421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "Size-dependent near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrices," Phys. Rev. B 58, 7921 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, Cs. Toth, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, K. R. Wilson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. Horn von Hoegen, D. von der Linde, "Ultrafast x-ray measurement of laser heating in semiconductors: Parameters determining the melting threshold," Phys. Rev. B 63, 193306 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Teo, S. H. Kwok, P. Y. Yu, and S. Guha "Quantum confinement of quasi-two-dimensional E1 excitons in Ge nanocrystals studied by resonant Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B 62, 1584 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

U. Serincan, G. Kartopu, A. Guennes, T. G. Finstad, R. Turan, Y. Ekinci, and S. C. Bayliss, "Characterization of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 by Raman spectroscopy," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 247 (2004).Q2
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, Solid State Commun. 39, 625 (1981).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Campbell and P. M. Fauchet, "The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors," Solid State Commun. 58, 739 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, "The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon," Solid State Commun. 39, 625 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

K. Kim, J. Y. Lee, S. C. Jeoung, "Lifetime enhancement of the exciton in trapezoidal-type InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well structures," Thin Solid Films 478286 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) AFM image of surface of ablated Ge which contains numerous nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are distributed within 10–30 nm size. The TEM image (b) reveals existence of several nano meter oxide layer on the surface of the formed nanoparticle. (c) EDS (energy dispersive spectrometry) spectrum of Ge surface after processing shows oxide component besides Ge. (d) The measured photoluminescent spectrum from Ge nanoparticles, which are processed with different laser fluence, shift toward longer wavelength as fluence increase.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) PL of Ge nanoparticle formed by laser ablation with various ambient surroundings: nitrogen, vacuum and air condition. (b) The PL of Ge nanoparticle processed in nitrogen condition is again measured after 24 hours. After one day oxidized Ge nanoparticle, which is processed in nitrogen condition, reveals PL in contrast with an immediate measurement as shown in (a).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time correlated single photon counting spectra at 3.1 eV (a) and 1.8 eV (b), respectively. The decay time constants are invariant at various probe wavelengths (c).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Raman shift from the Ge nanoparticles formed by laser irradiation in different ambient system. The peak position and broadening of Raman spectrum estimate particle size of nanoparticles. There is good agreement between the measured Raman spectra (black line) and calculated spectra (gray line) from the phonon dispersion relation.

Equations (1)

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I ( ω ) exp ( q 2 d 2 4 ) d 3 q { [ ω 0 ω ( q ) ] 2 + ( Γ 2 ) 2 }

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