Abstract

A novel terahertz plasma-wave photomixer that can improve the conversion gain and terahertz radiation power is proposed and evaluated. The photomixer is based on a high-electron mobility transistor and incorporates doubly interdigitated grating strips for the gate electrodes that periodically localize the 2D plasmons in 100-nm regions with a micron-order interval. A vertical cavity structure is formed in between the top metal grating and a terahertz mirror placed at the backside. The device features electronic tuning of plasmon characteristic frequencies, providing continuously-tunable operation below 1 THz to beyond 10 THz. Frequency-dependent finite-differential time-domain analysis demonstrates that the grating-bicoupled plasmonic structure acts as a broadband terahertz photomixer and antenna and that the vertical cavity structure effectively enhances the conversion gain and radiation power.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, "Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: new mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2465-2468 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, "Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 380-387 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. V. Chaplik, "Possible crystallization of charge carriers in low-density inversion layers," Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 395-398 (1972).
  4. M. Nakayama, "Theory of surface waves coupled to surface carriers," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 36, 393-398 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. J. Crowne, "Contact boundary conditions and the Dyakonov-Shur instability in high electron mobility transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1242-1254 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. A. Mikhailov, "Plasma instability and amplification of electromagnetic waves in low-dimensional electron systems," Phys. Rev. B 58, 1517-1532 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. V. Cheremisin, M. I. Dyakonov, M. S. Shur, and G. Samsonidze, "Influence of electron scattering on current instability in field effect transistors," Solid-State Electron. 42, 1737-1742 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. J. Crowne, "Dyakonov-Shur plasma excitations in the channel of a real high-electron mobility transistor," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 8056-8063 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Otsuji, S. Nakae, and H. Kitamura, "Numerical analysis for resonance properties of plasma-wave field-effect transistors and their terahertz applications to smart photonic network systems," IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 1470-1476 (2001).
  10. V. Ryzhii and M. Shur, "Analysis of tunneling-injection transit-time effects and self-excitation of terahertz plasma oscillations in high-electron-mobility transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L922-L924 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Ryzhii, I. Khmyrova, and M. Shur, "Terahertz photomixing in quantum well structures using resonant excitation of plasma oscillations," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1875-1881(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Ryzhii, I. Kymyrova, A. Sato, P. O. Vaccaro, T. Aida, and M. Shur, "Plasma mechanism of terahertz photomixing in high-electron mobilitytransistor under interband photoexcitation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5756-5760 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, I. Khmyrova, M. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, "Characteristics of a terahertz photomixer based on a high-electron mobility transistor structure with optical input through the ungated regions," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2084-2089 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. J. Allen, Jr., D. C. Tsui, and R. A. Logan, "Observation of the two-dimensional plasmon in silicon inversion layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 980-983 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. C. Tsui, E. Gornik, and R. A. Logan, "Far infrared emission from plasma oscillations of Si inversion layers," Solid State Comm. 35, 875-877 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, "Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Hirakawa, K. Yamanaka, M. Grayson, and D. C. Tsui, "Far-infrared emission spectroscopy of hot two-dimensional plasmons in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2326-2328 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Shur and J.-Q. Lü, "Terahertz sources and detectors using two-dimensional electronic fluid in high-electron mobility transistors," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 48, 750-756 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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  22. W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, "Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  81, 4637-4639 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, "Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1627-1629 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Otsuji, Y. Kanamaru, H. Kitamura, M. Matsuoka, and O. Ogawara, "Effects of heterostructure 2D-electron confinement on the tunability of resonant frequencies of terahertz plasma-wave transistors," IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 1985-1993 (2003).
  25. W. Knap. J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. Shur, "Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331-2333 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Seliuta, E. Sirmulis, V. Tamosiunas, S. Balakauskas, S. Asmontas, A. Suziedelis, J. Gradauskas, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, "Detection of terahertz/sub-terahertz radiation by asymmetrically-shaped 2DEG layers," Electron. Lett. 40, 631-632 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, "Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119-2121 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. Teppe, D. Veksler, V. Yu. Kachorovski, A. P. Dmitriev, X. Xie, X.-C. Xhang, S. Rumyantsev, W. Knap, and M. Shur, "Plasma wave resonant detection of femtosecond pulsed terahertz radiation by a nanometer field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 022102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and V. Ryzhii, "Modulation effects of photocarriers on the terahertz plasma-wave resonance in high-electron-mobility transistors under interband photoexcitation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3842-3847 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, "Millimeter wave mixing using plasmon and bolometric response in a double-quantum-well field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 033501 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. J. Smith and E. M. Purcell, "Visible light from localized surface charges moving across a grating," Phys. Rev. 92, 1069 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302-307 (1966).
  33. R. J. Luebbers, F. Hunsberger, and K. S. Kunz, "A frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain formulation for transient propagation in plasma," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 39, 29-34 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  34. P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, G. P. Moore, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, S. R. Keiding, E. H. Keiding, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "Drude conductivity of highly doped GaAs at terahertz frequencies," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2382-2385 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. A. Porto, F. J. Garchia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, "Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845-2848 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  36. Y. Takanashi, K. Takahata, and Y. Muramoto, "Characteristics of InAlAs/InGaAs high-electron-mobility transistors under illumination with modulated light," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 2271-2277 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  37. H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Ishibashi, "High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 709-727 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  38. S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, and E. R. Brown, "Highly tunable fiber-coupled photomixers with coherent terahertz output power," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1301-1309 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

F. Teppe, D. Veksler, V. Yu. Kachorovski, A. P. Dmitriev, X. Xie, X.-C. Xhang, S. Rumyantsev, W. Knap, and M. Shur, "Plasma wave resonant detection of femtosecond pulsed terahertz radiation by a nanometer field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 022102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and V. Ryzhii, "Modulation effects of photocarriers on the terahertz plasma-wave resonance in high-electron-mobility transistors under interband photoexcitation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3842-3847 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, "Millimeter wave mixing using plasmon and bolometric response in a double-quantum-well field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 033501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

W. Knap. J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. Shur, "Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331-2333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Seliuta, E. Sirmulis, V. Tamosiunas, S. Balakauskas, S. Asmontas, A. Suziedelis, J. Gradauskas, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, "Detection of terahertz/sub-terahertz radiation by asymmetrically-shaped 2DEG layers," Electron. Lett. 40, 631-632 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, "Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119-2121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Ishibashi, "High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 709-727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, I. Khmyrova, M. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, "Characteristics of a terahertz photomixer based on a high-electron mobility transistor structure with optical input through the ungated regions," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2084-2089 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

V. Ryzhii and M. Shur, "Analysis of tunneling-injection transit-time effects and self-excitation of terahertz plasma oscillations in high-electron-mobility transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L922-L924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ryzhii, I. Khmyrova, and M. Shur, "Terahertz photomixing in quantum well structures using resonant excitation of plasma oscillations," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1875-1881(2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ryzhii, I. Kymyrova, A. Sato, P. O. Vaccaro, T. Aida, and M. Shur, "Plasma mechanism of terahertz photomixing in high-electron mobilitytransistor under interband photoexcitation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5756-5760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, "Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  81, 4637-4639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, "Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1627-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Shur and J.-Q. Lü, "Terahertz sources and detectors using two-dimensional electronic fluid in high-electron mobility transistors," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 48, 750-756 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, G. P. Moore, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, S. R. Keiding, E. H. Keiding, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "Drude conductivity of highly doped GaAs at terahertz frequencies," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2382-2385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Crowne, "Dyakonov-Shur plasma excitations in the channel of a real high-electron mobility transistor," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 8056-8063 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garchia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, "Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845-2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takanashi, K. Takahata, and Y. Muramoto, "Characteristics of InAlAs/InGaAs high-electron-mobility transistors under illumination with modulated light," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 2271-2277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Sekine, K. Yamanaka, K. Hirakawa, M. Voseburger, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Observation of terahertz radiation from higher-order two-dimensional plasmon modes in GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1006-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

S. A. Mikhailov, "Plasma instability and amplification of electromagnetic waves in low-dimensional electron systems," Phys. Rev. B 58, 1517-1532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Cheremisin, M. I. Dyakonov, M. S. Shur, and G. Samsonidze, "Influence of electron scattering on current instability in field effect transistors," Solid-State Electron. 42, 1737-1742 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Lü, M. Shur, J. L. Hesler, L. Sun, and R. Weikle, "Terahertz detector utilizing two-dimensional electronic fluid," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 373-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

F. J. Crowne, "Contact boundary conditions and the Dyakonov-Shur instability in high electron mobility transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1242-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, and E. R. Brown, "Highly tunable fiber-coupled photomixers with coherent terahertz output power," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1301-1309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, "Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 380-387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Hirakawa, K. Yamanaka, M. Grayson, and D. C. Tsui, "Far-infrared emission spectroscopy of hot two-dimensional plasmons in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2326-2328 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, "Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: new mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2465-2468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, "Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. J. Luebbers, F. Hunsberger, and K. S. Kunz, "A frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain formulation for transient propagation in plasma," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 39, 29-34 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. C. Tsui, E. Gornik, and R. A. Logan, "Far infrared emission from plasma oscillations of Si inversion layers," Solid State Comm. 35, 875-877 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

S. J. Allen, Jr., D. C. Tsui, and R. A. Logan, "Observation of the two-dimensional plasmon in silicon inversion layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 980-983 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

M. Nakayama, "Theory of surface waves coupled to surface carriers," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 36, 393-398 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

A. V. Chaplik, "Possible crystallization of charge carriers in low-density inversion layers," Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 395-398 (1972).

1966 (1)

K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302-307 (1966).

1953 (1)

S. J. Smith and E. M. Purcell, "Visible light from localized surface charges moving across a grating," Phys. Rev. 92, 1069 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Ager, C. D.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, "Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aida, T.

V. Ryzhii, I. Kymyrova, A. Sato, P. O. Vaccaro, T. Aida, and M. Shur, "Plasma mechanism of terahertz photomixing in high-electron mobilitytransistor under interband photoexcitation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5756-5760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. J.

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, "Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1627-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Allen, Jr., D. C. Tsui, and R. A. Logan, "Observation of the two-dimensional plasmon in silicon inversion layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 980-983 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, S. R.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, G. P. Moore, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, S. R. Keiding, E. H. Keiding, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "Drude conductivity of highly doped GaAs at terahertz frequencies," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2382-2385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Apsley, N.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, "Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Armed, H.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, "Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Asmontas, S.

D. Seliuta, E. Sirmulis, V. Tamosiunas, S. Balakauskas, S. Asmontas, A. Suziedelis, J. Gradauskas, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, "Detection of terahertz/sub-terahertz radiation by asymmetrically-shaped 2DEG layers," Electron. Lett. 40, 631-632 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Balakauskas, S.

D. Seliuta, E. Sirmulis, V. Tamosiunas, S. Balakauskas, S. Asmontas, A. Suziedelis, J. Gradauskas, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, "Detection of terahertz/sub-terahertz radiation by asymmetrically-shaped 2DEG layers," Electron. Lett. 40, 631-632 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E. R.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, and E. R. Brown, "Highly tunable fiber-coupled photomixers with coherent terahertz output power," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1301-1309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burke, P. J.

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, "Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1627-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chaplik, A. V.

A. V. Chaplik, "Possible crystallization of charge carriers in low-density inversion layers," Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 395-398 (1972).

Cheremisin, M. V.

M. V. Cheremisin, M. I. Dyakonov, M. S. Shur, and G. Samsonidze, "Influence of electron scattering on current instability in field effect transistors," Solid-State Electron. 42, 1737-1742 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cluff, J. A.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, G. P. Moore, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, S. R. Keiding, E. H. Keiding, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "Drude conductivity of highly doped GaAs at terahertz frequencies," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2382-2385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crowne, F. J.

F. J. Crowne, "Dyakonov-Shur plasma excitations in the channel of a real high-electron mobility transistor," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 8056-8063 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Crowne, "Contact boundary conditions and the Dyakonov-Shur instability in high electron mobility transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1242-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, "Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  81, 4637-4639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dmitriev, A. P.

F. Teppe, D. Veksler, V. Yu. Kachorovski, A. P. Dmitriev, X. Xie, X.-C. Xhang, S. Rumyantsev, W. Knap, and M. Shur, "Plasma wave resonant detection of femtosecond pulsed terahertz radiation by a nanometer field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 022102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duffield, T.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, "Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dyakonov, M.

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, "Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 380-387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, "Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: new mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2465-2468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyakonov, M. I.

M. V. Cheremisin, M. I. Dyakonov, M. S. Shur, and G. Samsonidze, "Influence of electron scattering on current instability in field effect transistors," Solid-State Electron. 42, 1737-1742 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, J. P.

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, "Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1627-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frost, J. E. F.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, "Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Furuta, T.

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Ishibashi, "High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 709-727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garchia-Vidal, F. J.

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garchia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, "Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845-2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gornik, E.

D. C. Tsui, E. Gornik, and R. A. Logan, "Far infrared emission from plasma oscillations of Si inversion layers," Solid State Comm. 35, 875-877 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gradauskas, J.

D. Seliuta, E. Sirmulis, V. Tamosiunas, S. Balakauskas, S. Asmontas, A. Suziedelis, J. Gradauskas, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, "Detection of terahertz/sub-terahertz radiation by asymmetrically-shaped 2DEG layers," Electron. Lett. 40, 631-632 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grayson, M.

K. Hirakawa, K. Yamanaka, M. Grayson, and D. C. Tsui, "Far-infrared emission spectroscopy of hot two-dimensional plasmons in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2326-2328 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hanabe, M.

M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and V. Ryzhii, "Modulation effects of photocarriers on the terahertz plasma-wave resonance in high-electron-mobility transistors under interband photoexcitation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3842-3847 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, "Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119-2121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harff, N. E.

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, "Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1627-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haring-Bolivar, P.

N. Sekine, K. Yamanaka, K. Hirakawa, M. Voseburger, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Observation of terahertz radiation from higher-order two-dimensional plasmon modes in GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1006-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hasko, D. G.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, "Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hesler, J. L.

J.-Q. Lü, M. Shur, J. L. Hesler, L. Sun, and R. Weikle, "Terahertz detector utilizing two-dimensional electronic fluid," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 373-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hirakawa, K.

N. Sekine, K. Yamanaka, K. Hirakawa, M. Voseburger, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Observation of terahertz radiation from higher-order two-dimensional plasmon modes in GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1006-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirakawa, K. Yamanaka, M. Grayson, and D. C. Tsui, "Far-infrared emission spectroscopy of hot two-dimensional plasmons in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2326-2328 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huggard, P. G.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, G. P. Moore, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, S. R. Keiding, E. H. Keiding, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "Drude conductivity of highly doped GaAs at terahertz frequencies," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2382-2385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, H. P.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, "Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hunsberger, F.

R. J. Luebbers, F. Hunsberger, and K. S. Kunz, "A frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain formulation for transient propagation in plasma," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 39, 29-34 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, T.

M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and V. Ryzhii, "Modulation effects of photocarriers on the terahertz plasma-wave resonance in high-electron-mobility transistors under interband photoexcitation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3842-3847 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Ishibashi, "High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 709-727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Ishibashi, "High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 709-727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, A. C.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, "Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kachorovski, V. Yu.

F. Teppe, D. Veksler, V. Yu. Kachorovski, A. P. Dmitriev, X. Xie, X.-C. Xhang, S. Rumyantsev, W. Knap, and M. Shur, "Plasma wave resonant detection of femtosecond pulsed terahertz radiation by a nanometer field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 022102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, E. H.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, G. P. Moore, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, S. R. Keiding, E. H. Keiding, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "Drude conductivity of highly doped GaAs at terahertz frequencies," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2382-2385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, G. P. Moore, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, S. R. Keiding, E. H. Keiding, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "Drude conductivity of highly doped GaAs at terahertz frequencies," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2382-2385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khmyrova, I.

A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, I. Khmyrova, M. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, "Characteristics of a terahertz photomixer based on a high-electron mobility transistor structure with optical input through the ungated regions," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2084-2089 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Ryzhii, I. Khmyrova, and M. Shur, "Terahertz photomixing in quantum well structures using resonant excitation of plasma oscillations," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1875-1881(2002).
[CrossRef]

Knap, W.

F. Teppe, D. Veksler, V. Yu. Kachorovski, A. P. Dmitriev, X. Xie, X.-C. Xhang, S. Rumyantsev, W. Knap, and M. Shur, "Plasma wave resonant detection of femtosecond pulsed terahertz radiation by a nanometer field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 022102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap. J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. Shur, "Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331-2333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, "Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  81, 4637-4639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, S.

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Ishibashi, "High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 709-727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, K.

D. Seliuta, E. Sirmulis, V. Tamosiunas, S. Balakauskas, S. Asmontas, A. Suziedelis, J. Gradauskas, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, "Detection of terahertz/sub-terahertz radiation by asymmetrically-shaped 2DEG layers," Electron. Lett. 40, 631-632 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, K. S.

R. J. Luebbers, F. Hunsberger, and K. S. Kunz, "A frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain formulation for transient propagation in plasma," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 39, 29-34 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

N. Sekine, K. Yamanaka, K. Hirakawa, M. Voseburger, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Observation of terahertz radiation from higher-order two-dimensional plasmon modes in GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1006-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kymyrova, I.

V. Ryzhii, I. Kymyrova, A. Sato, P. O. Vaccaro, T. Aida, and M. Shur, "Plasma mechanism of terahertz photomixing in high-electron mobilitytransistor under interband photoexcitation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5756-5760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, "Millimeter wave mixing using plasmon and bolometric response in a double-quantum-well field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 033501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lilly, M. P.

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, "Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1627-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, G. P. Moore, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, S. R. Keiding, E. H. Keiding, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "Drude conductivity of highly doped GaAs at terahertz frequencies," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2382-2385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lisauskas, A.

D. Seliuta, E. Sirmulis, V. Tamosiunas, S. Balakauskas, S. Asmontas, A. Suziedelis, J. Gradauskas, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, "Detection of terahertz/sub-terahertz radiation by asymmetrically-shaped 2DEG layers," Electron. Lett. 40, 631-632 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

D. C. Tsui, E. Gornik, and R. A. Logan, "Far infrared emission from plasma oscillations of Si inversion layers," Solid State Comm. 35, 875-877 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Allen, Jr., D. C. Tsui, and R. A. Logan, "Observation of the two-dimensional plasmon in silicon inversion layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 980-983 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lü, J.-Q.

M. Shur and J.-Q. Lü, "Terahertz sources and detectors using two-dimensional electronic fluid in high-electron mobility transistors," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 48, 750-756 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Lü, M. Shur, J. L. Hesler, L. Sun, and R. Weikle, "Terahertz detector utilizing two-dimensional electronic fluid," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 373-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luebbers, R. J.

R. J. Luebbers, F. Hunsberger, and K. S. Kunz, "A frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain formulation for transient propagation in plasma," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 39, 29-34 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, and E. R. Brown, "Highly tunable fiber-coupled photomixers with coherent terahertz output power," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1301-1309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, S. A.

S. A. Mikhailov, "Plasma instability and amplification of electromagnetic waves in low-dimensional electron systems," Phys. Rev. B 58, 1517-1532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moore, G. P.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, G. P. Moore, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, S. R. Keiding, E. H. Keiding, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "Drude conductivity of highly doped GaAs at terahertz frequencies," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2382-2385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Muramoto, Y.

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Ishibashi, "High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 709-727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takanashi, K. Takahata, and Y. Muramoto, "Characteristics of InAlAs/InGaAs high-electron-mobility transistors under illumination with modulated light," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 2271-2277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsuma, T.

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Ishibashi, "High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 709-727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, M.

M. Nakayama, "Theory of surface waves coupled to surface carriers," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 36, 393-398 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ogawara, O.

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, "Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119-2121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Otsuji, T.

M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and V. Ryzhii, "Modulation effects of photocarriers on the terahertz plasma-wave resonance in high-electron-mobility transistors under interband photoexcitation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3842-3847 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, "Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119-2121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, D. C.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, "Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garchia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, "Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845-2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peralta, X. G.

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, "Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1627-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Porto, J. A.

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garchia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, "Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845-2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

S. J. Smith and E. M. Purcell, "Visible light from localized surface charges moving across a grating," Phys. Rev. 92, 1069 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, "Millimeter wave mixing using plasmon and bolometric response in a double-quantum-well field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 033501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, "Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1627-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, G. P. Moore, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, S. R. Keiding, E. H. Keiding, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "Drude conductivity of highly doped GaAs at terahertz frequencies," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2382-2385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, "Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

D. Seliuta, E. Sirmulis, V. Tamosiunas, S. Balakauskas, S. Asmontas, A. Suziedelis, J. Gradauskas, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, "Detection of terahertz/sub-terahertz radiation by asymmetrically-shaped 2DEG layers," Electron. Lett. 40, 631-632 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rumyantsev, S.

F. Teppe, D. Veksler, V. Yu. Kachorovski, A. P. Dmitriev, X. Xie, X.-C. Xhang, S. Rumyantsev, W. Knap, and M. Shur, "Plasma wave resonant detection of femtosecond pulsed terahertz radiation by a nanometer field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 022102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, "Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  81, 4637-4639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ryzhii, M.

A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, I. Khmyrova, M. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, "Characteristics of a terahertz photomixer based on a high-electron mobility transistor structure with optical input through the ungated regions," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2084-2089 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ryzhii, V.

M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and V. Ryzhii, "Modulation effects of photocarriers on the terahertz plasma-wave resonance in high-electron-mobility transistors under interband photoexcitation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3842-3847 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, I. Khmyrova, M. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, "Characteristics of a terahertz photomixer based on a high-electron mobility transistor structure with optical input through the ungated regions," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2084-2089 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Ryzhii, I. Kymyrova, A. Sato, P. O. Vaccaro, T. Aida, and M. Shur, "Plasma mechanism of terahertz photomixing in high-electron mobilitytransistor under interband photoexcitation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5756-5760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ryzhii, I. Khmyrova, and M. Shur, "Terahertz photomixing in quantum well structures using resonant excitation of plasma oscillations," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1875-1881(2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ryzhii and M. Shur, "Analysis of tunneling-injection transit-time effects and self-excitation of terahertz plasma oscillations in high-electron-mobility transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L922-L924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Samsonidze, G.

M. V. Cheremisin, M. I. Dyakonov, M. S. Shur, and G. Samsonidze, "Influence of electron scattering on current instability in field effect transistors," Solid-State Electron. 42, 1737-1742 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sato, A.

V. Ryzhii, I. Kymyrova, A. Sato, P. O. Vaccaro, T. Aida, and M. Shur, "Plasma mechanism of terahertz photomixing in high-electron mobilitytransistor under interband photoexcitation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5756-5760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Satou, A.

A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, I. Khmyrova, M. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, "Characteristics of a terahertz photomixer based on a high-electron mobility transistor structure with optical input through the ungated regions," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2084-2089 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sekine, N.

N. Sekine, K. Yamanaka, K. Hirakawa, M. Voseburger, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Observation of terahertz radiation from higher-order two-dimensional plasmon modes in GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1006-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seliuta, D.

D. Seliuta, E. Sirmulis, V. Tamosiunas, S. Balakauskas, S. Asmontas, A. Suziedelis, J. Gradauskas, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, "Detection of terahertz/sub-terahertz radiation by asymmetrically-shaped 2DEG layers," Electron. Lett. 40, 631-632 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, C. J.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, G. P. Moore, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, S. R. Keiding, E. H. Keiding, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "Drude conductivity of highly doped GaAs at terahertz frequencies," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2382-2385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M.

F. Teppe, D. Veksler, V. Yu. Kachorovski, A. P. Dmitriev, X. Xie, X.-C. Xhang, S. Rumyantsev, W. Knap, and M. Shur, "Plasma wave resonant detection of femtosecond pulsed terahertz radiation by a nanometer field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 022102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Ryzhii, I. Kymyrova, A. Sato, P. O. Vaccaro, T. Aida, and M. Shur, "Plasma mechanism of terahertz photomixing in high-electron mobilitytransistor under interband photoexcitation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5756-5760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ryzhii, I. Khmyrova, and M. Shur, "Terahertz photomixing in quantum well structures using resonant excitation of plasma oscillations," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1875-1881(2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ryzhii and M. Shur, "Analysis of tunneling-injection transit-time effects and self-excitation of terahertz plasma oscillations in high-electron-mobility transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L922-L924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Shur and J.-Q. Lü, "Terahertz sources and detectors using two-dimensional electronic fluid in high-electron mobility transistors," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 48, 750-756 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Lü, M. Shur, J. L. Hesler, L. Sun, and R. Weikle, "Terahertz detector utilizing two-dimensional electronic fluid," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 373-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, "Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 380-387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, "Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: new mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2465-2468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shur, M. S.

A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, I. Khmyrova, M. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, "Characteristics of a terahertz photomixer based on a high-electron mobility transistor structure with optical input through the ungated regions," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2084-2089 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, "Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  81, 4637-4639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Cheremisin, M. I. Dyakonov, M. S. Shur, and G. Samsonidze, "Influence of electron scattering on current instability in field effect transistors," Solid-State Electron. 42, 1737-1742 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, "Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1627-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sirmulis, E.

D. Seliuta, E. Sirmulis, V. Tamosiunas, S. Balakauskas, S. Asmontas, A. Suziedelis, J. Gradauskas, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, "Detection of terahertz/sub-terahertz radiation by asymmetrically-shaped 2DEG layers," Electron. Lett. 40, 631-632 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. J.

S. J. Smith and E. M. Purcell, "Visible light from localized surface charges moving across a grating," Phys. Rev. 92, 1069 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

J.-Q. Lü, M. Shur, J. L. Hesler, L. Sun, and R. Weikle, "Terahertz detector utilizing two-dimensional electronic fluid," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 373-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Suziedelis, A.

D. Seliuta, E. Sirmulis, V. Tamosiunas, S. Balakauskas, S. Asmontas, A. Suziedelis, J. Gradauskas, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, "Detection of terahertz/sub-terahertz radiation by asymmetrically-shaped 2DEG layers," Electron. Lett. 40, 631-632 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takahata, K.

Y. Takanashi, K. Takahata, and Y. Muramoto, "Characteristics of InAlAs/InGaAs high-electron-mobility transistors under illumination with modulated light," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 2271-2277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takanashi, Y.

Y. Takanashi, K. Takahata, and Y. Muramoto, "Characteristics of InAlAs/InGaAs high-electron-mobility transistors under illumination with modulated light," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 2271-2277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tamosiunas, V.

D. Seliuta, E. Sirmulis, V. Tamosiunas, S. Balakauskas, S. Asmontas, A. Suziedelis, J. Gradauskas, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, "Detection of terahertz/sub-terahertz radiation by asymmetrically-shaped 2DEG layers," Electron. Lett. 40, 631-632 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teppe, F.

F. Teppe, D. Veksler, V. Yu. Kachorovski, A. P. Dmitriev, X. Xie, X.-C. Xhang, S. Rumyantsev, W. Knap, and M. Shur, "Plasma wave resonant detection of femtosecond pulsed terahertz radiation by a nanometer field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 022102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsui, D. C.

K. Hirakawa, K. Yamanaka, M. Grayson, and D. C. Tsui, "Far-infrared emission spectroscopy of hot two-dimensional plasmons in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2326-2328 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tsui, E. Gornik, and R. A. Logan, "Far infrared emission from plasma oscillations of Si inversion layers," Solid State Comm. 35, 875-877 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Allen, Jr., D. C. Tsui, and R. A. Logan, "Observation of the two-dimensional plasmon in silicon inversion layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 980-983 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Uno, T.

M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and V. Ryzhii, "Modulation effects of photocarriers on the terahertz plasma-wave resonance in high-electron-mobility transistors under interband photoexcitation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3842-3847 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vaccaro, P. O.

V. Ryzhii, I. Kymyrova, A. Sato, P. O. Vaccaro, T. Aida, and M. Shur, "Plasma mechanism of terahertz photomixing in high-electron mobilitytransistor under interband photoexcitation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5756-5760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Valusis, G.

D. Seliuta, E. Sirmulis, V. Tamosiunas, S. Balakauskas, S. Asmontas, A. Suziedelis, J. Gradauskas, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, "Detection of terahertz/sub-terahertz radiation by asymmetrically-shaped 2DEG layers," Electron. Lett. 40, 631-632 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veksler, D.

F. Teppe, D. Veksler, V. Yu. Kachorovski, A. P. Dmitriev, X. Xie, X.-C. Xhang, S. Rumyantsev, W. Knap, and M. Shur, "Plasma wave resonant detection of femtosecond pulsed terahertz radiation by a nanometer field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 022102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Verghese, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, and E. R. Brown, "Highly tunable fiber-coupled photomixers with coherent terahertz output power," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1301-1309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Voseburger, M.

N. Sekine, K. Yamanaka, K. Hirakawa, M. Voseburger, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Observation of terahertz radiation from higher-order two-dimensional plasmon modes in GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1006-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wanke, M. C.

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, "Millimeter wave mixing using plasmon and bolometric response in a double-quantum-well field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 033501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, "Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1627-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weikle, R.

J.-Q. Lü, M. Shur, J. L. Hesler, L. Sun, and R. Weikle, "Terahertz detector utilizing two-dimensional electronic fluid," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 373-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Whitehouse, C. R.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, "Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, R. J.

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, "Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xhang, X.-C.

F. Teppe, D. Veksler, V. Yu. Kachorovski, A. P. Dmitriev, X. Xie, X.-C. Xhang, S. Rumyantsev, W. Knap, and M. Shur, "Plasma wave resonant detection of femtosecond pulsed terahertz radiation by a nanometer field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 022102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

F. Teppe, D. Veksler, V. Yu. Kachorovski, A. P. Dmitriev, X. Xie, X.-C. Xhang, S. Rumyantsev, W. Knap, and M. Shur, "Plasma wave resonant detection of femtosecond pulsed terahertz radiation by a nanometer field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 022102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, K.

N. Sekine, K. Yamanaka, K. Hirakawa, M. Voseburger, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Observation of terahertz radiation from higher-order two-dimensional plasmon modes in GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1006-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirakawa, K. Yamanaka, M. Grayson, and D. C. Tsui, "Far-infrared emission spectroscopy of hot two-dimensional plasmons in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2326-2328 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yee, K. S.

K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302-307 (1966).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

K. Hirakawa, K. Yamanaka, M. Grayson, and D. C. Tsui, "Far-infrared emission spectroscopy of hot two-dimensional plasmons in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2326-2328 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Sekine, K. Yamanaka, K. Hirakawa, M. Voseburger, P. Haring-Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Observation of terahertz radiation from higher-order two-dimensional plasmon modes in GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1006-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, "Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  81, 4637-4639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, "Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1627-1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap. J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. V. Popov, and M. Shur, "Terahertz emission by plasma waves in 60 nm gate high electron mobility transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2331-2333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, "Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119-2121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Teppe, D. Veksler, V. Yu. Kachorovski, A. P. Dmitriev, X. Xie, X.-C. Xhang, S. Rumyantsev, W. Knap, and M. Shur, "Plasma wave resonant detection of femtosecond pulsed terahertz radiation by a nanometer field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 022102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, "Millimeter wave mixing using plasmon and bolometric response in a double-quantum-well field-effect transistor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 033501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. Seliuta, E. Sirmulis, V. Tamosiunas, S. Balakauskas, S. Asmontas, A. Suziedelis, J. Gradauskas, G. Valusis, A. Lisauskas, H. G. Roskos, and K. Kohler, "Detection of terahertz/sub-terahertz radiation by asymmetrically-shaped 2DEG layers," Electron. Lett. 40, 631-632 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

J.-Q. Lü, M. Shur, J. L. Hesler, L. Sun, and R. Weikle, "Terahertz detector utilizing two-dimensional electronic fluid," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 373-375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Ishibashi, "High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 709-727 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (2)

K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302-307 (1966).

R. J. Luebbers, F. Hunsberger, and K. S. Kunz, "A frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain formulation for transient propagation in plasma," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 39, 29-34 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2)

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, "Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 43, 380-387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takanashi, K. Takahata, and Y. Muramoto, "Characteristics of InAlAs/InGaAs high-electron-mobility transistors under illumination with modulated light," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 2271-2277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. (1)

M. Shur and J.-Q. Lü, "Terahertz sources and detectors using two-dimensional electronic fluid in high-electron mobility transistors," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 48, 750-756 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, and E. R. Brown, "Highly tunable fiber-coupled photomixers with coherent terahertz output power," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1301-1309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (7)

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, G. P. Moore, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, S. R. Keiding, E. H. Keiding, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "Drude conductivity of highly doped GaAs at terahertz frequencies," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2382-2385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Crowne, "Contact boundary conditions and the Dyakonov-Shur instability in high electron mobility transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1242-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Crowne, "Dyakonov-Shur plasma excitations in the channel of a real high-electron mobility transistor," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 8056-8063 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Wilkinson, C. D. Ager, T. Duffield, H. P. Hughes, D. G. Hasko, H. Armed, J. E. F. Frost, D. C. Peacock, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Jones, C. R. Whitehouse, and N. Apsley, "Plasmon excitation and self-coupling in a bi-periodically modulated two-dimensional electron gas," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 6049-6061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. Ryzhii, I. Khmyrova, and M. Shur, "Terahertz photomixing in quantum well structures using resonant excitation of plasma oscillations," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1875-1881(2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ryzhii, I. Kymyrova, A. Sato, P. O. Vaccaro, T. Aida, and M. Shur, "Plasma mechanism of terahertz photomixing in high-electron mobilitytransistor under interband photoexcitation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5756-5760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Satou, V. Ryzhii, I. Khmyrova, M. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, "Characteristics of a terahertz photomixer based on a high-electron mobility transistor structure with optical input through the ungated regions," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2084-2089 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

M. Nakayama, "Theory of surface waves coupled to surface carriers," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 36, 393-398 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

V. Ryzhii and M. Shur, "Analysis of tunneling-injection transit-time effects and self-excitation of terahertz plasma oscillations in high-electron-mobility transistors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L922-L924 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Hanabe, T. Otsuji, T. Ishibashi, T. Uno, and V. Ryzhii, "Modulation effects of photocarriers on the terahertz plasma-wave resonance in high-electron-mobility transistors under interband photoexcitation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3842-3847 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

S. J. Smith and E. M. Purcell, "Visible light from localized surface charges moving across a grating," Phys. Rev. 92, 1069 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. A. Mikhailov, "Plasma instability and amplification of electromagnetic waves in low-dimensional electron systems," Phys. Rev. B 58, 1517-1532 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, "Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: new mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2465-2468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Allen, Jr., D. C. Tsui, and R. A. Logan, "Observation of the two-dimensional plasmon in silicon inversion layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 980-983 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garchia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, "Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845-2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Comm. (1)

D. C. Tsui, E. Gornik, and R. A. Logan, "Far infrared emission from plasma oscillations of Si inversion layers," Solid State Comm. 35, 875-877 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

M. V. Cheremisin, M. I. Dyakonov, M. S. Shur, and G. Samsonidze, "Influence of electron scattering on current instability in field effect transistors," Solid-State Electron. 42, 1737-1742 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

A. V. Chaplik, "Possible crystallization of charge carriers in low-density inversion layers," Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 395-398 (1972).

Other (3)

T. Otsuji, S. Nakae, and H. Kitamura, "Numerical analysis for resonance properties of plasma-wave field-effect transistors and their terahertz applications to smart photonic network systems," IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 1470-1476 (2001).

T. Otsuji, Y. Kanamaru, H. Kitamura, and S. Nakae, "Terahertz plasma-wave excitation in 80-nm gate-length GaAs MESFET by photomixing long-wavelength CW laser sources," in Digest of the 59th Annual Device Research Conference, (Nortre Dame, Indiana, 2001), pp. 97-98.

T. Otsuji, Y. Kanamaru, H. Kitamura, M. Matsuoka, and O. Ogawara, "Effects of heterostructure 2D-electron confinement on the tunability of resonant frequencies of terahertz plasma-wave transistors," IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 1985-1993 (2003).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (732 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (748 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Device cross section. The bottom terahertz mirror is transparent to the optical signals. k 1 and k 2: the wave vectors of irradiated photons, E: the electric field (linear polarization), Δk: the wave vector of electromagnetic radiation. 2DES: two dimensional electron systems.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Characteristic frequencies.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulation flowchart.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Device model for numerical simulation. QW: quantum wire.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Movies of simulated instantaneous electric field (Ex ) distributions under a constant sinusoidal plasmon excitation (a) at 3.4 THz (732 KB) and (b) 5.1 THz (748 KB). Intensity scaled on the indicator is in arbitrary unit.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulated electric field intensity (x component) vs. plasmon excitation frequency.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Frequency responses for three different device structures to impulsive excitation at all the plasmon cavities. Electric fields (x component) at two points (inside the cavity and outside air) were calculated by using a Maxwell’s FDTD simulator and their temporal profiles were Fourier transformed.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

m e ( v t + ( v · ) v ) = e U m e v τ ,
n t + ( n v ) = U t + ( U v ) = 0 ,
i ph ( t ) = P e η IB h ν [ ( 1 + m 2 2 ) + 2 m · 1 e i ω m τ d i ω m τ d · e i ω m t ] ,
P in sat = n ph sat h ν η IB τ ph O [ 10 kW cm 2 ] .
j p sat = en ph sat v d = 0.16 [ A cm ] .
P out sat G · Z air · j p sat 2 O [ 10 W cm 2 ] ,

Metrics