Abstract

We propose a new method for mode conversion and coupling between an optical fiber and a sub-micrometer waveguide using a subwavelength grating (SWG) with a period less than the 1st order Bragg period. The coupler principle is based on gradual modification of the waveguide mode effective index by the SWG effect that at the same time frustrates diffraction and minimizes reflection loss. We demonstrate the proposed principle by two-dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) calculations of various SWG structures designed for the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform with a Si core thickness of 0.3 µm. We found a coupling loss as small as 0.9 dB for a 50 µm-long SWG device and low excess loss due to fiber misalignment, namely 0.07 dB for a transverse misalignment of ±1 µm, and 0.24 dB for an angular misalignment of ±2 degrees. Scaling of the SWG coupler length down to 10 µm is also reported on an example of a 2D slab waveguide coupling structure including aspect ratio dependent etching and micro-loading effects. Finally, advantages of the proposed coupling principle for fabricating 3D coupling structures are discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

2005 (6)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, D. Pang, C. Hoepfner, W-Y. Oh, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, K. P. Yap, and M. T. Doan, “Mode transformer for miniaturized optical circuits,” Opt. Lett. 30, 498–5002005.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438, 65–69 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D-X. Xu, “A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges,” in Optoelectronics Devices and Integration, SPIE Proc. 5644, 103–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, “Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 60 µm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41, 801–802 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, I. Powell, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, “Wavelength-dispersive device based on a Fourier-transform Michelson-type arrayed waveguide grating,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1824–1826 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433, 292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (6)

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 12, 5269–5273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W.N. Ye, “Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2384–2386 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C, 351–358 (2004).

A. Delâge, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, D. Dalacu, B. Lamontagne, and A. BogdanovJ. C. Armitage, S. Fafard, R. A. Lessard, and G. A. Lamprpoulos, “Graded-index coupler for microphotonic SOI waveguides,” in Optical Components and Devices, eds., Proc. SPIE 5577, 204–212 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (5)

G. A. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1395–1397 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302–1304 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical waveguiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. DelâgeJ.F. Lopez, J.A. Montiel-Nelson, and D. Pavlidis, “Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform,” in VLSI Circuits and Systems, Eds., SPIE Proc. 5117, 147–156 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. DalacuD. J. Robbins and G. E. Jabbour, “Birefringence compensation in silicon-oninsulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer,” in Optoelectronic Integration on Silicon, Eds., SPIE Proc. 4997, 181–189 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

L. C. Kimerling, “Silicon microphotonics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159, 8–13 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

P. Lalanne and J.-P. Hugonin, “High-order effective-medium theory of subwavelength gratings in classical mounting: application to volume holograms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 15, 1843–1851 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. M. Spühler, B. J. Offrein, G-L. Bona, R. Germann, I. Massarek, and D. Erni, “A very short planar silica spot-size converter using a nonperiodic segmented waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1680–1686 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 940–941 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proceedings of the IEEE 81, 1687–1706 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, “2-D mode tapering via tapered channel waveguide segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1514–1516 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, R. U.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302–1304 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbore, M. A.

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical waveguiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, “Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 60 µm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41, 801–802 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bezinger, A.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, “Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator,” in Silicon-based Optoelectronics II, SPIE Proc.3953, 11–18 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bogdanov, A.

A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, D.-X. Xu, and K.P. Yap, “Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 14, 148–161 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D-X. Xu, “A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges,” in Optoelectronics Devices and Integration, SPIE Proc. 5644, 103–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Delâge, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, D. Dalacu, B. Lamontagne, and A. BogdanovJ. C. Armitage, S. Fafard, R. A. Lessard, and G. A. Lamprpoulos, “Graded-index coupler for microphotonic SOI waveguides,” in Optical Components and Devices, eds., Proc. SPIE 5577, 204–212 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. in press.

Bona, G-L.

Boyraz, O.

Calvo, M. L.

Camarda, G. S.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

O. Martínez, M. L. Calvo, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J.A. Rodrigo, D.-X. Xu, and A. Delâge, “Arrayed waveguide grating based on group index modification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1551–1557 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, I. Powell, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, “Wavelength-dispersive device based on a Fourier-transform Michelson-type arrayed waveguide grating,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1824–1826 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D-X. Xu, “A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges,” in Optoelectronics Devices and Integration, SPIE Proc. 5644, 103–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W.N. Ye, “Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2384–2386 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. DelâgeJ.F. Lopez, J.A. Montiel-Nelson, and D. Pavlidis, “Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform,” in VLSI Circuits and Systems, Eds., SPIE Proc. 5117, 147–156 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. DalacuD. J. Robbins and G. E. Jabbour, “Birefringence compensation in silicon-oninsulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer,” in Optoelectronic Integration on Silicon, Eds., SPIE Proc. 4997, 181–189 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, “Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices,” in Silicon-based and hybrid optoelectronics III, SPIE Proc.4293, 15–22 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. ChebenM. L. Calvo and V. Lakshminarayanan, “Wavelength dispersive planar waveguide devices: echelle gratings and arrayed waveguide gratings,” in Optical Waveguides: from Theory to Applied Technologies, eds. (Taylor and Francis, London, 2006), Chap. 5.

S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, D.-X. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. N. YeS. Janz, J. Čtyroký, and S. Tanev, “Microphotonics: Current challenges and applications,” in Frontiers in planar lightwave circuit technology, design, simulation, and fabrication, eds., Nato Science Series II Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, 216, (Springer, Berlin, 2006), pp 1–38.

B. Lamontagne, P. Cheben, E. Post, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, and A. Delâge, “Fabrication of out-of-plane micro-mirrors in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguides,” to be published in J. Vac. Sci. Technology, A24, May/June 2006.

Chou, N. H.

Chow-Chong, P.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. in press.

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433, 292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coppinger, F.

P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 940–941 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dalacu, D.

A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, D.-X. Xu, and K.P. Yap, “Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 14, 148–161 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. in press.

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[Crossref]

Picard, M.-J.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W.N. Ye, “Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2384–2386 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, D.-X. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. N. YeS. Janz, J. Čtyroký, and S. Tanev, “Microphotonics: Current challenges and applications,” in Frontiers in planar lightwave circuit technology, design, simulation, and fabrication, eds., Nato Science Series II Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, 216, (Springer, Berlin, 2006), pp 1–38.

Pizzuto, F.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Post, E.

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D-X. Xu, “A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges,” in Optoelectronics Devices and Integration, SPIE Proc. 5644, 103–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Lamontagne, P. Cheben, E. Post, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, and A. Delâge, “Fabrication of out-of-plane micro-mirrors in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguides,” to be published in J. Vac. Sci. Technology, A24, May/June 2006.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. in press.

Powell, I.

Rao, H.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Reed, G.

G. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics-an Introduction (Wiley, Chichester, 2004).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

G. A. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1395–1397 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rodrigo, J.A.

Rong, H.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433, 292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roth, D.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. in press.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasaki, K.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, “Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 60 µm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41, 801–802 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical waveguiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shoji, T.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C, 351–358 (2004).

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proceedings of the IEEE 81, 1687–1706 (1993).
[Crossref]

Spühler, M. M.

Syrett, B.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. in press.

Takahashi, J. I.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C, 351–358 (2004).

Takahashi, M.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C, 351–358 (2004).

Tamechika, E.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C, 351–358 (2004).

Tong, L.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical waveguiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trinh, P. D.

P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 940–941 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tsuchizawa, T.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C, 351–358 (2004).

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Uchiyama, S.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C, 351–358 (2004).

Villeneuve, P. R.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438, 65–69 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wada, K.

Watanabe, T.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C, 351–358 (2004).

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Weissman, Z.

Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, “2-D mode tapering via tapered channel waveguide segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1514–1516 (1992).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.-X.

A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, D.-X. Xu, and K.P. Yap, “Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 14, 148–161 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Martínez, M. L. Calvo, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J.A. Rodrigo, D.-X. Xu, and A. Delâge, “Arrayed waveguide grating based on group index modification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1551–1557 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, I. Powell, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, “Wavelength-dispersive device based on a Fourier-transform Michelson-type arrayed waveguide grating,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1824–1826 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W.N. Ye, “Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2384–2386 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Delâge, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, D. Dalacu, B. Lamontagne, and A. BogdanovJ. C. Armitage, S. Fafard, R. A. Lessard, and G. A. Lamprpoulos, “Graded-index coupler for microphotonic SOI waveguides,” in Optical Components and Devices, eds., Proc. SPIE 5577, 204–212 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. DelâgeJ.F. Lopez, J.A. Montiel-Nelson, and D. Pavlidis, “Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform,” in VLSI Circuits and Systems, Eds., SPIE Proc. 5117, 147–156 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. DalacuD. J. Robbins and G. E. Jabbour, “Birefringence compensation in silicon-oninsulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer,” in Optoelectronic Integration on Silicon, Eds., SPIE Proc. 4997, 181–189 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, “Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator,” in Silicon-based Optoelectronics II, SPIE Proc.3953, 11–18 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, “Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices,” in Silicon-based and hybrid optoelectronics III, SPIE Proc.4293, 15–22 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, D.-X. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. N. YeS. Janz, J. Čtyroký, and S. Tanev, “Microphotonics: Current challenges and applications,” in Frontiers in planar lightwave circuit technology, design, simulation, and fabrication, eds., Nato Science Series II Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, 216, (Springer, Berlin, 2006), pp 1–38.

B. Lamontagne, P. Cheben, E. Post, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, and A. Delâge, “Fabrication of out-of-plane micro-mirrors in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguides,” to be published in J. Vac. Sci. Technology, A24, May/June 2006.

Xu, D-X.

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D-X. Xu, “A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges,” in Optoelectronics Devices and Integration, SPIE Proc. 5644, 103–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C, 351–358 (2004).

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yap, K. P.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, D. Pang, C. Hoepfner, W-Y. Oh, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, K. P. Yap, and M. T. Doan, “Mode transformer for miniaturized optical circuits,” Opt. Lett. 30, 498–5002005.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. in press.

S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, D.-X. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. N. YeS. Janz, J. Čtyroký, and S. Tanev, “Microphotonics: Current challenges and applications,” in Frontiers in planar lightwave circuit technology, design, simulation, and fabrication, eds., Nato Science Series II Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, 216, (Springer, Berlin, 2006), pp 1–38.

Yap, K.P.

Ye, W. N.

S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, D.-X. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. N. YeS. Janz, J. Čtyroký, and S. Tanev, “Microphotonics: Current challenges and applications,” in Frontiers in planar lightwave circuit technology, design, simulation, and fabrication, eds., Nato Science Series II Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, 216, (Springer, Berlin, 2006), pp 1–38.

Ye, W.N.

Yegnanarayanan, S.

P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 940–941 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

L. C. Kimerling, “Silicon microphotonics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159, 8–13 (2000).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (3)

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, “Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 60 µm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41, 801–802 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 µm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, “2-D mode tapering via tapered channel waveguide segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1514–1516 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

B. M. Holmes and D. C. Hutchings, “Realization of novel low-loss monolithically integrated passive waveguide mode converters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 43–45 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. A. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1395–1397 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, “Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 940–941 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C, 351–358 (2004).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. (1)

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Nature (6)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical waveguiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438, 65–69 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433, 292–294 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Delâge, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, D. Dalacu, B. Lamontagne, and A. BogdanovJ. C. Armitage, S. Fafard, R. A. Lessard, and G. A. Lamprpoulos, “Graded-index coupler for microphotonic SOI waveguides,” in Optical Components and Devices, eds., Proc. SPIE 5577, 204–212 (2004).
[Crossref]

Proceedings of the IEEE (1)

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proceedings of the IEEE 81, 1687–1706 (1993).
[Crossref]

SPIE Proc. (3)

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. DelâgeJ.F. Lopez, J.A. Montiel-Nelson, and D. Pavlidis, “Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform,” in VLSI Circuits and Systems, Eds., SPIE Proc. 5117, 147–156 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. DalacuD. J. Robbins and G. E. Jabbour, “Birefringence compensation in silicon-oninsulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer,” in Optoelectronic Integration on Silicon, Eds., SPIE Proc. 4997, 181–189 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D-X. Xu, “A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges,” in Optoelectronics Devices and Integration, SPIE Proc. 5644, 103–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (11)

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, “Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator,” in Silicon-based Optoelectronics II, SPIE Proc.3953, 11–18 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, “Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices,” in Silicon-based and hybrid optoelectronics III, SPIE Proc.4293, 15–22 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Lamontagne, P. Cheben, E. Post, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, and A. Delâge, “Fabrication of out-of-plane micro-mirrors in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguides,” to be published in J. Vac. Sci. Technology, A24, May/June 2006.

T. Tamir, ed., Integrated Optics (Springer Verlag, New York, 1975).

G. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics-an Introduction (Wiley, Chichester, 2004).
[Crossref]

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, eds., Silicon Photonics (Springer, Berlin, 2004).

A. P. Knights and P. E. JessopM. L. Calvo and V. Lakshminarayanan, “Silicon waveguides for integrated optics,” in Optical Waveguides: from Theory to Applied Technologies, eds. (Taylor and Francis, London, 2006), Chap. 6.

P. ChebenM. L. Calvo and V. Lakshminarayanan, “Wavelength dispersive planar waveguide devices: echelle gratings and arrayed waveguide gratings,” in Optical Waveguides: from Theory to Applied Technologies, eds. (Taylor and Francis, London, 2006), Chap. 5.

S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, D.-X. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. N. YeS. Janz, J. Čtyroký, and S. Tanev, “Microphotonics: Current challenges and applications,” in Frontiers in planar lightwave circuit technology, design, simulation, and fabrication, eds., Nato Science Series II Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, 216, (Springer, Berlin, 2006), pp 1–38.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. in press.

The FDTD simulations were performed by OptiFDTD from Optiwave Systems, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A general schematic of the SWG coupler. (a) The cross-sectional view perpendicular to the chip plane y-z; (b) and (c) the in-plane views of the SWG structures whereas (c) includes waveguide width tapering.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated Poynting vector component Sz for SWG couplers in SOI platform. (a) SWG structure (A) without waveguide width tapering, (b) SWG structure (D) with waveguide width tapering. The parameters of the structures and calculated efficiencies are specified in Table 1. TE polarized input mode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Calculated field components Hy and Ex for a compact SWG coupler in SOI platform. (b) schematics of the calculated structure. TM polarized input.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The parameters and calculated coupling efficiencies of different SWG structures.

Metrics