Abstract

We propose a new method for mode conversion and coupling between an optical fiber and a sub-micrometer waveguide using a subwavelength grating (SWG) with a period less than the 1st order Bragg period. The coupler principle is based on gradual modification of the waveguide mode effective index by the SWG effect that at the same time frustrates diffraction and minimizes reflection loss. We demonstrate the proposed principle by two-dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) calculations of various SWG structures designed for the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform with a Si core thickness of 0.3 µm. We found a coupling loss as small as 0.9 dB for a 50 µm-long SWG device and low excess loss due to fiber misalignment, namely 0.07 dB for a transverse misalignment of ±1 µm, and 0.24 dB for an angular misalignment of ±2 degrees. Scaling of the SWG coupler length down to 10 µm is also reported on an example of a 2D slab waveguide coupling structure including aspect ratio dependent etching and micro-loading effects. Finally, advantages of the proposed coupling principle for fabricating 3D coupling structures are discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  40. The FDTD simulations were performed by OptiFDTD from Optiwave Systems, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
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    [CrossRef]
  42. L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical waveguiding," Nature 426,816-819 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, D. Pang, C. Hoepfner, W-Y. Oh, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, K. P. Yap, and M. T. Doan, "Mode transformer for miniaturized optical circuits," Opt. Lett. 30,498-5002005.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, I. Powell, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Wavelength-dispersive device based on a Fourier-transform Michelson-type arrayed waveguide grating," Opt. Lett. 30,1824-1826 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438,65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433,292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70‰60 μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides, Electron. Lett. 41,801-802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431,1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C,351-358 (2004).

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427,615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W.N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29,2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12,5269-5273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28,1302-1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, "Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15,1395-1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical waveguiding," Nature 426,816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 38,1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14,65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon microphotonics," Appl. Surf. Sci. 159,8-13 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

M. M. Spühler, B. J. Offrein, G-L. Bona, R. Germann, I. Massarek, and D. Erni, "A very short planar silica spot-size converter using a nonperiodic segmented waveguide," J. Lightwave Technol. 16,1680-1686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne and J.-P. Hugonin, "High-order effective-medium theory of subwavelength gratings in classical mounting: application to volume holograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 15,1843-1851 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9,940-941 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1993

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proceedings of the IEEE 81,1687-1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, "2-D mode tapering via tapered channel waveguide segmentation, Electron. Lett. 28,1514-1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, R. U.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14,65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431,1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28,1302-1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arbore, M. A.

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical waveguiding," Nature 426,816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70‰60 μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides, Electron. Lett. 41,801-802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431,1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogdanov, A.

A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, D.-X. Xu, and K.P. Yap, "Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides," Opt. Express 14,148-161 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, "Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol.in press.

Bona, G-L.

Boyraz, O.

Calvo, M. L.

Camarda, G. S.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14,65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Chou, N. H.

Chow-Chong, P.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, "Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol.in press.

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433,292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427,615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coppinger, F.

P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9,940-941 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dalacu, D.

Delâge, A.

Doan, M. T.

Erni, D.

Espinola, R. L.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14,65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. H.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433,292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

Fukuda, H.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C,351-358 (2004).

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical waveguiding," Nature 426,816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Germann, R.

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433,292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438,65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardy, A.

Z. Weissman and A. Hardy, "2-D mode tapering via tapered channel waveguide segmentation, Electron. Lett. 28,1514-1516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical waveguiding," Nature 426,816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoepfner, C.

Holmes, B. M.

B. M. Holmes and D. C. Hutchings, "Realization of novel low-loss monolithically integrated passive waveguide mode converters, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,43-45 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J.-P.

P. Lalanne and J.-P. Hugonin, "High-order effective-medium theory of subwavelength gratings in classical mounting: application to volume holograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 15,1843-1851 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

B. M. Holmes and D. C. Hutchings, "Realization of novel low-loss monolithically integrated passive waveguide mode converters, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,43-45 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S. I.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C,351-358 (2004).

Jacobsen, R. S.

R. S. Jacobsen et al., "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441,199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalali, B.

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12,5269-5273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9,940-941 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Jones, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433,292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427,615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and J.-P. Hugonin, "High-order effective-medium theory of subwavelength gratings in classical mounting: application to volume holograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 15,1843-1851 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lamontagne, B.

Lee, K. K.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427,615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, D. R.

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431,1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28,1302-1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433,292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427,615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, K. Y.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, "Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol.in press.

Lou, J.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical waveguiding," Nature 426,816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malloy, M.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, "Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol.in press.

Manolatou, C.

Marshall, P.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, "Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol.in press.

Martínez, O.

Masanovic, G. A.

G. A. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, "Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15,1395-1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Massarek, I.

Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical waveguiding," Nature 426,816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical waveguiding," Nature 426,816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438,65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morita, H.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C,351-358 (2004).

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 38,1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Motegi, A.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70‰60 μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides, Electron. Lett. 41,801-802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433,292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427,615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438,65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Offrein, B. J.

Oh, W-Y.

Ohno, F.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70‰60 μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides, Electron. Lett. 41,801-802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14,65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431,1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28,1302-1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, D.

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433,292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427,615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Passaro, V. M. N.

G. A. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, "Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15,1395-1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Picard, M.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, "Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol.in press.

Picard, M.-J.

Pizzuto, F.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14,65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, "Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol.in press.

Powell, I.

Rao, H.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14,65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

G. A. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, "Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15,1395-1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, J.A.

Rong, H.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433,292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, D.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, "Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol.in press.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427,615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427,615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, K.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70‰60 μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides, Electron. Lett. 41,801-802 (2005).
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Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical waveguiding," Nature 426,816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoji, T.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C,351-358 (2004).

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 38,1669-1670 (2002).
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R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proceedings of the IEEE 81,1687-1706 (1993).
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K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, "Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol.in press.

Takahashi, J. I.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C,351-358 (2004).

Takahashi, M.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C,351-358 (2004).

Tamechika, E.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C,351-358 (2004).

Tong, L.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical waveguiding," Nature 426,816-819 (2003).
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P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9,940-941 (1997).
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K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C,351-358 (2004).

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 38,1669-1670 (2002).
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Uchiyama, S.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C,351-358 (2004).

Villeneuve, P. R.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438,65-69 (2005).
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Watanabe, T.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C,351-358 (2004).

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 38,1669-1670 (2002).
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K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C,351-358 (2004).

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 38,1669-1670 (2002).
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K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, D. Pang, C. Hoepfner, W-Y. Oh, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, K. P. Yap, and M. T. Doan, "Mode transformer for miniaturized optical circuits," Opt. Lett. 30,498-5002005.
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Yap, K.P.

Ye, W.N.

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P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9,940-941 (1997).
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T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 38,1669-1670 (2002).
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P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9,940-941 (1997).
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K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. I. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. I. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C,351-358 (2004).

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K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, K. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, "Fabrication of lithographically-defined optical coupling facets for SOI waveguides by ICP etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol.in press.

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S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, D.-X. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. N. Ye, "Microphotonics: Current challenges and applications," in Frontiers in planar lightwave circuit technology, design, simulation, and fabrication, S. Janz, J. Čtyroký, and S. Tanev, eds., Nato Science Series II Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, 216, (Springer, Berlin, 2006), pp 1-38.

B. Lamontagne, P. Cheben, E. Post, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Delâge, "Fabrication of out-of-plane micro-mirrors in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguides," to be published in J. Vac. Sci. Technology, A24, May/June 2006.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," in Silicon-based Optoelectronics II, SPIE Proc. 3953, 11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices," in Silicon-based and hybrid optoelectronics III, SPIE Proc. 4293, 15-22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform," in VLSI Circuits and Systems, J.F. Lopez, J.A. Montiel-Nelson, D. Pavlidis, Eds., SPIE Proc. 5117, 147-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer," in Optoelectronic Integration on Silicon, D. J. Robbins and G. E. Jabbour, Eds., SPIE Proc. 4997, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D-X. Xu, "A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges," in Optoelectronics Devices and Integration, SPIE Proc. 5644, 103-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

The FDTD simulations were performed by OptiFDTD from Optiwave Systems, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

A. Delâge, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, D. Dalacu, B. Lamontagne, and A. Bogdanov, "Graded-index coupler for microphotonic SOI waveguides," in Optical Components and Devices, J. C. Armitage, S. Fafard, R. A. Lessard, and G. A. Lamprpoulos, eds., Proc. SPIE 5577, 204-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A general schematic of the SWG coupler. (a) The cross-sectional view perpendicular to the chip plane y-z; (b) and (c) the in-plane views of the SWG structures whereas (c) includes waveguide width tapering.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated Poynting vector component Sz for SWG couplers in SOI platform. (a) SWG structure (A) without waveguide width tapering, (b) SWG structure (D) with waveguide width tapering. The parameters of the structures and calculated efficiencies are specified in Table 1. TE polarized input mode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Calculated field components Hy and Ex for a compact SWG coupler in SOI platform. (b) schematics of the calculated structure. TM polarized input.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The parameters and calculated coupling efficiencies of different SWG structures.

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