Abstract

We demonstrate that WDM burst signals are amplified with suppressed gain transients in cascaded erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) with fast electrical feedback control. In a recirculating loop experiment, the gain excursion is suppressed to 5.1 dBp-p after 45 EDFAs while the excursion is 28 dBp-p after 5 EDFAs without the gain control. Spectral hole burning is a main limiting factor for the transient suppression. The effect of the gain control is also verified in a transmission experiment at 10 Gb/s.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Yoo, M. Jeong, and C. Qiao, "A high speed protocol for bursty traffic in optical networks," SPIE’s All-Optical Communication Systems: Architecture, Control and Network Issues,  3230, 79-90, (1997).
  2. J. Turner, "Terabit burst switching," J. High Speed Networks 8, 3-16, (1999).
  3. A. Bononi, L. A. Rusch, "Doped-fiber amplifier dynamics: a system perspective," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 945-956, (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Tancevski, A. Bononi, and L. A. Rusch, "Output power and SNR swings in cascades of EDFA’s for circuit- and packet-switched optical networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 733-742, (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Karasek, A. Bononi, L. A. Rusch, and M. Menif, "Gain stabilization in gain clamped EDFA cascades fed by WDM burst-mode packet traffic," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 308-313, (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Karasek, M. Menif, and L. A. Rusch, "Output power excursions in a cascade of EDFAs fed by multichannel burst-mode packet traffic: experimentation and modeling," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 933-940, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Shiozaki, M. Fuse, and S. Morikura, "A study of gain dynamics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for burst optical signals," in ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002, Paper P4.02.
  8. A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, R. S. Tucker, and Y. J. Wen, "EDFA transient control based on envelope detection for optical burst switched networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 226-228, (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Tian, and S. Kinoshita, "Analysis and control of transient dynamics of EDFA pumped by 1480- and 980-nm lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1728-1733, (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Tian, and S. Kinoshita, "Elimination of power and OSNR swings of EDFA in the amplification of burst WDM traffic," in Technical Digest of 9th OptoElectronics and Communication Conference / 3rd International Conference on Optical Internet (2004), pp. 500-501.
  11. K. Okamura, E. Otani, T. Yoshikawa, T. Uchino, M. Fukushima, and N. Kagi, "Optical burst amplification using EDFA with fast feedback control," in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2005), Paper OTuN2.
  12. E. Otani, T. Okaniwa, K. Okamura, T. Yoshikawa, T. Uchino, M. Fukushima, and N. Kagi, "Optical burst amplification using EDFA with a fast feedback control for WDM Network," in Proceedings of The 18th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society, (2005), Paper TuO3.
  13. J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1578-1579, (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Rudkevich, D. M. Baney, J. Stimple, D. Derickson, and G. Wang, "Nonresonant spectral hole-burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 542-544, (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, R. S. Tucker, and Y. J. Wen, "EDFA transient control based on envelope detection for optical burst switched networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 226-228, (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

J. Turner, "Terabit burst switching," J. High Speed Networks 8, 3-16, (1999).

L. Tancevski, A. Bononi, and L. A. Rusch, "Output power and SNR swings in cascades of EDFA’s for circuit- and packet-switched optical networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 733-742, (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Rudkevich, D. M. Baney, J. Stimple, D. Derickson, and G. Wang, "Nonresonant spectral hole-burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 542-544, (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

M. Yoo, M. Jeong, and C. Qiao, "A high speed protocol for bursty traffic in optical networks," SPIE’s All-Optical Communication Systems: Architecture, Control and Network Issues,  3230, 79-90, (1997).

J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1578-1579, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baney, D. M.

E. Rudkevich, D. M. Baney, J. Stimple, D. Derickson, and G. Wang, "Nonresonant spectral hole-burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 542-544, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bononi, A.

Chae, C. J.

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, R. S. Tucker, and Y. J. Wen, "EDFA transient control based on envelope detection for optical burst switched networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 226-228, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Derickson, D.

E. Rudkevich, D. M. Baney, J. Stimple, D. Derickson, and G. Wang, "Nonresonant spectral hole-burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 542-544, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, M.

M. Yoo, M. Jeong, and C. Qiao, "A high speed protocol for bursty traffic in optical networks," SPIE’s All-Optical Communication Systems: Architecture, Control and Network Issues,  3230, 79-90, (1997).

Karasek, M.

Kinoshita, S.

Menif, M.

Qiao, C.

M. Yoo, M. Jeong, and C. Qiao, "A high speed protocol for bursty traffic in optical networks," SPIE’s All-Optical Communication Systems: Architecture, Control and Network Issues,  3230, 79-90, (1997).

Rudkevich, E.

E. Rudkevich, D. M. Baney, J. Stimple, D. Derickson, and G. Wang, "Nonresonant spectral hole-burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 542-544, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rusch, L. A.

Srivastava, A. K.

J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1578-1579, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stimple, J.

E. Rudkevich, D. M. Baney, J. Stimple, D. Derickson, and G. Wang, "Nonresonant spectral hole-burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 542-544, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sulhoff, J. W.

J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1578-1579, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1578-1579, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tancevski, L.

Tian, C.

Tran, A. V.

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, R. S. Tucker, and Y. J. Wen, "EDFA transient control based on envelope detection for optical burst switched networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 226-228, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, R. S. Tucker, and Y. J. Wen, "EDFA transient control based on envelope detection for optical burst switched networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 226-228, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turner, J.

J. Turner, "Terabit burst switching," J. High Speed Networks 8, 3-16, (1999).

Wang, G.

E. Rudkevich, D. M. Baney, J. Stimple, D. Derickson, and G. Wang, "Nonresonant spectral hole-burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 542-544, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wen, Y. J.

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, R. S. Tucker, and Y. J. Wen, "EDFA transient control based on envelope detection for optical burst switched networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 226-228, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, C.

J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1578-1579, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, M.

M. Yoo, M. Jeong, and C. Qiao, "A high speed protocol for bursty traffic in optical networks," SPIE’s All-Optical Communication Systems: Architecture, Control and Network Issues,  3230, 79-90, (1997).

Zyskind, J. L.

J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1578-1579, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Architecture, Control and Network Issues (1)

M. Yoo, M. Jeong, and C. Qiao, "A high speed protocol for bursty traffic in optical networks," SPIE’s All-Optical Communication Systems: Architecture, Control and Network Issues,  3230, 79-90, (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

A. V. Tran, C. J. Chae, R. S. Tucker, and Y. J. Wen, "EDFA transient control based on envelope detection for optical burst switched networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 226-228, (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1578-1579, (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Rudkevich, D. M. Baney, J. Stimple, D. Derickson, and G. Wang, "Nonresonant spectral hole-burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 542-544, (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. High Speed Networks (1)

J. Turner, "Terabit burst switching," J. High Speed Networks 8, 3-16, (1999).

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Other (4)

C. Tian, and S. Kinoshita, "Elimination of power and OSNR swings of EDFA in the amplification of burst WDM traffic," in Technical Digest of 9th OptoElectronics and Communication Conference / 3rd International Conference on Optical Internet (2004), pp. 500-501.

K. Okamura, E. Otani, T. Yoshikawa, T. Uchino, M. Fukushima, and N. Kagi, "Optical burst amplification using EDFA with fast feedback control," in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2005), Paper OTuN2.

E. Otani, T. Okaniwa, K. Okamura, T. Yoshikawa, T. Uchino, M. Fukushima, and N. Kagi, "Optical burst amplification using EDFA with a fast feedback control for WDM Network," in Proceedings of The 18th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society, (2005), Paper TuO3.

T. Shiozaki, M. Fuse, and S. Morikura, "A study of gain dynamics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for burst optical signals," in ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002, Paper P4.02.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical amplifier configuration.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Waveforms of input optical bursts.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Waveforms measured after the 1st circulation (5 EDFAs) (a) with ACC operation, (b) with AGC operation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Waveforms measured after (a) the 7th circulation (35 EDFAs), (b) 9th circulation (45 EDFAs) with AGC mode.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

ASE spectra after 5 EDFAs with different active channels.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Waveforms measured after 45 EDFAs. Ch.1, 2, and 3 are turned on at t=1000 µs after a long interval of 500 µs.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Gain excursion at Ch. 4 as a function of the number of EDFAs.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Bit error rate as a function of the number of EDFAs.

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