Abstract

Current adaptive optics flood-illumination retina cameras operate at low frame rates, acquiring retinal images below seven Hz, which restricts their research and clinical utility. Here we investigate a novel bench top flood-illumination camera that achieves significantly higher frame rates using strobing fiber-coupled superluminescent and laser diodes in conjunction with a scientific-grade CCD. Source strength was sufficient to obviate frame averaging, even for exposures as short as 1/3 msec. Continuous frame rates of 10, 30, and 60 Hz were achieved for imaging 1.8,0.8, and 0.4 deg retinal patches, respectively. Short-burst imaging up to 500 Hz was also achieved by temporarily storing sequences of images on the CCD. High frame rates, short exposure durations (1 msec), and correction of the most significant aberrations of the eye were found necessary for individuating retinal blood cells and directly measuring cellular flow in capillaries. Cone videos of dark adapted eyes showed a surprisingly rapid fluctuation (~1 Hz) in the reflectance of single cones. As further demonstration of the value of the camera, we evaluated the tradeoff between exposure duration and image blur associated with retina motion.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. Jonnal, and D. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Zawadzki, S. Jones, S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. Bower, J. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler W, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvaisve assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of methods to predict the results of subjective refraction from monochromatic wavefront aberration maps," J. Vis. 4, 329-351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. Le Gargasson, and P. Léna, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, "The Reflectance of Single Cones in the Living Human Eye", Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580 - 4592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).

A. V. Larichev, P. V. Ivanov, N. G. Iroshnikov, V. I. Shmalhauzen, L. J. Otten, "Adaptive system for eye-fundus imaging," Quantum Electron. 32, 902-908, 2002.
[CrossRef]

D. U. Bartsch, L. Zhu, P. C. Sun, S. Fainman, and W. R. Freeman, "Retinal imaging with a low-cost micromachined membrane deformable mirror," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 451-456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

1998

A. R. Wade, F. W. Fitzke, "In-vivo imaging of the human cone photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal LSO", Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 8, 129-136 (1998).

1997

1995

H. Nishiwaki, Y. Ogura, H. Kimura, J. Kiryu, and Y. Honda, "Quantitative evaluation of leukocyte dynamics in retinal microcirculation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 123-130 (1995).

1994

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, D. F. Edgar, "Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography," Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.,  232, 361-367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

B. Dingel and S. Kawata, "Laser-diode microscope with fiber illumination," Opt. Commun. 93, 27-32 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

D. R. Williams, "Topography of the foveal cone mosaic in the living human eye," Vision Res. 28, 433-454, 1988.
[CrossRef]

1986

M. Iwasaki and H. Inomata, "Relation between superficial capillaries and foveal structures in the human retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 27, 1698-1705 (1986).

1980

1976

1954

Ahnelt, P.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler W, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of methods to predict the results of subjective refraction from monochromatic wavefront aberration maps," J. Vis. 4, 329-351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Armington, J. C.

Artal, P.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler W, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Iglesias and P. Artal, "High-resolution retinal images obtained by deconvolution from wave-front sensing," Opt. Lett. 25, 1804-1806 (2000).

Bartsch, D. U.

D. U. Bartsch, L. Zhu, P. C. Sun, S. Fainman, and W. R. Freeman, "Retinal imaging with a low-cost micromachined membrane deformable mirror," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 451-456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, A. G.

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, D. F. Edgar, "Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography," Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.,  232, 361-367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bille, J. F.

Bouma, B. E.

Bower, B.

Bradley, A.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of methods to predict the results of subjective refraction from monochromatic wavefront aberration maps," J. Vis. 4, 329-351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M. C. W.

Cense, B.

Chen, L.

Chen, T. C.

Choi, S.

Crosignani, B.

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

Di Porto, P.

Diano, B.

Dingel, B.

B. Dingel and S. Kawata, "Laser-diode microscope with fiber illumination," Opt. Commun. 93, 27-32 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, W. J.

Dreher, A. W.

Drexler, W.

Edgar, D. F.

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, D. F. Edgar, "Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography," Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.,  232, 361-367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, S.

D. U. Bartsch, L. Zhu, P. C. Sun, S. Fainman, and W. R. Freeman, "Retinal imaging with a low-cost micromachined membrane deformable mirror," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 451-456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

Fernández, E. J.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler W, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fitzke, F. W.

A. R. Wade, F. W. Fitzke, "In-vivo imaging of the human cone photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal LSO", Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 8, 129-136 (1998).

Freeman, W. R.

D. U. Bartsch, L. Zhu, P. C. Sun, S. Fainman, and W. R. Freeman, "Retinal imaging with a low-cost micromachined membrane deformable mirror," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 451-456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gendron, E.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. Le Gargasson, and P. Léna, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glanc, M.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. Le Gargasson, and P. Léna, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

Hebert, T. J.

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, B.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler W, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, H.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, "The Reflectance of Single Cones in the Living Human Eye", Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580 - 4592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, "Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye’s aberrations," Opt. Express 8, 631-643 (2001).

Honda, Y.

H. Nishiwaki, Y. Ogura, H. Kimura, J. Kiryu, and Y. Honda, "Quantitative evaluation of leukocyte dynamics in retinal microcirculation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 123-130 (1995).

Hong, X.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of methods to predict the results of subjective refraction from monochromatic wavefront aberration maps," J. Vis. 4, 329-351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iglesias, I.

Inomata, H.

M. Iwasaki and H. Inomata, "Relation between superficial capillaries and foveal structures in the human retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 27, 1698-1705 (1986).

Iroshnikov, N. G.

A. V. Larichev, P. V. Ivanov, N. G. Iroshnikov, V. I. Shmalhauzen, L. J. Otten, "Adaptive system for eye-fundus imaging," Quantum Electron. 32, 902-908, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, P. V.

A. V. Larichev, P. V. Ivanov, N. G. Iroshnikov, V. I. Shmalhauzen, L. J. Otten, "Adaptive system for eye-fundus imaging," Quantum Electron. 32, 902-908, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, M.

M. Iwasaki and H. Inomata, "Relation between superficial capillaries and foveal structures in the human retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 27, 1698-1705 (1986).

Izatt, J.

Jones, S.

Jonnal, R.

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

B. Dingel and S. Kawata, "Laser-diode microscope with fiber illumination," Opt. Commun. 93, 27-32 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, H.

H. Nishiwaki, Y. Ogura, H. Kimura, J. Kiryu, and Y. Honda, "Quantitative evaluation of leukocyte dynamics in retinal microcirculation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 123-130 (1995).

Kiryu, J.

H. Nishiwaki, Y. Ogura, H. Kimura, J. Kiryu, and Y. Honda, "Quantitative evaluation of leukocyte dynamics in retinal microcirculation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 123-130 (1995).

Lacombe, F.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. Le Gargasson, and P. Léna, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lafaille, D.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. Le Gargasson, and P. Léna, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Larichev, A. V.

A. V. Larichev, P. V. Ivanov, N. G. Iroshnikov, V. I. Shmalhauzen, L. J. Otten, "Adaptive system for eye-fundus imaging," Quantum Electron. 32, 902-908, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Laut, S.

Le Gargasson, J.-F.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. Le Gargasson, and P. Léna, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler W, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Léna, P.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. Le Gargasson, and P. Léna, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

Martin, J. A.

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvaisve assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

Miller, D. T.

Nassif, N. A.

Nishiwaki, H.

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H. Nishiwaki, Y. Ogura, H. Kimura, J. Kiryu, and Y. Honda, "Quantitative evaluation of leukocyte dynamics in retinal microcirculation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 123-130 (1995).

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Otten, L. J.

A. V. Larichev, P. V. Ivanov, N. G. Iroshnikov, V. I. Shmalhauzen, L. J. Otten, "Adaptive system for eye-fundus imaging," Quantum Electron. 32, 902-908, 2002.
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E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler W, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
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Prieto, P. M.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler W, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
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B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
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E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler W, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shmalhauzen, V. I.

A. V. Larichev, P. V. Ivanov, N. G. Iroshnikov, V. I. Shmalhauzen, L. J. Otten, "Adaptive system for eye-fundus imaging," Quantum Electron. 32, 902-908, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Singer, B.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
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D. U. Bartsch, L. Zhu, P. C. Sun, S. Fainman, and W. R. Freeman, "Retinal imaging with a low-cost micromachined membrane deformable mirror," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 451-456 (2002).
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Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of methods to predict the results of subjective refraction from monochromatic wavefront aberration maps," J. Vis. 4, 329-351 (2004).
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Unterhuber, A.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, W. Drexler W, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
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B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Weinreb, R. N.

Werner, J.

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H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, "Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye’s aberrations," Opt. Express 8, 631-643 (2001).

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884-2892 (1997).

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[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, Y.

Yoon, G. Y.

Yun, S.

Zawadzki, R.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, M.

Zhu, L.

D. U. Bartsch, L. Zhu, P. C. Sun, S. Fainman, and W. R. Freeman, "Retinal imaging with a low-cost micromachined membrane deformable mirror," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 451-456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.

A. G. Bennett, A. R. Rudnicka, D. F. Edgar, "Improvements on Littmann’s method of determining the size of retinal features by fundus photography," Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.,  232, 361-367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

H. Nishiwaki, Y. Ogura, H. Kimura, J. Kiryu, and Y. Honda, "Quantitative evaluation of leukocyte dynamics in retinal microcirculation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36, 123-130 (1995).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, "The Reflectance of Single Cones in the Living Human Eye", Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580 - 4592 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Neurol.

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[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Vis.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of methods to predict the results of subjective refraction from monochromatic wavefront aberration maps," J. Vis. 4, 329-351 (2004).
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Opt. Express

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D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal and K. Thorn, "Coherence gating and adaptive optics in the eye," in Coherence Domain Optical Methods and Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine VII, V. V. Tuchin, J. A. Izatt, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4956, 65-72 (2003).

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