Abstract

We investigate steady state entanglement in an open quantum system, specifically a single atom in a driven optical cavity with cavity loss and spontaneous emission. The system reaches a steady pure state when driven very weakly. Under these conditions, there is an optimal value for atom-field coupling to maximize entanglement, as larger coupling favors a loss port due to the cavity enhanced spontaneous emission. We address ways to implement measurements of entanglement witnesses and find that normalized cross-correlation functions are indicators of the entanglement in the system. The magnitude of the equal time intensity-field cross correlation between the transmitted field of the cavity and the fluorescence intensity is proportional to the concurrence for weak driving fields.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  7. R. J. Brecha, P. R. Rice, and M. Xiao, "N two-level atoms in a driven optical cavity: quantum dynamics of forward photon scattering for weak incident fields," Phys. Rev. A 59, 2392-2417 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Chen, S. Albeverio, and S. Fei, "Concurrence of Arbitrary Dimesional Bipartite Quantum States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 040504 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Uhlmann, "Fidelity and concurrence of conjugated states," Phys. Rev. A 62, 032307 (2000).
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  10. P. Rungta, V. Buzek, C. Caves, M. Hillery, and G. J. Milburn, "Universal state inversion and concurrrence in arbitrary dimensions," Phys. Rev. A 64,042315 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Albeverio and S. Fei, "A note on Invariants and Entanglements," J. Opt. B. Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 3, 233-327 (2001).
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  12. J. Gripp and L. A. Orozco, "Evolution of the vacuum Rabi peaks in a many-atom system," Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 8, 823-836 (1996).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. J. Carmichael, H. M. Castro-Beltran, G. T. Foster, and L. A. Orozco, "Giant violations of classical inequalities through conditional Homodyne detection of the Quadrature Amplitudes of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1855-1858 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. T. Foster, L. A. Orozco, H. M. Castro-Beltran, and H. J. Carmichael, "Quantum state reduction and conditional time evolution of wave-particle correlations in cavity QED," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3149-3152 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Booze, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, and L.-M. Duan and H. J. Kimble, "Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles," Nature 423, 731-734 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. D. V. Regelman, U. Mizrahi, D. Gershoni, E. Ehrenfund, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, "Semiconductor quantum dot: A quantum light source of multicolor photons with tunable statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 257401 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  25. M. G. Moore and P. Meystre, "Optical control and entanglement of atomic Schrödinger fields," Phys. Rev. A 59, R1754-R1757 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Leach, C. E. Strimbu, and P. Rice, "Nonclassical cross-correlations of transmitted and fluorescent fields in cavity QED systems," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt 6, S722-S729 (2004).
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  27. M. Stobińska and K. Wókdiewicz, "Witnessing entanglement with second-order interference," Phys. Rev. A 71, 032304 (2003).
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  29. J. Gea-Banacloche, P. R. Rice, and L. A. Orozco, "Entangled and disentangled evolution for a single atom in a driven cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053603 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

M. B. Plenio, "Logarithmic negativity: A full entanglement Monotone that is not Convex," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Chen, S. Albeverio, and S. Fei, "Concurrence of Arbitrary Dimesional Bipartite Quantum States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 040504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Gea-Banacloche, P. R. Rice, and L. A. Orozco, "Entangled and disentangled evolution for a single atom in a driven cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. Leach, C. E. Strimbu, and P. Rice, "Nonclassical cross-correlations of transmitted and fluorescent fields in cavity QED systems," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt 6, S722-S729 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Nha and H. J. Carmichael, "Entanglement within the Quantum Trajectory description of open quantum systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 120408 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

M. Stobińska and K. Wókdiewicz, "Witnessing entanglement with second-order interference," Phys. Rev. A 71, 032304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Booze, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, and L.-M. Duan and H. J. Kimble, "Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles," Nature 423, 731-734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. J. Berglund, A. C. Doherty, and H. Mabuchi, "Photon statistics and dynamics of fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 068101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

D. V. Regelman, U. Mizrahi, D. Gershoni, E. Ehrenfund, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, "Semiconductor quantum dot: A quantum light source of multicolor photons with tunable statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 257401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rungta, V. Buzek, C. Caves, M. Hillery, and G. J. Milburn, "Universal state inversion and concurrrence in arbitrary dimensions," Phys. Rev. A 64,042315 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Albeverio and S. Fei, "A note on Invariants and Entanglements," J. Opt. B. Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 3, 233-327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

A. Uhlmann, "Fidelity and concurrence of conjugated states," Phys. Rev. A 62, 032307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Carmichael, H. M. Castro-Beltran, G. T. Foster, and L. A. Orozco, "Giant violations of classical inequalities through conditional Homodyne detection of the Quadrature Amplitudes of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1855-1858 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Foster, L. A. Orozco, H. M. Castro-Beltran, and H. J. Carmichael, "Quantum state reduction and conditional time evolution of wave-particle correlations in cavity QED," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3149-3152 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

R. J. Brecha, P. R. Rice, and M. Xiao, "N two-level atoms in a driven optical cavity: quantum dynamics of forward photon scattering for weak incident fields," Phys. Rev. A 59, 2392-2417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moore and P. Meystre, "Optical control and entanglement of atomic Schrödinger fields," Phys. Rev. A 59, R1754-R1757 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

W. K. Wootters, "Entanglement of formation of an arbitrary state of two Qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2245-2248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

C. H. Bennett, D. P. DiVincenzo, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, "Mixed-state entanglement and quantum error correction," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824-3851 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gripp and L. A. Orozco, "Evolution of the vacuum Rabi peaks in a many-atom system," Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 8, 823-836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. J. Carmichael, R. J. Brecha, and P. R. Rice, "Quantum interference and collapse of the wavefunction in cavity QED," Opt. Commun. 82, 73-79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

H. J. Carmichael, R. J. Brecha, M. G. Raizen, H. J. Kimble, and P. R. Rice, "Subnatural linewidth averaging for coupled atomic and cavity-mode oscillators," Phys. Rev. A 40, 5516-5519 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

P. Grangier, G. Roger, A. Aspect, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, "Observation of photon antibunching in phase-matched multiatom resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 687-690 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963 (3)

R. J. Glauber, "Photon correlations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 84-86 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Glauber, "The quantum theory of optical coherence," Phys. Rev. 130, 2529-2539 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Glauber, "Coherent and incoherent states of the radiation field," Phys. Rev. 131, 2766-2788 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Albeverio, S.

K. Chen, S. Albeverio, and S. Fei, "Concurrence of Arbitrary Dimesional Bipartite Quantum States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 040504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Albeverio and S. Fei, "A note on Invariants and Entanglements," J. Opt. B. Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 3, 233-327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

P. Grangier, G. Roger, A. Aspect, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, "Observation of photon antibunching in phase-matched multiatom resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 687-690 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, D. P. DiVincenzo, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, "Mixed-state entanglement and quantum error correction," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824-3851 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berglund, A. J.

A. J. Berglund, A. C. Doherty, and H. Mabuchi, "Photon statistics and dynamics of fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 068101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boca, A.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Booze, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, and L.-M. Duan and H. J. Kimble, "Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles," Nature 423, 731-734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booze, A. D.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Booze, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, and L.-M. Duan and H. J. Kimble, "Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles," Nature 423, 731-734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowen, W. P.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Booze, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, and L.-M. Duan and H. J. Kimble, "Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles," Nature 423, 731-734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brecha, R. J.

R. J. Brecha, P. R. Rice, and M. Xiao, "N two-level atoms in a driven optical cavity: quantum dynamics of forward photon scattering for weak incident fields," Phys. Rev. A 59, 2392-2417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Carmichael, R. J. Brecha, and P. R. Rice, "Quantum interference and collapse of the wavefunction in cavity QED," Opt. Commun. 82, 73-79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Carmichael, R. J. Brecha, M. G. Raizen, H. J. Kimble, and P. R. Rice, "Subnatural linewidth averaging for coupled atomic and cavity-mode oscillators," Phys. Rev. A 40, 5516-5519 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buzek, V.

P. Rungta, V. Buzek, C. Caves, M. Hillery, and G. J. Milburn, "Universal state inversion and concurrrence in arbitrary dimensions," Phys. Rev. A 64,042315 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carmichael, H. J.

H. Nha and H. J. Carmichael, "Entanglement within the Quantum Trajectory description of open quantum systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 120408 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Foster, L. A. Orozco, H. M. Castro-Beltran, and H. J. Carmichael, "Quantum state reduction and conditional time evolution of wave-particle correlations in cavity QED," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3149-3152 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Carmichael, H. M. Castro-Beltran, G. T. Foster, and L. A. Orozco, "Giant violations of classical inequalities through conditional Homodyne detection of the Quadrature Amplitudes of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1855-1858 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Carmichael, R. J. Brecha, and P. R. Rice, "Quantum interference and collapse of the wavefunction in cavity QED," Opt. Commun. 82, 73-79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Carmichael, R. J. Brecha, M. G. Raizen, H. J. Kimble, and P. R. Rice, "Subnatural linewidth averaging for coupled atomic and cavity-mode oscillators," Phys. Rev. A 40, 5516-5519 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castro-Beltran, H. M.

G. T. Foster, L. A. Orozco, H. M. Castro-Beltran, and H. J. Carmichael, "Quantum state reduction and conditional time evolution of wave-particle correlations in cavity QED," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3149-3152 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Carmichael, H. M. Castro-Beltran, G. T. Foster, and L. A. Orozco, "Giant violations of classical inequalities through conditional Homodyne detection of the Quadrature Amplitudes of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1855-1858 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caves, C.

P. Rungta, V. Buzek, C. Caves, M. Hillery, and G. J. Milburn, "Universal state inversion and concurrrence in arbitrary dimensions," Phys. Rev. A 64,042315 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

K. Chen, S. Albeverio, and S. Fei, "Concurrence of Arbitrary Dimesional Bipartite Quantum States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 040504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. W.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Booze, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, and L.-M. Duan and H. J. Kimble, "Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles," Nature 423, 731-734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiVincenzo, D. P.

C. H. Bennett, D. P. DiVincenzo, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, "Mixed-state entanglement and quantum error correction," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824-3851 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doherty, A. C.

A. J. Berglund, A. C. Doherty, and H. Mabuchi, "Photon statistics and dynamics of fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 068101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, L.-M.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Booze, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, and L.-M. Duan and H. J. Kimble, "Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles," Nature 423, 731-734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehrenfund, E.

D. V. Regelman, U. Mizrahi, D. Gershoni, E. Ehrenfund, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, "Semiconductor quantum dot: A quantum light source of multicolor photons with tunable statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 257401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fei, S.

K. Chen, S. Albeverio, and S. Fei, "Concurrence of Arbitrary Dimesional Bipartite Quantum States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 040504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Albeverio and S. Fei, "A note on Invariants and Entanglements," J. Opt. B. Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 3, 233-327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Foster, G. T.

G. T. Foster, L. A. Orozco, H. M. Castro-Beltran, and H. J. Carmichael, "Quantum state reduction and conditional time evolution of wave-particle correlations in cavity QED," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3149-3152 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Carmichael, H. M. Castro-Beltran, G. T. Foster, and L. A. Orozco, "Giant violations of classical inequalities through conditional Homodyne detection of the Quadrature Amplitudes of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1855-1858 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gea-Banacloche, J.

J. Gea-Banacloche, P. R. Rice, and L. A. Orozco, "Entangled and disentangled evolution for a single atom in a driven cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gershoni, D.

D. V. Regelman, U. Mizrahi, D. Gershoni, E. Ehrenfund, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, "Semiconductor quantum dot: A quantum light source of multicolor photons with tunable statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 257401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glauber, R. J.

R. J. Glauber, "Photon correlations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 84-86 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Glauber, "Coherent and incoherent states of the radiation field," Phys. Rev. 131, 2766-2788 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Glauber, "The quantum theory of optical coherence," Phys. Rev. 130, 2529-2539 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Grangier, P.

P. Grangier, G. Roger, A. Aspect, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, "Observation of photon antibunching in phase-matched multiatom resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 687-690 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gripp, J.

J. Gripp and L. A. Orozco, "Evolution of the vacuum Rabi peaks in a many-atom system," Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 8, 823-836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heidmann, A.

P. Grangier, G. Roger, A. Aspect, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, "Observation of photon antibunching in phase-matched multiatom resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 687-690 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillery, M.

P. Rungta, V. Buzek, C. Caves, M. Hillery, and G. J. Milburn, "Universal state inversion and concurrrence in arbitrary dimensions," Phys. Rev. A 64,042315 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Booze, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, and L.-M. Duan and H. J. Kimble, "Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles," Nature 423, 731-734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Carmichael, R. J. Brecha, M. G. Raizen, H. J. Kimble, and P. R. Rice, "Subnatural linewidth averaging for coupled atomic and cavity-mode oscillators," Phys. Rev. A 40, 5516-5519 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzmich, A.

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Booze, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, and L.-M. Duan and H. J. Kimble, "Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles," Nature 423, 731-734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leach, J.

J. Leach, C. E. Strimbu, and P. Rice, "Nonclassical cross-correlations of transmitted and fluorescent fields in cavity QED systems," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt 6, S722-S729 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mabuchi, H.

A. J. Berglund, A. C. Doherty, and H. Mabuchi, "Photon statistics and dynamics of fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 068101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meystre, P.

M. G. Moore and P. Meystre, "Optical control and entanglement of atomic Schrödinger fields," Phys. Rev. A 59, R1754-R1757 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Milburn, G. J.

P. Rungta, V. Buzek, C. Caves, M. Hillery, and G. J. Milburn, "Universal state inversion and concurrrence in arbitrary dimensions," Phys. Rev. A 64,042315 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, U.

D. V. Regelman, U. Mizrahi, D. Gershoni, E. Ehrenfund, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, "Semiconductor quantum dot: A quantum light source of multicolor photons with tunable statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 257401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, M. G.

M. G. Moore and P. Meystre, "Optical control and entanglement of atomic Schrödinger fields," Phys. Rev. A 59, R1754-R1757 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nha, H.

H. Nha and H. J. Carmichael, "Entanglement within the Quantum Trajectory description of open quantum systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 120408 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orozco, L. A.

J. Gea-Banacloche, P. R. Rice, and L. A. Orozco, "Entangled and disentangled evolution for a single atom in a driven cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Foster, L. A. Orozco, H. M. Castro-Beltran, and H. J. Carmichael, "Quantum state reduction and conditional time evolution of wave-particle correlations in cavity QED," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3149-3152 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Carmichael, H. M. Castro-Beltran, G. T. Foster, and L. A. Orozco, "Giant violations of classical inequalities through conditional Homodyne detection of the Quadrature Amplitudes of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1855-1858 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gripp and L. A. Orozco, "Evolution of the vacuum Rabi peaks in a many-atom system," Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 8, 823-836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

D. V. Regelman, U. Mizrahi, D. Gershoni, E. Ehrenfund, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, "Semiconductor quantum dot: A quantum light source of multicolor photons with tunable statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 257401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plenio, M. B.

M. B. Plenio, "Logarithmic negativity: A full entanglement Monotone that is not Convex," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raizen, M. G.

H. J. Carmichael, R. J. Brecha, M. G. Raizen, H. J. Kimble, and P. R. Rice, "Subnatural linewidth averaging for coupled atomic and cavity-mode oscillators," Phys. Rev. A 40, 5516-5519 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regelman, D. V.

D. V. Regelman, U. Mizrahi, D. Gershoni, E. Ehrenfund, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, "Semiconductor quantum dot: A quantum light source of multicolor photons with tunable statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 257401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynaud, S.

P. Grangier, G. Roger, A. Aspect, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, "Observation of photon antibunching in phase-matched multiatom resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 687-690 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, P.

J. Leach, C. E. Strimbu, and P. Rice, "Nonclassical cross-correlations of transmitted and fluorescent fields in cavity QED systems," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt 6, S722-S729 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rice, P. R.

J. Gea-Banacloche, P. R. Rice, and L. A. Orozco, "Entangled and disentangled evolution for a single atom in a driven cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Brecha, P. R. Rice, and M. Xiao, "N two-level atoms in a driven optical cavity: quantum dynamics of forward photon scattering for weak incident fields," Phys. Rev. A 59, 2392-2417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Carmichael, R. J. Brecha, and P. R. Rice, "Quantum interference and collapse of the wavefunction in cavity QED," Opt. Commun. 82, 73-79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Carmichael, R. J. Brecha, M. G. Raizen, H. J. Kimble, and P. R. Rice, "Subnatural linewidth averaging for coupled atomic and cavity-mode oscillators," Phys. Rev. A 40, 5516-5519 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roger, G.

P. Grangier, G. Roger, A. Aspect, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, "Observation of photon antibunching in phase-matched multiatom resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 687-690 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rungta, P.

P. Rungta, V. Buzek, C. Caves, M. Hillery, and G. J. Milburn, "Universal state inversion and concurrrence in arbitrary dimensions," Phys. Rev. A 64,042315 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schoenfeld, W. V.

D. V. Regelman, U. Mizrahi, D. Gershoni, E. Ehrenfund, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, "Semiconductor quantum dot: A quantum light source of multicolor photons with tunable statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 257401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolin, J. A.

C. H. Bennett, D. P. DiVincenzo, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, "Mixed-state entanglement and quantum error correction," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824-3851 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stobinska, M.

M. Stobińska and K. Wókdiewicz, "Witnessing entanglement with second-order interference," Phys. Rev. A 71, 032304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Strimbu, C. E.

J. Leach, C. E. Strimbu, and P. Rice, "Nonclassical cross-correlations of transmitted and fluorescent fields in cavity QED systems," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt 6, S722-S729 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uhlmann, A.

A. Uhlmann, "Fidelity and concurrence of conjugated states," Phys. Rev. A 62, 032307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wókdiewicz, K.

M. Stobińska and K. Wókdiewicz, "Witnessing entanglement with second-order interference," Phys. Rev. A 71, 032304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wootters, W. K.

W. K. Wootters, "Entanglement of formation of an arbitrary state of two Qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2245-2248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, D. P. DiVincenzo, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, "Mixed-state entanglement and quantum error correction," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824-3851 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

R. J. Brecha, P. R. Rice, and M. Xiao, "N two-level atoms in a driven optical cavity: quantum dynamics of forward photon scattering for weak incident fields," Phys. Rev. A 59, 2392-2417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt (1)

J. Leach, C. E. Strimbu, and P. Rice, "Nonclassical cross-correlations of transmitted and fluorescent fields in cavity QED systems," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt 6, S722-S729 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Booze, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, and L.-M. Duan and H. J. Kimble, "Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles," Nature 423, 731-734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. J. Carmichael, R. J. Brecha, and P. R. Rice, "Quantum interference and collapse of the wavefunction in cavity QED," Opt. Commun. 82, 73-79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

R. J. Glauber, "The quantum theory of optical coherence," Phys. Rev. 130, 2529-2539 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Glauber, "Coherent and incoherent states of the radiation field," Phys. Rev. 131, 2766-2788 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (7)

H. J. Carmichael, R. J. Brecha, M. G. Raizen, H. J. Kimble, and P. R. Rice, "Subnatural linewidth averaging for coupled atomic and cavity-mode oscillators," Phys. Rev. A 40, 5516-5519 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Brecha, P. R. Rice, and M. Xiao, "N two-level atoms in a driven optical cavity: quantum dynamics of forward photon scattering for weak incident fields," Phys. Rev. A 59, 2392-2417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Uhlmann, "Fidelity and concurrence of conjugated states," Phys. Rev. A 62, 032307 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Rungta, V. Buzek, C. Caves, M. Hillery, and G. J. Milburn, "Universal state inversion and concurrrence in arbitrary dimensions," Phys. Rev. A 64,042315 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, D. P. DiVincenzo, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wootters, "Mixed-state entanglement and quantum error correction," Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824-3851 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stobińska and K. Wókdiewicz, "Witnessing entanglement with second-order interference," Phys. Rev. A 71, 032304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moore and P. Meystre, "Optical control and entanglement of atomic Schrödinger fields," Phys. Rev. A 59, R1754-R1757 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (11)

J. Gea-Banacloche, P. R. Rice, and L. A. Orozco, "Entangled and disentangled evolution for a single atom in a driven cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Regelman, U. Mizrahi, D. Gershoni, E. Ehrenfund, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, "Semiconductor quantum dot: A quantum light source of multicolor photons with tunable statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 257401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Berglund, A. C. Doherty, and H. Mabuchi, "Photon statistics and dynamics of fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 068101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, G. Roger, A. Aspect, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, "Observation of photon antibunching in phase-matched multiatom resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 687-690 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. K. Wootters, "Entanglement of formation of an arbitrary state of two Qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2245-2248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Plenio, "Logarithmic negativity: A full entanglement Monotone that is not Convex," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nha and H. J. Carmichael, "Entanglement within the Quantum Trajectory description of open quantum systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 120408 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Chen, S. Albeverio, and S. Fei, "Concurrence of Arbitrary Dimesional Bipartite Quantum States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 040504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Carmichael, H. M. Castro-Beltran, G. T. Foster, and L. A. Orozco, "Giant violations of classical inequalities through conditional Homodyne detection of the Quadrature Amplitudes of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1855-1858 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Foster, L. A. Orozco, H. M. Castro-Beltran, and H. J. Carmichael, "Quantum state reduction and conditional time evolution of wave-particle correlations in cavity QED," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3149-3152 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Glauber, "Photon correlations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 84-86 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. (1)

J. Gripp and L. A. Orozco, "Evolution of the vacuum Rabi peaks in a many-atom system," Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 8, 823-836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Semiclassical Opt. (1)

S. Albeverio and S. Fei, "A note on Invariants and Entanglements," J. Opt. B. Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 3, 233-327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. L. Terraciano, R. Olson, D. L. Freimund, L. A. Orozco, and P. R. Rice, "Fluorescence spectrum into the mode of a cavity QED system," arXiv.org, quant-ph/0601064.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1995).

P. R. Berman, ed., Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics, Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (Academic Press, Boston, 1994). Supplement 2.

H. J. Carmichael, G. T. Foster, J. E. Reiner, L. A. Orozco, and P. R. Rice, "Intensity-field correlations of non-classical light," in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed., 46, 355-4-4 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Single atom in a weakly driven optical cavity. Here g is the reversible coupling rate between the mode of the cavity and the atom, κ is the decay rate of the field mode of the cavity, γ is the spontaneous emission rate. ε is the external drive (taken to be a classical field).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A plot of �� scaled by (ε/γ)2 as a function of κ/γ and g/γ for weak excitation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Contour plot of �� as a function of g/γ and Δ/γ for k/γ=0.5

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Contour plot of �� as a function of g/γ and Δ/γ for κ/γ=10

Equations (48)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ψ c ( t ) = n ( C g , n ( t ) e i E g , n t g , n + C e , n ( t ) e i E e , n t e , n )
H = h ¯ g ( a σ + a σ + ) i κ a a i γ 2 σ + σ + i h ¯ ε ( a a )
H = κ a
A = γ 2 σ .
Ψ = 0 g + A 1 , g 1 g + A 0 , e 0 e + A 2 , g 2 g + A 1 , e 1 e
A 1 , g = α
A 0 , e = β
A 1 , e = α β q
A 2 , g = α 2 p q 2 .
α = ε κ ( 1 + 2 C 1 )
β = 2 g γ α
p = 1 2 C 1
q = ( 1 + 2 C 1 ) ( 1 + 2 C 1 2 C 1 )
C 1 = g 2 κ γ
C 1 = C 1 2 κ ( 2 κ + γ )
ρ atom = T r field Ψ Ψ
= ( 1 + A 1 , g 2 + A 2 , g 2 A 1 , e A 1 , g + A 0 , e A 1 , e A 1 , g + A 0 , e A 1 , e 2 + A 0 , e 2 )
λ 1 = ( A 1 , g A 0 , e A 1 , e ) 2
= A 1 , g 2 A 0 , e 2 ( q 1 ) 2
= ( ε κ ) 4 ξ 2
λ 2 = 1 ( A 1 , g A 0 , e A 1 , e ) 2
= 1 ( ε κ ) 4 ξ 2
ξ = 2 g γ ( 1 + 2 C 1 ) 2 ( q 1 )
E = ( ε κ ) 4 ξ 2 log 2 [ ( ε κ ) 4 ξ 2 ] ( 1 ( ε κ ) 4 ξ 2 ) log 2 [ 1 ( ε κ ) 4 ξ 2 ]
( ε κ ) 4 ξ 2 ( log 2 [ ( ε κ ) 4 ] + log 2 [ ξ 2 ] 1 )
( ε κ ) 4 log 2 [ ( ε κ ) 4 ] ξ 2 .
C = 2 ( 1 T r ρ atom 2 )
= 4 ( A 1 , g A 0 , e A 1 , e ) 2
= 2 ( ε κ ) 2 ξ
Ψ P = Ψ F ϕ A
= ( D 0 0 + D 1 1 + D 2 2 ) ( C g g + C e e )
= D 0 C g 0 g + D 1 C g 1 g + D 0 C e 0 e + D 2 C g 2 g + D 1 C e 1 e
Ψ P = 0 g + D 1 1 g + C e 0 e + D 2 2 g + D 2 C e 1 e
C = 2 α β ( q 1 ) = 16 g 3 ε 2 κ ( 2 g 2 + γ κ ) 2 ( 2 g 2 + κ ( γ + 2 κ ) ) .
ψ ss = 0 g + α ( 1 g g γ 0 e ) .
ψ ss = 0 , g + α Γ 1 ( g γ ) 1 , ± + α 2 Γ 2 ( g γ ) 2 , ± ,
G = f 1 ( b , b ) f 2 ( a , a ) f 1 ( b , b ) f 2 ( a , a ) .
g T F ( 1 ) ( 0 ) = σ + a σ + a
= α β α β
= 1
g T F ( 2 ) ( 0 ) = σ + a a σ a a σ + σ
= A 1 e 2 A 1 g A 0 e 2
= q 2
h θ = 0 T F ( 0 ) = I F E T I F E T
= ( a + a ) σ + σ a + a σ + σ
= A 1 , e A 0 , e A 1 , g
= q
( g T F ( 2 ) ( 0 ) 1 ) 2 ( g T T ( 2 ) ( 0 ) 1 ) ( g F F ( 2 ) ( 0 ) 1 ) ,

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