Abstract

We provide a proof-of-principle demonstration of CARS endoscopy. The design utilizes a single mode optical fiber with a focusing unit attached to the distal end. Picosecond pump and Stokes pulse trains in the near infrared are delivered through the fiber with nearly unaltered spectral and temporal characteristics at intensities needed for endoscopy. CARS endoscopic images are recorded by collecting the epi-CARS signal generated at the sample and raster scanning the sample with respect to the fiber. This CARS endoscope prototype represents an important step towards in situ chemically selective imaging for biomedical applications.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, " Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.-X. Cheng, L. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 26, 1341 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Volkmer, L. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. Sunney Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epi-detected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 23901 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, "Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging," Opt. Lett. 31, 241 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, "High sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31 (2006). In Press.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J.-X. Cheng, K. Y. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to Cell Biology," Biophys. J. 83, 502 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of Axonal Myelin in live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Poureshagh, D. Coté, C. L. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Molecular imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," PNAS 102, 16808 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Ganikhanov, S. Carrasco, M. Katz, W. Seitz, D. Kopf, and X. S. Xie, "A Broadly tunable dual-wavelength light source for CARS Microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1292 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Légaré, F. Ganikhanov, and X. S. Xie, "Towards an integrated coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy system," Proc. SPIE 5971, 35 (2005).
  12. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Biopsy with Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 276, 2037 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging," Nat. Methods 12, 941 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. C. Jung and M. J. Schnitzer, "Multiphoton Endoscopy," Opt. Lett. 28, 902 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. Li, "Fiber-optic scanning two-photon fluorescence endoscope," Opt. Express 14, 1076 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. Fu, A. Jain, H. Xie, C. Cranfield, and M. Gu, "Nonlinear optical endoscopy based on a double-clad photonic crystal fiber and a MEMS mirror," Opt. Express 14, 1027 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford University Press, New York, 1997), pp. 101.
  18. R.W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, London, 2003), pp. 356-358.
  19. Y. Silberberg and I. Bar-Joseph, "Optical instabilities in a nonlinear Kerr medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 662-670 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. S. Xie, "Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1363 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. V. Yakovlev and G. I. Petrov, " Enhancing red-shifted white-light continuum generation in optical fibers for applications in nonlinear Raman microscopy," 13, 1299 (2005)

2006 (5)

2005 (4)

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging," Nat. Methods 12, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of Axonal Myelin in live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Poureshagh, D. Coté, C. L. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Molecular imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," PNAS 102, 16808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Légaré, F. Ganikhanov, and X. S. Xie, "Towards an integrated coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy system," Proc. SPIE 5971, 35 (2005).

2004 (1)

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, " Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. S. Xie, "Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1363 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, L. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, K. Y. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to Cell Biology," Biophys. J. 83, 502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. Sunney Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epi-detected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 23901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, L. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 26, 1341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Biopsy with Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

Bar-Joseph, I.

Book, L.

A. Volkmer, L. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, L. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 26, 1341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Biopsy with Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Biopsy with Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Biopsy with Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carrasco, S.

Cheng, J.-X.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of Axonal Myelin in live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, " Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. S. Xie, "Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1363 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, K. Y. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to Cell Biology," Biophys. J. 83, 502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-X. Cheng, L. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 26, 1341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. Sunney Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epi-detected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 23901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, E. L. M.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging," Nat. Methods 12, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cocker, E. D.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging," Nat. Methods 12, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coté, D.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Poureshagh, D. Coté, C. L. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Molecular imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," PNAS 102, 16808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cranfield, C.

Evans, C. L.

E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, "Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging," Opt. Lett. 31, 241 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, "High sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31 (2006). In Press.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Poureshagh, D. Coté, C. L. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Molecular imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," PNAS 102, 16808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Flusberg, B. A.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging," Nat. Methods 12, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

Fu, Y.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of Axonal Myelin in live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Biopsy with Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganikhanov, F.

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, "High sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31 (2006). In Press.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, S. Carrasco, M. Katz, W. Seitz, D. Kopf, and X. S. Xie, "A Broadly tunable dual-wavelength light source for CARS Microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1292 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Légaré, F. Ganikhanov, and X. S. Xie, "Towards an integrated coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy system," Proc. SPIE 5971, 35 (2005).

Gu, M.

Jain, A.

Jia, K. Y.

J.-X. Cheng, K. Y. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to Cell Biology," Biophys. J. 83, 502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, J. C.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging," Nat. Methods 12, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Jung and M. J. Schnitzer, "Multiphoton Endoscopy," Opt. Lett. 28, 902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, M.

Kopf, D.

Légaré, F.

F. Légaré, F. Ganikhanov, and X. S. Xie, "Towards an integrated coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy system," Proc. SPIE 5971, 35 (2005).

Li, X.

M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. Li, "Fiber-optic scanning two-photon fluorescence endoscope," Opt. Express 14, 1076 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. L.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Poureshagh, D. Coté, C. L. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Molecular imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," PNAS 102, 16808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, D. J.

M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. Li, "Fiber-optic scanning two-photon fluorescence endoscope," Opt. Express 14, 1076 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myaing, M. T.

M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. Li, "Fiber-optic scanning two-photon fluorescence endoscope," Opt. Express 14, 1076 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Biopsy with Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piyawattanametha, W.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging," Nat. Methods 12, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Potma, E. O.

E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, "Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging," Opt. Lett. 31, 241 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Poureshagh, D. Coté, C. L. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Molecular imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," PNAS 102, 16808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poureshagh, M.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Poureshagh, D. Coté, C. L. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Molecular imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," PNAS 102, 16808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saar, B. G.

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, "High sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31 (2006). In Press.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnitzer, M. J.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging," Nat. Methods 12, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Jung and M. J. Schnitzer, "Multiphoton Endoscopy," Opt. Lett. 28, 902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seitz, W.

Shi, R.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of Axonal Myelin in live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Biopsy with Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sunney Xie, X.

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. Sunney Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epi-detected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 23901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Biopsy with Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkmer, A.

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. S. Xie, "Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1363 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, L. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. Sunney Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epi-detected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 23901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of Axonal Myelin in live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, H.

Xie, X. S.

E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, "Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging," Opt. Lett. 31, 241 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, S. Carrasco, M. Katz, W. Seitz, D. Kopf, and X. S. Xie, "A Broadly tunable dual-wavelength light source for CARS Microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1292 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, "High sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31 (2006). In Press.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Légaré, F. Ganikhanov, and X. S. Xie, "Towards an integrated coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy system," Proc. SPIE 5971, 35 (2005).

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Poureshagh, D. Coté, C. L. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Molecular imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," PNAS 102, 16808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, " Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. S. Xie, "Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1363 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, K. Y. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to Cell Biology," Biophys. J. 83, 502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Volkmer, L. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, L. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 26, 1341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, G.

J.-X. Cheng, K. Y. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to Cell Biology," Biophys. J. 83, 502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zickmund, P.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of Axonal Myelin in live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Volkmer, L. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (2)

J.-X. Cheng, K. Y. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to Cell Biology," Biophys. J. 83, 502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J.-X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of Axonal Myelin in live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, " Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging," Nat. Methods 12, 941 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. Sunney Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epi-detected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 23901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

PNAS (1)

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Poureshagh, D. Coté, C. L. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Molecular imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," PNAS 102, 16808 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. Légaré, F. Ganikhanov, and X. S. Xie, "Towards an integrated coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy system," Proc. SPIE 5971, 35 (2005).

Science (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Biopsy with Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

V. V. Yakovlev and G. I. Petrov, " Enhancing red-shifted white-light continuum generation in optical fibers for applications in nonlinear Raman microscopy," 13, 1299 (2005)

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford University Press, New York, 1997), pp. 101.

R.W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, London, 2003), pp. 356-358.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) CARS energy diagram. (b) Experimental setup: BS, 15% beam splitter; VA, variable attenuator; λ/2, half-waveplate; D1, 950nm longpass dichroic mirror; D2, 750nm longpass dichroic mirror; F, three 670nm bandpass filters; L1, aspheric lens; L2, 10cm concave lens.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Autocorrelation traces of pump (blue) and Stokes (red) pulses after propagation in 1m long fiber. Cross-correlation trace after 1m of fiber propagation (green). The faintly seen black trace is the autocorrelation of the pump before fiber propagation. Measured pump (b) and Stokes (c) power spectra after the OPO (black), 1m- (blue) and 5m- red) long fiber propagation at 400mW and 700mW of pump and Stokes fiber output, respectively. The fiber input powers were 1W and 1.3W, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Prototype CARS endoscope image of 0.75µm polystyrene beads embedded in agarose gel spin-coated on a coverslip (Δω=2845cm-1). The image dimension is 29µm×29µm (128×128 pixels). The pump and Stokes powers at the sample were 80mW each, with a pixel dwell time of 1ms. (b) CARS intensity profile along the white line in (a). The CARS contrast decreased when the system was tuned off the resonance maximum.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Prototype CARS endoscope image of 5µm polystyrene beads embedded in agarose spin-coated on a coverslip (Δω=2845cm-1). The ring-like structure is due to signal arising at the edge of the bead from incomplete destructive interference in the epi-direction. The image dimension is 31µm×15µm (139×66 pixels). The pixel dwell time was 1ms.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E 2 π π λ t p D eff 2 4 n 2 L

Metrics