Abstract

We present the first experimental demonstration of anomalous group-velocity dispersion (GVD) in silicon waveguides across the telecommunication bands. We show that the GVD in such waveguides can be tuned from -2000 to 1000 ps/(nm·km) by tailoring the cross-sectional size and shape of the waveguide.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  3. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, and R. S. Windeler, "Four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1048 (2001).
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  15. W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  20. H. Fukada, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4629-4637 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. OsgoodJr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4341-4349 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003).
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2006 (1)

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, and R. S. Windeler, "Optical parametric oscillator based on four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 271675-1677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. G. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajurdo, and K. W. Koch, "Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 192, 219-223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, and R. S. Windeler, "Four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 25-27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gorden, "Experimental observation of picosecond pulse narrowing and solitons in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095-1098 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 481, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arriaga, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 481, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, F.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Q.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Claps, R.

Coker, A.

Dadap, J. I.

Day, I. E.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dimitropoulos, D.

Drake, J.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, A.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Espinola, R. L.

Fajurdo, J. C.

D. G. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajurdo, and K. W. Koch, "Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 192, 219-223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentino, M.

Foster, M. A.

Fukada, H.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gorden, J. P.

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gorden, "Experimental observation of picosecond pulse narrowing and solitons in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095-1098 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Y.

Harpin, A.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Homoelle, D.

D. G. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajurdo, and K. W. Koch, "Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 192, 219-223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

Jalali, B.

Knight, J. C.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koch, K. W.

D. G. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajurdo, and K. W. Koch, "Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 192, 219-223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

Liang, T. K.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 481, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lou, J.

Mazur, E.

McNab, S. J.

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. OsgoodJr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4341-4349 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moll, K. D.

Mollenauer, L. F.

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gorden, "Experimental observation of picosecond pulse narrowing and solitons in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095-1098 (1980).
[CrossRef]

O’Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omenetto, F. G.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. OsgoodJr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4341-4349 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajurdo, and K. W. Koch, "Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 192, 219-223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 481, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, V

Raghunathan, V.

Ranka, J. K.

Reeves, W. H.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, S. W.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

Shoji, T.

Skryabin, D. V.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A. J.

Stolen, R. H.

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gorden, "Experimental observation of picosecond pulse narrowing and solitons in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095-1098 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

Takahashi, M.

Taylor, A. J.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,511-515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, L.

Trebino, R.

Tsang, H. K.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. OsgoodJr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4341-4349 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

Webb, W. W.

D. G. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajurdo, and K. W. Koch, "Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 192, 219-223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

West, J. A.

D. G. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajurdo, and K. W. Koch, "Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 192, 219-223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Wong, C. S.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Zipfel, W.

D. G. Ouzounov, D. Homoelle, W. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, A. L. Gaeta, J. A. West, J. C. Fajurdo, and K. W. Koch, "Dispersion measurements of microstructured fibers using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 192, 219-223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nature (3)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 481, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Group-velocity dispersion D as a function of wavelength for a fixed aspect ratio of 1:1.5 (height to width) and for cross-sectional areas of 0.09 µm2, 0.20 µm2, 0.40 µm2, and 0.56 µm2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Group-velocity dispersion as a function of wavelength for varying aspect ratios and fixed cross sectional areas of (a) 0.09 µm2 and (b) 0.56 µm2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated (lines) and experimental (symbols) (a) group index data and (b) groupvelocity dispersion as a function of wavelength for four different waveguides. Ellipsometric measurements are done on the PECVD over-cladding and then fitted with a Sellmeier function to provide the upper-cladding material dispersion data for the simulated curves.

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