Abstract

In this paper, we propose a polarization-insensitive phase modulation scheme based on frequency modulation of light waves using either one or a pair of acousto-optic modulators. A stable Sagnac quantum key distribution (QKD) system employing this technique is also proposed. The interference visibility for a 40km and a 10km fiber loop is 96% and 99% respectively, at single-photon level. We ran standard BB84 QKD protocol in a simplified Sagnac setup (40km fiber loop) continuously for one hour and the measured quantum bit error rate stayed within 2%–5% range.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), pp.175–179.
  2. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, “Quantum key distribution over a 48 km optical fiber network,” J. of Mod. Opt. 47, 533–547 (2000).
  4. Z. Yuan and A. Shields, “Continuous operation of a one-way quantum key distribution system over installed telecom fibre,” Opt. Express 13, 660–665 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, “Circular type” quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 576–578 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Y. Zhou and H. P. Zeng, “Time-division single-photon Sagnac interferometer for quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 832–834 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. Y. Zhou, G. Wu, L. E. Ding, and H. P. Zeng, “Single-photon routing by time-division phase modulation in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 15–17 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. D. Kumavor, A. C. Beal, S. Yelin, E. Donkor, and B. C. Wang, “Comparison of four multi-user quantum key distribution schemes over passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 268–276 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, and A. Suarez, “Quantum entanglement with acousto-optic modulators: Two-photon beats and Bell experiments with moving beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 042115 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. E.-B. Li, J.-Q. Yao, D.-Y. Yu, J.-T. Xi, and J. Chicharo, “Optical phase shifting with acousto-optic devices,” Opt. Lett. 30, 189–191 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217–1224 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X.-F. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, “Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, K. Tamaki, and H.-K. Lo, “Phase-remapping attack in practical quantum key distribution systems,” arXiv:quant-ph/0601115 (2006) http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/quant-ph/0601115

2006 (1)

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X.-F. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, “Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2003 (3)

A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, and A. Suarez, “Quantum entanglement with acousto-optic modulators: Two-photon beats and Bell experiments with moving beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 042115 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Zhou and H. P. Zeng, “Time-division single-photon Sagnac interferometer for quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 832–834 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Zhou, G. Wu, L. E. Ding, and H. P. Zeng, “Single-photon routing by time-division phase modulation in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 15–17 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, “Circular type” quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 576–578 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, “Quantum key distribution over a 48 km optical fiber network,” J. of Mod. Opt. 47, 533–547 (2000).

1997 (1)

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217–1224 (1988).
[Crossref]

Abe, J.

T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, “Circular type” quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 576–578 (2002).
[Crossref]

Beal, A. C.

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), pp.175–179.

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), pp.175–179.

Chicharo, J.

Ding, L. E.

C. Y. Zhou, G. Wu, L. E. Ding, and H. P. Zeng, “Single-photon routing by time-division phase modulation in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 15–17 (2003).
[Crossref]

Donkor, E.

Fung, C.-H. F.

C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, K. Tamaki, and H.-K. Lo, “Phase-remapping attack in practical quantum key distribution systems,” arXiv:quant-ph/0601115 (2006) http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/quant-ph/0601115

Gisin, N.

A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, and A. Suarez, “Quantum entanglement with acousto-optic modulators: Two-photon beats and Bell experiments with moving beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 042115 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, T.

T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, “Circular type” quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 576–578 (2002).
[Crossref]

Herzog, T.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hughes, R. J.

R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, “Quantum key distribution over a 48 km optical fiber network,” J. of Mod. Opt. 47, 533–547 (2000).

Huttner, B.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ishizuka, H.

T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, “Circular type” quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 576–578 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kumavor, P. D.

Li, E.-B.

Lo, H.-K.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X.-F. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, “Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, K. Tamaki, and H.-K. Lo, “Phase-remapping attack in practical quantum key distribution systems,” arXiv:quant-ph/0601115 (2006) http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/quant-ph/0601115

Ma, X.-F.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X.-F. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, “Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morgan, G. L.

R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, “Quantum key distribution over a 48 km optical fiber network,” J. of Mod. Opt. 47, 533–547 (2000).

Mortimore, D. B.

D. B. Mortimore, “Fiber loop reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217–1224 (1988).
[Crossref]

Muller, A.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nishioka, T.

T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, “Circular type” quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 576–578 (2002).
[Crossref]

Peterson, C. G.

R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, “Quantum key distribution over a 48 km optical fiber network,” J. of Mod. Opt. 47, 533–547 (2000).

Qi, B.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X.-F. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, “Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, K. Tamaki, and H.-K. Lo, “Phase-remapping attack in practical quantum key distribution systems,” arXiv:quant-ph/0601115 (2006) http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/quant-ph/0601115

Qian, L.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X.-F. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, “Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shields, A.

Stefanov, A.

A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, and A. Suarez, “Quantum entanglement with acousto-optic modulators: Two-photon beats and Bell experiments with moving beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 042115 (2003).
[Crossref]

Suarez, A.

A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, and A. Suarez, “Quantum entanglement with acousto-optic modulators: Two-photon beats and Bell experiments with moving beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 042115 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tamaki, K.

C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, K. Tamaki, and H.-K. Lo, “Phase-remapping attack in practical quantum key distribution systems,” arXiv:quant-ph/0601115 (2006) http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/quant-ph/0601115

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, B. C.

Wu, G.

C. Y. Zhou, G. Wu, L. E. Ding, and H. P. Zeng, “Single-photon routing by time-division phase modulation in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 15–17 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xi, J.-T.

Yao, J.-Q.

Yelin, S.

Yu, D.-Y.

Yuan, Z.

Zbinden, H.

A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, and A. Suarez, “Quantum entanglement with acousto-optic modulators: Two-photon beats and Bell experiments with moving beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 042115 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H. P.

C. Y. Zhou, G. Wu, L. E. Ding, and H. P. Zeng, “Single-photon routing by time-division phase modulation in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 15–17 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Zhou and H. P. Zeng, “Time-division single-photon Sagnac interferometer for quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 832–834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X.-F. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, “Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, C. Y.

C. Y. Zhou, G. Wu, L. E. Ding, and H. P. Zeng, “Single-photon routing by time-division phase modulation in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 15–17 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Zhou and H. P. Zeng, “Time-division single-photon Sagnac interferometer for quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 832–834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Y. Zhou and H. P. Zeng, “Time-division single-photon Sagnac interferometer for quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 832–834 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Zhou, G. Wu, L. E. Ding, and H. P. Zeng, “Single-photon routing by time-division phase modulation in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 15–17 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Nishioka, H. Ishizuka, T. Hasegawa, and J. Abe, “Circular type” quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 576–578 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. of Mod. Opt. (1)

R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, “Quantum key distribution over a 48 km optical fiber network,” J. of Mod. Opt. 47, 533–547 (2000).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, and A. Suarez, “Quantum entanglement with acousto-optic modulators: Two-photon beats and Bell experiments with moving beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 042115 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X.-F. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, “Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), pp.175–179.

C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, K. Tamaki, and H.-K. Lo, “Phase-remapping attack in practical quantum key distribution systems,” arXiv:quant-ph/0601115 (2006) http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/quant-ph/0601115

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Figures (6)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

a) A phase modulator with one frequency up-shifter; (b) A phase modulator with a pair of frequency shifters. +: up-shifting AOM,-down-shifting AOM, L: fiber with length L, D: AOM driver

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The experimental results at 1MHz phase modulation rate. (a) one AOM; (b) a pair of AOM.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Proposed QKD system: LD—pulsed laser diode; Cir—circulator; C—2×2 coupler; PC—polarization controller; PM1, PM2—AOM-based phase modulator (as shown in Fig. 1); SPD1, SPD2—single Photon detector

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup: L—1550nm cw laser; AM—amplitude modulator; Att—attenuator; Cir—circulator; C—2×2 coupler; PC—polarization controller; FG1, FG2—function generator; PG—pulse generator; DG—delay generator; SPD1, SPD2—single photon detector

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The visibility of interference pattern is 96% for a 40km fiber loop (Dotted line—Ch1, Circular line—Ch2. Acquired at a photon level of 0.8 photon/pulse)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured QBER in one hour without any feedback control. The photon level is 0.8 photon/pulse (The error bars indicate the statistic fluctuation due to the finite detection events)

Equations (3)

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t 2 t 1 = n L c .
Δ ϕ = ϕ ( t 2 ) ϕ ( t 1 ) = 2 π f ( t 2 t 1 ) = 2 π n L f c .
Δ ϕ = ϕ S 2 ϕ S 1 = 4 π n L f c .

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