Abstract

The reflection spectrum of the explosive RDX was acquired from a diffuse reflection measurement using a THz time-domain spectroscopy system in combination with a diffuse reflectance accessory. By applying the Kramers-Kronig transform to the reflection spectrum, the absorption spectrum (0.2–1.8 THz) was obtained. It agrees with the result from a transmission measurement and distinguishes RDX from other materials. The effect of the reference spectrum was examined by using both a Teflon pellet and a copper plate as references. The strong absorption of RDX at 0.82 THz allowed it to be identified by the diffuse reflection measurement even when the RDX sample was covered with certain optically opaque materials. Our investigation demonstrates that THz technique is capable of detecting and identifying hidden RDX-related explosives in a diffuse reflection mode, which is crucial for the standoff detection in the real world applications.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe,” Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070,44–52 (2003).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. T. Yuan, H. Liu, J. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of atmosphere with different humidity,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE5070, 28–37 (2003).

2005 (1)

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005)
[Crossref]

2004 (6)

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K.-E. Peiponen, “Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96 (8), 4171–4175 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications II, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, “Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 164–166 (2004)
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romanò, R. Di Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campurra, D. Coniglio, and M. D’ Arienzo, “THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. H. Clothier and N. Bourne, “Effects of THz exposure on human primary keratinocyte differentiation and viability,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 179–185 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe,” Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070,44–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Nemec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923–3925 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Khazan, R. Meissner, and I. Wilke, “Convertible transmission-reflection time-domain terahertz spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3427–3430 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924–2926 (1996).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of water vapor,” Opt. Lett., 14, 1128–1130 (1989).
[Crossref]

Al-Douseri, F.

T. Yuan, H. Liu, J. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of atmosphere with different humidity,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE5070, 28–37 (2003).

Altan, H.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[Crossref]

Arienzo, M. D’

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romanò, R. Di Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campurra, D. Coniglio, and M. D’ Arienzo, “THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Baker, C.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, “Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 164–166 (2004)
[Crossref]

Barat, R.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, “Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 164–166 (2004)
[Crossref]

Bourne, N.

R. H. Clothier and N. Bourne, “Effects of THz exposure on human primary keratinocyte differentiation and viability,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 179–185 (2003).
[Crossref]

Campurra, G.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romanò, R. Di Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campurra, D. Coniglio, and M. D’ Arienzo, “THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications II, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[Crossref]

Clothier, R. H.

R. H. Clothier and N. Bourne, “Effects of THz exposure on human primary keratinocyte differentiation and viability,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 179–185 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cluff, J. A.

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe,” Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070,44–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cole, B. E.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005)
[Crossref]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe,” Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070,44–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Coniglio, D.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romanò, R. Di Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campurra, D. Coniglio, and M. D’ Arienzo, “THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Davies, A. G.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, “Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 164–166 (2004)
[Crossref]

Deng, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications II, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[Crossref]

Di Pietro, R.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romanò, R. Di Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campurra, D. Coniglio, and M. D’ Arienzo, “THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dodson, C.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[Crossref]

Doria, A.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romanò, R. Di Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campurra, D. Coniglio, and M. D’ Arienzo, “THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Evans, M. J.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, “Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 164–166 (2004)
[Crossref]

Fattinger, C.

M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of water vapor,” Opt. Lett., 14, 1128–1130 (1989).
[Crossref]

Federici, J. F.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fitch, M. J.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications II, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe,” Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070,44–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gallerano, G. P.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romanò, R. Di Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campurra, D. Coniglio, and M. D’ Arienzo, “THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gary, D.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[Crossref]

Giovenale, E.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romanò, R. Di Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campurra, D. Coniglio, and M. D’ Arienzo, “THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gregory, I. S.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, “Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 164–166 (2004)
[Crossref]

Grischkowsky, D.

M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of water vapor,” Opt. Lett., 14, 1128–1130 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hangyo, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923–3925 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

T. Yuan, H. Liu, J. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of atmosphere with different humidity,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE5070, 28–37 (2003).

Huang, F.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, T.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ino, Y.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K.-E. Peiponen, “Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96 (8), 4171–4175 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kadlec, F.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Nemec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kemp, M. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005)
[Crossref]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe,” Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070,44–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kempa, M.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Nemec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Khazan, M.

M. Khazan, R. Meissner, and I. Wilke, “Convertible transmission-reflection time-domain terahertz spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3427–3430 (2001).
[Crossref]

Koide, K.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K.-E. Peiponen, “Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96 (8), 4171–4175 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuzel, P.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Nemec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lai, A.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romanò, R. Di Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campurra, D. Coniglio, and M. D’ Arienzo, “THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E. H.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, “Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 164–166 (2004)
[Crossref]

Litz, M.

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924–2926 (1996).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications II, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Yuan, H. Liu, J. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of atmosphere with different humidity,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE5070, 28–37 (2003).

Lo, T.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005)
[Crossref]

Matsushita, A.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[Crossref]

Meissner, R.

M. Khazan, R. Meissner, and I. Wilke, “Convertible transmission-reflection time-domain terahertz spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3427–3430 (2001).
[Crossref]

Messina, G.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romanò, R. Di Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campurra, D. Coniglio, and M. D’ Arienzo, “THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Minami, Y.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mirabella, F. M.

F. M. Mirabella, Modern Techniques in Applied Molecular Spectroscopy, (John Wiley & Sons, 1998), Chap. 5.

F. M. Mirabella, Modern Techniques in Applied Molecular Spectroscopy, (John Wiley & Sons, 1998), Chap. 3.

Miyamaru, F.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[Crossref]

Morikawa, O.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923–3925 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nashima, S.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923–3925 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nemec, H.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Nemec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Osiander, R.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications II, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pashkin, A.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Nemec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Peiponen, K.-E.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K.-E. Peiponen, “Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96 (8), 4171–4175 (2004).
[Crossref]

Romanò, M.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romanò, R. Di Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campurra, D. Coniglio, and M. D’ Arienzo, “THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Scarfi, M. R.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romanò, R. Di Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campurra, D. Coniglio, and M. D’ Arienzo, “THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schauki, D.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications II, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schulkin, B.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005)
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, “Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 164–166 (2004)
[Crossref]

Shimano, R.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K.-E. Peiponen, “Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96 (8), 4171–4175 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shur, M.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications II, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Spicer, J. B.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stern, F.

F. Stern, Solid Sate Physics, edited by F. Seitz and D. Turnbull (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1963) 15, 299.
[Crossref]

Svirko, Y. P.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K.-E. Peiponen, “Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96 (8), 4171–4175 (2004).
[Crossref]

Taday, P. F.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005)
[Crossref]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe,” Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070,44–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Takata, K.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923–3925 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tani, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tanner, D. B.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tatsuno, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tribe, W. R.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005)
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, “Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 164–166 (2004)
[Crossref]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe,” Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070,44–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Upadhya, P. C.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, “Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 164–166 (2004)
[Crossref]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of water vapor,” Opt. Lett., 14, 1128–1130 (1989).
[Crossref]

Vartiainen, E. M.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K.-E. Peiponen, “Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96 (8), 4171–4175 (2004).
[Crossref]

Veksler, D.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications II, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wilke, I.

M. Khazan, R. Meissner, and I. Wilke, “Convertible transmission-reflection time-domain terahertz spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3427–3430 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924–2926 (1996).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

T. Yuan, H. Liu, J. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of atmosphere with different humidity,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE5070, 28–37 (2003).

Yamaguchi, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yuan, T.

T. Yuan, H. Liu, J. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of atmosphere with different humidity,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE5070, 28–37 (2003).

Zeni, O.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romanò, R. Di Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campurra, D. Coniglio, and M. D’ Arienzo, “THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. C.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. -C.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications II, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-C.

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924–2926 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Yuan, H. Liu, J. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of atmosphere with different humidity,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE5070, 28–37 (2003).

Zimdars, D.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005)
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924–2926 (1996).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, “Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 164–166 (2004)
[Crossref]

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923–3925 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Y. P. Svirko, and K.-E. Peiponen, “Numerical phase correction method for terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96 (8), 4171–4175 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Biol. Phys. (2)

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romanò, R. Di Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campurra, D. Coniglio, and M. D’ Arienzo, “THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171–177 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. H. Clothier and N. Bourne, “Effects of THz exposure on human primary keratinocyte differentiation and viability,” J. Biol. Phys. 29, 179–185 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 414–417 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett., (1)

M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of water vapor,” Opt. Lett., 14, 1128–1130 (1989).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe,” Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5070,44–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Veksler, M. Shur, X. -C. Zhang, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, and R. Osiander, “Spectroscopic characterization of explosives in the far infrared region,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications II, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE 5411, 1–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

M. Khazan, R. Meissner, and I. Wilke, “Convertible transmission-reflection time-domain terahertz spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3427–3430 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Nemec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

F. Stern, Solid Sate Physics, edited by F. Seitz and D. Turnbull (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1963) 15, 299.
[Crossref]

F. M. Mirabella, Modern Techniques in Applied Molecular Spectroscopy, (John Wiley & Sons, 1998), Chap. 3.

T. Yuan, H. Liu, J. Xu, F. Al-Douseri, Y. Hu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of atmosphere with different humidity,” in Terahertz for Military and Security Applications, R. J. Hwu and D. L. Woolard, eds, Proc. SPIE5070, 28–37 (2003).

F. M. Mirabella, Modern Techniques in Applied Molecular Spectroscopy, (John Wiley & Sons, 1998), Chap. 5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Rough sample surface results in diffuse reflection. Specular reflection, indicated by the solid lines, has a reflection angle equal to the incident angle. Diffuse reflections, denoted by the dashed lines, have reflection angles that are independent of the incident angle.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A planform of THz-TDS with a diffuse reflectance accessory.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Relative power reflection spectra of RDX, polyethylene and flour, the diffuse spectrum of Teflon was used as reference; (b) Absorption spectra of RDX, polyethylene and flour from the K-K transform of the reflection spectra; (c) The comparison between the absorption spectra from the transmission measurement (upper curve) and diffuse reflection measurement (bottom curve); (d) Absorption spectra of 3 different RDX samples. All the measurements were conducted in nitrogen atmosphere to avoid the effect of water vapor absorption in ambient air. The dashed lines indicate the absorption peak positions.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Absorption spectra of RDX from the K-K transform of the reflection spectra using Teflon as reference and copper as reference respectively. The dashed lines indicate the absorption peak positions.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) A comparison between the absorption spectra of RDX obtained from the diffuse reflection measurements when RDX was bare and was covered with paper; (b) Absorption spectra of RDX obtained from the diffuse reflection measurements under different covers. Upper curve: polyethylene sheet cover; middle curve: leather cover; bottom curve, polyester cloth cover. The dashed lines indicate the absorption peak positions.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r = Re
θ ( v 0 ) = 2 v 0 π P 0 ln R ( v ) v 2 v 0 2 dv
n = 1 R 1 + R 2 R cos θ
k = 2 R sin θ 1 + R 2 R cos θ
α = 4 πvk c

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