Abstract

A new phase-matching condition for a four-wave-mixing (FWM) experiment in an optical fiber is proposed to simultaneously measure the linear and nonlinear optical properties of an optical fiber such as dispersion-zero wavelength, dispersion slop, and nonlinear refractive index. Several different dispersion shifted fibers (DSFs) and nonzero dispersion shifted fibers (NZDSFs) were tested to demonstrate the validity of our proposed method. We have also shown that experimental results are in good agreement with those obtained using a conventional measurement method. We believe that technique is a very powerful and efficient tool for zero-dispersion and dispersion slop mapping for already installed optical fibers.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Vinegoni, H. Chen, M. Leblac, G. W. Schinn, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, "Distributed measurement of chromatic dispersion and nonlinear coefficient in low-PMD dispersion-shifted fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 739-741 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Mazzali, D. F. Grosz, and H. L. Fragnito, "Simple method for measuring dispersion and nonlinear coefficient near the zero dispersion wavelength of optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 252-253 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Marcuse, A. R. Chraplyvy, and R. W. Tkach, "Effect of fiber nonlinearity on long-distance transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 121-128 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Prigent, and J.-P. Hamaide, "Measurement of fiber nonlinear kerr coefficient by four-wave mixing," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1092-1096 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. E. Mechels, J. B. Schlager, and D. L. Franzen, "Accurate measurements of the zero-dispersion wavelength in optical fibers," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 333-347 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. C. Jo, S. K. Kim, and S. S. Choi, "Novel measurement of linear dispersion slope near the zero dispersion wavelength for four wave mixing," in Proceedings of Nonlinear Optics' 98 168 (1998).
  7. H. Chen, "Simultaneous measurements of non-linear coefficient, zero-dispersion wavelength and chromatic dispersion in dispersion-shifted fibers by four-wave mixing," Opt. Commun. 220, 331-335 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. S. Andre, and J. L. Pinto, "Simultaneous measurement of the nonlinear refractive index and chromatic dispersion of optical fibers by four-wave mixing," Microwave Opt. Technol Lett. 34, 305-307 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, and R. I. MacDonald, "CW three-wave mixing in single-mode fiber," J. Appl. Phys., 49, 5098-5106 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Shibata, R. P Braun, and R. G. Warrts, "Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in a single mode fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-23, 1205-211 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights, " J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1553-1561 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Song, C. T. Allen, K. R. Demarest, and R. Hui, "Intensity-dependent phase-matching effects on four-wave mixing in optical fibers" J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2285-2290 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Nakajawa, "Highly efficient four-wave mixing in an optical fiber with intensity dependent phase matching," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 327-329 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Karlsson, "Four-wave mixing in fibers with randomly varying zero-dispersion wavelength," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 15, 2269-2275 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Q. Lin, and G. P, Agrawal, "Impact of polarization-mode dispersion on measurement of zero dispersion wavelength through four-wave mixing," IEEE, Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1719-1721 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Vinegoni, H. Chen, M. Leblanc, G. W. Schinn, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, "Distributed measurement of chromatic dispersion and nonlinear coefficient in low-PMD dispersion-shifted fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 739-741 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

N. Shibata, R. P Braun, and R. G. Warrts, "Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in a single mode fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-23, 1205-211 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. Vinegoni, H. Chen, M. Leblac, G. W. Schinn, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, "Distributed measurement of chromatic dispersion and nonlinear coefficient in low-PMD dispersion-shifted fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 739-741 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Mazzali, D. F. Grosz, and H. L. Fragnito, "Simple method for measuring dispersion and nonlinear coefficient near the zero dispersion wavelength of optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 252-253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Vinegoni, H. Chen, M. Leblanc, G. W. Schinn, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, "Distributed measurement of chromatic dispersion and nonlinear coefficient in low-PMD dispersion-shifted fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 739-741 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE, Photon. Technol. Lett.

Q. Lin, and G. P, Agrawal, "Impact of polarization-mode dispersion on measurement of zero dispersion wavelength through four-wave mixing," IEEE, Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1719-1721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Nakajawa, "Highly efficient four-wave mixing in an optical fiber with intensity dependent phase matching," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 327-329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Prigent, and J.-P. Hamaide, "Measurement of fiber nonlinear kerr coefficient by four-wave mixing," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1092-1096 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, and R. I. MacDonald, "CW three-wave mixing in single-mode fiber," J. Appl. Phys., 49, 5098-5106 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

D. Marcuse, A. R. Chraplyvy, and R. W. Tkach, "Effect of fiber nonlinearity on long-distance transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 121-128 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights, " J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1553-1561 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Song, C. T. Allen, K. R. Demarest, and R. Hui, "Intensity-dependent phase-matching effects on four-wave mixing in optical fibers" J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2285-2290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.

S. E. Mechels, J. B. Schlager, and D. L. Franzen, "Accurate measurements of the zero-dispersion wavelength in optical fibers," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 333-347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol Lett.

P. S. Andre, and J. L. Pinto, "Simultaneous measurement of the nonlinear refractive index and chromatic dispersion of optical fibers by four-wave mixing," Microwave Opt. Technol Lett. 34, 305-307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

H. Chen, "Simultaneous measurements of non-linear coefficient, zero-dispersion wavelength and chromatic dispersion in dispersion-shifted fibers by four-wave mixing," Opt. Commun. 220, 331-335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of Nonlinear Optics' 98

D. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. C. Jo, S. K. Kim, and S. S. Choi, "Novel measurement of linear dispersion slope near the zero dispersion wavelength for four wave mixing," in Proceedings of Nonlinear Optics' 98 168 (1998).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up for simultaneous measurement of linear and nonlinear optical properties of an optical fiber using FWM experiments.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Generated optical power of FWM signal for a DSF.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

FWM power curve obtained by novel phase-matching method.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

FWM power curve obtained from NZDSF

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calculated degenerate FWM efficiency curves for various pump and probe powers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Zero dispersion wavelength, dispersion slop and nonlinear refractive index measurement.

Equations (6)

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P 4 ( L , Δβ ) = η ( Δβ ) γ 2 L eff 2 P 1 2 P 3 e αL
η ( Δβ ) = α 2 α 2 + ( Δβ ) 2 [ 1 + 4 e αL sin 2 ( Δ βL 2 ) { 1 e αL } 2 ]
Δβ = 2 πc λ 0 3 λ 1 3 λ 3 2 d D c ( λ 1 λ 0 ) ( λ 1 λ 3 ) 2
λ 4 = λ 1 λ 3 ( 2 λ 3 λ 1 )
Δ β NL ( β 4 + β 3 2 β 1 ) NL
= 2 π ( n 2 A eff ) [ ( 2 P 1 + 2 P 3 ) λ 4 + ( 2 P 1 + P 3 ) λ 3 2 ( P 1 + 2 P 3 ) λ 1 ]

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