Abstract

We report on the fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by femtosecond laser pulses. A waveguide with a circular transverse profile can be obtained by using a slit beam shaping method. The refractive index in the core increases by up to 4.6 × 10-4 and the waveguide works as single-mode waveguide at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. This writing technique is applied to the fabrication of a directional coupler to split a coupled beam with a 1:1 splitting ratio at 632.8 nm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Filamentary cavity formation in poly(methyl methacrylate) induced by single femtosecond pulse," Appl. Phys. A 81, 1587-1590 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000-1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

C. Wochnowski, S. Metev, and G. Sepold, "UV-laser-assisted modification of the optical properties of polymethylmethacrylate," Appl. Surf. Sci. 154-155, 706-711 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (1)

L. Eldada and L. W. Shachlette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54-68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

P. J. Scully, D. Jones, and D. A. Jaroszynski, "Femtosecond laser irradiation of polymethylmethacrylate for refractive index gratings," J. Opt. A 5, S92-S96 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (9)

D. Homoelle, W. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, E. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-1313 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Lett. 29, 1840-1842 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 µm by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, "Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 55-57 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "In situ observation of photoinduced refractive index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 19-21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, "Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit," Opt. Lett. 30, 723-725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Ohta, M. Kamata, and M. Obara, "Optical waveguide fabrication in new glasses and PMMA with temporally tailored ultrashort laser," Proc. SPIE 5340, 172-178 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the optical setup for waveguide writing in bulk PMMA.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical image of the fabricated waveguides (a) without a slit and using a slit with aspect ratios Rx/Ry of (b) 5 and (c) 10.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The aspect ratio of the cross-section of waveguides as a function of the aspect ratio of laser beam diameter Rx /Ry .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Near-field pattern at symmetric waveguide output. The intensity profiles in the horizontal and vertical directions are shown.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The magnitude of the refractive index change as a function of incident pulse energy.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Schematic diagram of a directional coupler. Near-field patterns and cross sections of the coupler output at 632.8 nm for (b) L = 1.0 mm and (c) L = 2.0 mm.

Equations (1)

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I ( y , z ) = 1 [ 1 + ( z 2 z 0 2 ) ] 1 2 1 [ 1 + ( z 2 z ' 0 2 ) ] 1 2 exp { 2 y 2 ω ' 0 2 [ 1 + ( z 2 z ' 0 2 ) ] } .

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