Abstract

High-quality buried optical-waveguides were fabricated by reverse-proton-exchange in periodically-poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate. Experimental results show excellent fiber-mode matching, losses below 0.3 dB/cm and almost non-critical conditions for a quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation process from telecom wavelengths. The interaction length of 2.5 cm is the highest so far reported for lithium tantalate waveguides.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. L. Bortz, S. J. Field. , M. M. Fejer, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and D. F. Welch, "Noncritical quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation in an annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide," IEEE Trans. Q. Electron. 30, 2953-2960 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Yi, S. Shin, Y Jin, and Y, Son, "Second harmonic generation in a LiTaO3 waveguide domain-inverted by proton exchange and masked heat treatment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2493-2495 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Yamamoto, K. Mizuuchi, K. Takeshige, Y. Sasai, and T. Taniuchi, "Characteristics of periodically domain inverted LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 waveguides for second harmonic generation," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1947-1951 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Houé, and P. D. Towsend, "An introduction to methods of periodic poling for second-harmonic generation," J. Phys. D 28, 1747-1763 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. R. Parameswaran, R. K. Route, J. R. Kurz, R. V. Roussev, M. M. Fejer, and M. Fujimura, "Highly efficient second-harmonic generation in buried waveguides formed by annealed and reverse proton exchange in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 27, 179-181 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, "Annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 16, 1844-1846 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Fouchet, A. Carenco, C. Daguet, R. Guglielmi, and L. Riviere, "Wavelength dispersion of Ti induced refractive index change in LiNbO3 as a function of diffusion parameters," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 700-708 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. H. Chou, I.. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, "1.5-micron-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 653-655 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Pertsch, R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, Y. H. Min, and W. Sohler, "Spatial ultrafast switching and frequency conversion in lithium niobate waveguide arrays," Opt. Lett. 30, 177-179 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. Agate, E. U. Rafailov, M. Sibett, S. M. Saltiel, P. Battle, T. Fry, and E. Noonan, "Highly efficient blue-light generation from a compact, diode-pumped femtosecond laser by use of a periodically poled KTP waveguide crystal," Opt. Lett. 28, 1963-1965 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Mizuuchi, T. Sugita, K. Yamamoto, T. Kawaguchi, T. Yoshino, and M. Imaeda, "Efficient 340-nm light generation by a ridge-type waveguide in a first-order periodically poled MgOLiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 28, 1344-1346 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Hatanaka, K. Nakamura, T. Taniuchi, H. Ito, Y. Furukawa and K. Kitamura, "Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillation with periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO3, " Opt. Lett. 25, 651-653 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Marangoni, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, S. Takekawa, M. Nakamura, and K. Kitamura, "Reverse-proton-exchange in stoichiometric lithium tantalate," Opt. Express 12,. 2754-2761 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Tanzilli, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D.B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, "Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Electron. Lett. 37, 26-27 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Olivares and J. M. Cabrera, "Guided modes with ordinary refractive index in proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2468-2471 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Nakamura, S. Higuchi, S. Takekawa, K. Terabe, Y. Furukawa and K. Kitamura, "Refractive Indices in Undoped and MgO-Doped Near-Stoichiometric LiTaO3 Crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 465-467 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Lobino, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, E. Cianci, V. Foglietti, S. Takekawa, M. Nakamura, K. Kitamura, "Optical-damage free guided second-harmonic-generation in 1% MgO-doped stoichiometric-lithium-tantalate,"Opt. Lett., accepted for publication.
    [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. Olivares and J. M. Cabrera, "Guided modes with ordinary refractive index in proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2468-2471 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Yi, S. Shin, Y Jin, and Y, Son, "Second harmonic generation in a LiTaO3 waveguide domain-inverted by proton exchange and masked heat treatment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2493-2495 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitamura, Y. Furukawa, K. Niwa, V. Gopalan and T. E. Mitchell, "Crystal growth and low coercive field 180° domain switching characteristics of stoichiometric LiTaO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3073-3075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Tanzilli, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D.B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, "Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Electron. Lett. 37, 26-27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

S. Fouchet, A. Carenco, C. Daguet, R. Guglielmi, and L. Riviere, "Wavelength dispersion of Ti induced refractive index change in LiNbO3 as a function of diffusion parameters," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 700-708 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. H. Chou, I.. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, "1.5-micron-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 653-655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Q. Electron. (1)

M. L. Bortz, S. J. Field. , M. M. Fejer, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and D. F. Welch, "Noncritical quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation in an annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide," IEEE Trans. Q. Electron. 30, 2953-2960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Yamamoto, K. Mizuuchi, K. Takeshige, Y. Sasai, and T. Taniuchi, "Characteristics of periodically domain inverted LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 waveguides for second harmonic generation," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1947-1951 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

M. Houé, and P. D. Towsend, "An introduction to methods of periodic poling for second-harmonic generation," J. Phys. D 28, 1747-1763 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Nakamura, S. Higuchi, S. Takekawa, K. Terabe, Y. Furukawa and K. Kitamura, "Refractive Indices in Undoped and MgO-Doped Near-Stoichiometric LiTaO3 Crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 465-467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

T. Pertsch, R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, Y. H. Min, and W. Sohler, "Spatial ultrafast switching and frequency conversion in lithium niobate waveguide arrays," Opt. Lett. 30, 177-179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lobino, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, E. Cianci, V. Foglietti, S. Takekawa, M. Nakamura, K. Kitamura, "Optical-damage free guided second-harmonic-generation in 1% MgO-doped stoichiometric-lithium-tantalate,"Opt. Lett., accepted for publication.
[PubMed]

T. Hatanaka, K. Nakamura, T. Taniuchi, H. Ito, Y. Furukawa and K. Kitamura, "Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillation with periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO3, " Opt. Lett. 25, 651-653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bortz, and M. M. Fejer, "Annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 16, 1844-1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Parameswaran, R. K. Route, J. R. Kurz, R. V. Roussev, M. M. Fejer, and M. Fujimura, "Highly efficient second-harmonic generation in buried waveguides formed by annealed and reverse proton exchange in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 27, 179-181 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Mizuuchi, T. Sugita, K. Yamamoto, T. Kawaguchi, T. Yoshino, and M. Imaeda, "Efficient 340-nm light generation by a ridge-type waveguide in a first-order periodically poled MgOLiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 28, 1344-1346 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Agate, E. U. Rafailov, M. Sibett, S. M. Saltiel, P. Battle, T. Fry, and E. Noonan, "Highly efficient blue-light generation from a compact, diode-pumped femtosecond laser by use of a periodically poled KTP waveguide crystal," Opt. Lett. 28, 1963-1965 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Refractive index profile of the waveguide after proton-exchange (a), annealing (b) and reverse-exchange (c).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity profile of the fundamental mode at λ=1.55μm. Top and right boxes report respectively the horizontal and vertical cross-sections of the waveguide mode (solid lines) as compared to that of a fiber (dashed line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Second harmonic generation efficiency normalized to the input pump power as a function of wavelength. The curve refers to a 10 μm wide channel and to a Λ = 18.3 μm poling period.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase matching wavelength versus channel width.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intensity profile of the second harmonic mode together with its horizontal (top box) and vertical (right box) cross-sections

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