Abstract

Infrared to ultraviolet and visible upconversion luminescence was demonstrated in trivalent cerium doped YAlO3 crystal (Ce3+: YAP) under focused infrared femtosecond laser irradiation. The fluorescence spectra show that the upconverted luminescence comes from the 5d-4f transitions of trivalent cerium ions. The dependence of luminescence intensity of trivalent cerium on infrared pumping power reveals that the conversion of infrared radiation is dominated by three-photon excitation process. It is suggested that the simultaneous absorption of three infrared photons pumps the Ce3+ ion into upper 5d level, which quickly nonradiatively relax to lowest 5d level. Thereafter, the ions radiatively return to the ground states, leading to the characteristic emission of Ce3+.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. You and M. Nogami, "Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, A. L. Gaeta, "Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940-42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, "The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr3 + -based infrared quantum counters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124-125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.)

F. E. Auzel, "Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d Ions in Solids," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 104, 139-174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cryst. Res. Technol.

R. Autrata, P. Schauer, Ji. Kvapil, and Jos. Kvapil, "Cathodoluminescence efficiency of Y3Al5O12 and YAlO3 single crystal in dependence on Ce3+ and other dopants concentrations,"Cryst. Res. Technol. 18, 907 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Luminescence.

M. J. Weber, "Inorganic scintillators: today and tomorrow," J. Luminescence. 100, 35-44 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T. C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, "Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation," Nature. 415, 767-770 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda, W. Denk, D. Kleinfeld, and D.W.Tank, "In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons," Nature. 385, 161-165 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature. 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Biotechnology

J. S. Marchant, G. E. Stutzmann, M. A. Leissring, F. M. LaFerla, and I. Parker, "Multiphoton-evoked color change of DsRed as an optical highlighter for cellular and subcellular labeling," Nature Biotechnology. 19, 645-649 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt Lett.

G. S. He, J.M. Dai, T.C. Lin, P. P. Markowicz, P. N. Prasad, "Ultrashort 1.5-µm laser excited upconverted stimulated emission based on simultaneous three-photon absorption," Opt Lett. 28, 719-721 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express.

L.Y. Yang, Y. J. Dong, D. P. Chen, C. Wang, N. Da, X. W. Jiang, C. S. Zhu, J. R. Qiu, "Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr3+ in Al2O3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 7893-98 (2005),<a href=-" http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=85711"> http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=85711</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Bloembergen. N, "Solid State Infrared Quantum Counters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 84-85 (1959).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199-2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi.

G. J. Zhao, X. H. Zeng, S. M. Zhou, J. Xu, Y. L. Tian, and W. X. Huang, "Growth defects in czochraiski-grown Ce: YAlO3 scintillation crystals," Phys. Status Solidi. A199, 186-191 (2003).

Scanning

R. Autrata, P. Schauer, Ji. Kvapil, and Jos. Kvapil, "A Single crystal of YAlO3:Ce3+ as a fast scintillator in SEM," Scanning, 5, 91-96 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Science.

R. P. Chin, Y. R. Shen, and V. Petrova-koch, "Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation," Science. 270, 776-778 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Baccaro, K. Blazek, F. de Notaristefani, P. Maly, J. A. Mares, R. Pani, R. Pellegrini and A. Soluri, "Scintillation properties of YAP:Ce," Nucl. Instr. Meth. A361, 209-215 (1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Emission spectra of Ce3+: YAP crystal under focused 800nm femtosecond laser irradiation and 267nm monochromatic light excitation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption spectrum of Ce3+: YAP crystal

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relationship between the fluorescence intensity of the 5d-4f transition of Ce3+ in YAP crystal and the pump power of femtosecond laser.

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