Abstract

A dynamic closed-loop method for focus tracking using a spatial light modulator and a deformable membrane mirror within a confocal microscope is described. We report that it is possible to track defocus over a distance of up to 80 μm with an RMS precision of 57 nm. For demonstration purposes we concentrate on defocus, although in principle the method applies to any wavefront shape or aberration that can be successfully reproduced by the deformable membrane mirror and spatial light modulator, for example, spherical aberration.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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App. Opt. (1)

G. Vdovin, and P. M. Sarro, "Flexible mirror micromachined in silicon," App. Opt. 34, 2968-2972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (2)

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, "Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror," J. Microsc. 206, 65-71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive index," J. Microsc. 169, 391-405 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, "New model wave-front sensor: a theoretical analysis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1098-1107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: App. Phys. (1)

J. M. Girkin, "Topical Review: Optical physics enables advances in multiphoton imaging," J. Phys. D: App. Phys. 36, R250-R258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Res. and Tech. (1)

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the Optimisation Algorithms used in the implementation of Adaptive Optics in Confocal and Multiphoton Microscopy," Microsc. Res. and Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

J. Leach and M. J. Padgett, "Observation of chromatic effects near a white-light vortex," New J. Phys. 5, 154.1-154.7 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. & Phot. News (1)

V. N. Mahajan, "Zernike Circle Polynomials and Optical Aberrations of Systems with circular pupils," Eng. & Lab. Notes, in Opt. & Phot. News 5, S-12-S-24 (1994).

Opt. Comm. (1)

R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, "Imaging in reciprocal fibre-optic based confocal scanning microscopes," Opt. Comm. 92, 315-325 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, "Multi-functional optical tweezers using computer-generated holograms," Opt. Commun. 185, 77-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. T. Gruneisen, R. C. Dymale, J. R. Rotgé, L. F. DeSandre, and D. L. Lubin, "Wavelength-dependant characteristics of a telescope system with diffractive wavefront compensation," Opt. Eng. 44, 068002 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

PNAS (1)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, "Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope," PNAS 99, 5788-5792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

<a href= "http://www.holoeye.com/slm_technology.html">http://www.holoeye.com/slm_technology.html</a>

<a href= "http://sales.hamamatsu.com/en/products/electron-tube-division/detectors/spatial-light-modulator.php">http://sales.hamamatsu.com/en/products/electron-tube-division/detectors/spatial-light-modulator.php</a>

R. K Tyson, Principles of adaptive optics. (Academic Press 1998), Chaps 3, 4.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic of the experimental setup. L1 – L6 make up three 4f lens systems and Ph1 is a pinhole that selects the first diffraction order from the SLM.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A schematic of the closed-loop control system. The majority of the optical components have been omitted for clarity but can be seen in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The axial PSF, recorded by translating the microscope objective, for different quantities of defocus applied using a) the DMM and b) the SLM.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A graph of PSF with the corresponding first and second derivatives from the lock-in amplifiers.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The response of the lock-in amplifier when the feedback loop to the SLM is closed.

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