Abstract

A new technique based on polarized Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated for detecting early dental caries on extracted human teeth. Sound tooth enamel exhibited strong Raman polarization anisotropy whereas early caries consistently showed a lower degree of Raman polarization anisotropy. In particular, for sound enamel, the Raman peak arising from the symmetric ν1 vibration of PO4 3- at 959 cm-1 is strongly polarized. This is in contrast to the spectra of carious lesions that displayed weaker polarization dependence at 959 cm-1. Such difference in the degree of Raman polarization anisotropy allows for discrimination between early dental caries and sound enamel.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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4th Annual Indiana Conference (1)

J. M. Girkin, A. F. Hall, S. L. Creanor, "Multi-photon imaging of intact dental tissue," in Proceedings of the 4th Annual Indiana Conference, G.K. Stookey, ed. (Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, Indiana 1999) pp. 155-168.

K. Kaneko, K. Matsuyama, S. Nakashima, "Quantification of early carious enamel lesions by using an infrared camera in vitro," in Proceedings of the 4th annual Indiana conference, G. K. Stookey, ed. (Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, Indiana 1999) pp. 83-100.

Appl. Spectrosc. (4)

Biochem. (1)

M. Tsuboi, J. M. Benevides, P. Bondre, and G. J. Thomas, Jr. "Structural details of the thermophilic filamentous bacteriophage PH75 determined by polarized Raman microspectroscopy," Biochem. 44, 4861-4869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Caries Res. (3)

C. M. Pine and J. J. ten Bosch, "Dynamics of and diagnostic methods for detecting small carious lesions," Caries Res. 30, 381-388 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Crawley, L. Longbottom, B. C. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, M. Pepper, "Tetrahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry," Caries Res. 37, 352-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dent. Clin. North Am. (1)

G. K. Stookey, R.D. Jackson, A.G. Zandona, and M. Abaloui, "Dental caries diagnosis," Dent. Clin. North Am. 43, 665-677 (1999).
[PubMed]

J. Am. Dent. Assoc. (1)

J. Friedman, and M. I. Marcus, "Transillumination of the oral cavity with the use of fiber optics," J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 80, 801-809 (1970).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

A. C.-T. Ko, L. P. Choo-Smith, M. Hewko, L. Leonardi, M. G. Sowa, C. C. S. Dong, P. Williams, and B. Cleghorn, "Ex vivo detection and characterization of early dental caries by optical coherence tomography and Raman spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, and C. Le, "Imaging carious lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618-627 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dent Res. (1)

A. Hall, J. M. Girkin, "A review of potential new diagnostic modalities for caries lesions," J. Dent Res. 83, C89-C94 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dent. Res. (1)

H. Tsuda and J. Arends, "Orientational micro-Raman spectroscopy on hydroxyapatite single crystals and human enamel crystallites," J. Dent. Res. 73, 1703-1710 (1994).
[PubMed]

J. Oral Rehabil. (1)

B. T. Amaechi, S. M. Higham, A. G. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, and D. A. Jackson, "Use of optical coherence tomography for assessment of dental caries: quantitative procedure," J. Oral Rehabil. 28, 1092-1093 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, and S. Maruyama, "Polarization dependence of resonant Raman scattering from vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, "Oral health in America: A report of the Surgeon General - executive summary," U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD (2000).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the polarized Raman microspectroscopic system illustrating laser excitation (blue solid line) and Raman signal detection (red dashed line) paths for acquiring tooth spectra in a backscattering sampling geometry. Abbreviations are provided in the inset for each optical element.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Definition of angle (θ): the angle between the laser polarization direction and the analyzer polarization direction (PA). HWP: half-wave plate

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Representative polarized Raman spectra of sound enamel as a function of angle (θ). Inset (upper-left): enlargement of spectral region between 550 cm-1 and 650 cm-1. Inset (upper-right): enlargement of spectral region between 1000 cm-1 and 1150 cm-1. Angle (θ) was defined as the angle between the laser polarization direction and the analyzer polarization direction, as depicted in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Representative polarized Raman spectra of carious lesion as a function of angle (θ). Inset (upper-left): enlargement of spectral region between 550 cm-1 and 650 cm-1. Inset (upper-right): enlargement of spectral region between 1000 cm-1 and 1150 cm-1. Angle (θ) was defined as the angle between the laser polarization direction and the analyzer polarization direction, as depicted in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized integrated peak intensity at 959 cm-1 measured as a function of angle (θ) for sound enamel (n=5) and carious lesion (n=5). Angle (θ) was defined as the angle between the laser polarization direction and the analyzer polarization direction, as depicted in Fig. 2.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Bar graphs of (A) depolarization ratio (ρ595) and (B) polarization anisotropy (A959) obtained from sound enamel versus carious lesion. Mean +/- standard deviation values are shown. n=34 and n=32 for sound enamel and carious lesion, respectively. For sound enamel, ρ959(S)=0.10±0.04 and A959(S)= 0.75±0.08 and for carious lesion, ρ595(S)=0.40±0.12 and A959(C)=0.34±0.11.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Raman spectral images of a tooth surface containing 2 carious lesions obtained using (a) cross-polarized (b) parallel-polarized peak intensities (c) depolarization ratio (d) anisotropy at 959 cm-1. (e) photomicrograph of the same tooth surface under white-light side-illumination, showing 2 carious lesions as dark shadows. Area enclosed by solid black line shown in (e) indicates the region been mapped by Raman. The length of the scale bar shown at the corner of (e) is equivalent to 200 μm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Depolarization ratio (ρ595) and polarization anisotropy (A595) obtained from sound enamel and carious lesions using 30°,45°,60°,90° laser beam probing angles relative to the tooth surface. Mean ± standard deviation (n=3) were shown for each angle based on data collected on sample teeth from different patients.

Equations (2)

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ρ 959 = I 959 ( ) I 959 ( )
A 959 = ( I 959 ( ) I 959 ( ) ) ( I 959 ( ) + 2 I 959 ( ) )

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