Abstract

The first demonstration of UV-written, silica-on-silicon integrated optical 1×N power splitters with up to 32 outputs ports is presented. The fabricated components exhibit 450 nm bandwidth, low excess loss and good channel uniformity.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,”, Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1402 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Svalgaard, K. Færch, and L. U. Andersen, “Variable Optical Attenuator Fabricated by Direct UV Writing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21–9, 2097–2103 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sörensen, N. Chi, H.-J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson Interferometer for RZ Signal Generation Using Phase-to-Intensity Modulation Conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1674–1676 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Olivero and M. Svalgaard, “Direct UV-written broadband directional planar waveguide couplers,” Opt. Express 13, 8390–8399 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Standards ITU-G 983.5 and ITU-G 983.6, 2002. Available: http://www.itu.int/rec/recommendation.asp?type=products&lang=e&parent=T-REC-G
  6. G.D. Maxwell and B.J. Ainslie, “Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1694–1695 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. Zauner, K. Kulstad, J. Rathje, and M. Svalgaard, “Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1582–1584 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. P.J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W.A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Svalgaard, “Effect of D2 outdiffusion on direct UV writing of waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1840–1841 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  10. Renishaw plc., New Mills, Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, GL12 8JR, United Kingdom, tutorial: http://www.renishaw.com/UserFiles/acrobat/UKEnglish/GEN-NEW-0117.pdf.
  11. M. Svalgaard, A. Harpöth, and M. Andersen, “The role of local heating in the formation process of UV written optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 13, 7823–7831 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. R.A. Betts, F. Lui, and T.W. Whitbread, “Non destructive two-dimensional refractive index profiling of integrated optical waveguides by an interferometric method,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4384–4389 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemarie, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultra-violet-light induced Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73–80 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Svalgaard, “Direct writing of planar waveguide power splitters and directional couplers using a focused ultraviolet laser beam,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1694–1695 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Syms and J. Cozens, “The slab waveguide-tapers,” in Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill International Ltd., 1992), pp. 19–22.
  16. K. Færch and M. Svalgaard, “Symmetrical waveguide device fabricated by direct UV writing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 173–175 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  17. M Olivero and M. Svalgaard, “UV written 1×8 optical splitters,” in Proceedings of OSA Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Poling and Photosensitivity, B.J. Eggleton, ed., (Technical Digest Series, Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2005), 37–38.

2005 (3)

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sörensen, N. Chi, H.-J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson Interferometer for RZ Signal Generation Using Phase-to-Intensity Modulation Conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1674–1676 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Olivero and M. Svalgaard, “Direct UV-written broadband directional planar waveguide couplers,” Opt. Express 13, 8390–8399 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Svalgaard, A. Harpöth, and M. Andersen, “The role of local heating in the formation process of UV written optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 13, 7823–7831 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Svalgaard, K. Færch, and L. U. Andersen, “Variable Optical Attenuator Fabricated by Direct UV Writing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21–9, 2097–2103 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

K. Færch and M. Svalgaard, “Symmetrical waveguide device fabricated by direct UV writing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 173–175 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. Svalgaard, “Effect of D2 outdiffusion on direct UV writing of waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1840–1841 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. Zauner, K. Kulstad, J. Rathje, and M. Svalgaard, “Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1582–1584 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Svalgaard, “Direct writing of planar waveguide power splitters and directional couplers using a focused ultraviolet laser beam,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1694–1695 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

G.D. Maxwell and B.J. Ainslie, “Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1694–1695 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,”, Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1402 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemarie, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultra-violet-light induced Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P.J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W.A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Ainslie, B.J.

G.D. Maxwell and B.J. Ainslie, “Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1694–1695 (1995).
[Crossref]

Andersen, L. U.

M. Svalgaard, K. Færch, and L. U. Andersen, “Variable Optical Attenuator Fabricated by Direct UV Writing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21–9, 2097–2103 (2003).
[Crossref]

Andersen, M.

Atkins, R. M.

P.J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W.A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Betts, R.A.

Bjarklev, A.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,”, Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1402 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chi, N.

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sörensen, N. Chi, H.-J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson Interferometer for RZ Signal Generation Using Phase-to-Intensity Modulation Conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1674–1676 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cozens, J.

R. Syms and J. Cozens, “The slab waveguide-tapers,” in Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill International Ltd., 1992), pp. 19–22.

Deyerl, H.-J.

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sörensen, N. Chi, H.-J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson Interferometer for RZ Signal Generation Using Phase-to-Intensity Modulation Conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1674–1676 (2005).
[Crossref]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemarie, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultra-violet-light induced Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

Færch, K.

M. Svalgaard, K. Færch, and L. U. Andersen, “Variable Optical Attenuator Fabricated by Direct UV Writing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21–9, 2097–2103 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Færch and M. Svalgaard, “Symmetrical waveguide device fabricated by direct UV writing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 173–175 (2002).
[Crossref]

Geng, Y.

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sörensen, N. Chi, H.-J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson Interferometer for RZ Signal Generation Using Phase-to-Intensity Modulation Conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1674–1676 (2005).
[Crossref]

Harpöth, A.

Jeppesen, P.

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sörensen, N. Chi, H.-J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson Interferometer for RZ Signal Generation Using Phase-to-Intensity Modulation Conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1674–1676 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, M.

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sörensen, N. Chi, H.-J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson Interferometer for RZ Signal Generation Using Phase-to-Intensity Modulation Conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1674–1676 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kulstad, K.

D. Zauner, K. Kulstad, J. Rathje, and M. Svalgaard, “Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1582–1584 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lemaire, P.J.

P.J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W.A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lemarie, P. J.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemarie, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultra-violet-light induced Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lui, F.

Maxwell, G.D.

G.D. Maxwell and B.J. Ainslie, “Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1694–1695 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mizrahi, V.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemarie, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultra-violet-light induced Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

P.J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W.A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Monroe, D.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemarie, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultra-violet-light induced Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

Olivero, M

M Olivero and M. Svalgaard, “UV written 1×8 optical splitters,” in Proceedings of OSA Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Poling and Photosensitivity, B.J. Eggleton, ed., (Technical Digest Series, Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2005), 37–38.

Olivero, M.

Peucheret, C.

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sörensen, N. Chi, H.-J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson Interferometer for RZ Signal Generation Using Phase-to-Intensity Modulation Conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1674–1676 (2005).
[Crossref]

Poulsen, C. V.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,”, Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1402 (1994).
[Crossref]

Poulsen, O.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,”, Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1402 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rathje, J.

D. Zauner, K. Kulstad, J. Rathje, and M. Svalgaard, “Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1582–1584 (1998).
[Crossref]

Reed, W.A.

P.J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W.A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sörensen, H. R.

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sörensen, N. Chi, H.-J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson Interferometer for RZ Signal Generation Using Phase-to-Intensity Modulation Conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1674–1676 (2005).
[Crossref]

Svalgaard, M.

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sörensen, N. Chi, H.-J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson Interferometer for RZ Signal Generation Using Phase-to-Intensity Modulation Conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1674–1676 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Olivero and M. Svalgaard, “Direct UV-written broadband directional planar waveguide couplers,” Opt. Express 13, 8390–8399 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Svalgaard, A. Harpöth, and M. Andersen, “The role of local heating in the formation process of UV written optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 13, 7823–7831 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Svalgaard, K. Færch, and L. U. Andersen, “Variable Optical Attenuator Fabricated by Direct UV Writing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21–9, 2097–2103 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Færch and M. Svalgaard, “Symmetrical waveguide device fabricated by direct UV writing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 173–175 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Svalgaard, “Effect of D2 outdiffusion on direct UV writing of waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1840–1841 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Zauner, K. Kulstad, J. Rathje, and M. Svalgaard, “Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1582–1584 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Svalgaard, “Direct writing of planar waveguide power splitters and directional couplers using a focused ultraviolet laser beam,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1694–1695 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,”, Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1402 (1994).
[Crossref]

M Olivero and M. Svalgaard, “UV written 1×8 optical splitters,” in Proceedings of OSA Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Poling and Photosensitivity, B.J. Eggleton, ed., (Technical Digest Series, Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2005), 37–38.

Syms, R.

R. Syms and J. Cozens, “The slab waveguide-tapers,” in Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill International Ltd., 1992), pp. 19–22.

Whitbread, T.W.

Zauner, D.

D. Zauner, K. Kulstad, J. Rathje, and M. Svalgaard, “Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1582–1584 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zsigri, B.

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sörensen, N. Chi, H.-J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson Interferometer for RZ Signal Generation Using Phase-to-Intensity Modulation Conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1674–1676 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (6)

M. Svalgaard, “Direct writing of planar waveguide power splitters and directional couplers using a focused ultraviolet laser beam,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1694–1695 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,”, Electron. Lett. 30, 1401–1402 (1994).
[Crossref]

G.D. Maxwell and B.J. Ainslie, “Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1694–1695 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Zauner, K. Kulstad, J. Rathje, and M. Svalgaard, “Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1582–1584 (1998).
[Crossref]

P.J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W.A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Svalgaard, “Effect of D2 outdiffusion on direct UV writing of waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1840–1841 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H. R. Sörensen, N. Chi, H.-J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, and P. Jeppesen, “Direct UV written Michelson Interferometer for RZ Signal Generation Using Phase-to-Intensity Modulation Conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1674–1676 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Færch and M. Svalgaard, “Symmetrical waveguide device fabricated by direct UV writing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 173–175 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemarie, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultra-violet-light induced Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. Svalgaard, K. Færch, and L. U. Andersen, “Variable Optical Attenuator Fabricated by Direct UV Writing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21–9, 2097–2103 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Other (4)

M Olivero and M. Svalgaard, “UV written 1×8 optical splitters,” in Proceedings of OSA Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Poling and Photosensitivity, B.J. Eggleton, ed., (Technical Digest Series, Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2005), 37–38.

R. Syms and J. Cozens, “The slab waveguide-tapers,” in Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill International Ltd., 1992), pp. 19–22.

Standards ITU-G 983.5 and ITU-G 983.6, 2002. Available: http://www.itu.int/rec/recommendation.asp?type=products&lang=e&parent=T-REC-G

Renishaw plc., New Mills, Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, GL12 8JR, United Kingdom, tutorial: http://www.renishaw.com/UserFiles/acrobat/UKEnglish/GEN-NEW-0117.pdf.

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Figures (5)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

Schematic drawing of the setup used for direct UV writing

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Overview of a 1×16 splitter layout, with applied scan velocities indicated by arrows. (b) Close-up view of a Y-branch section. On each view the graph colors represent the different scan velocities applied in various sections.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Measured splitting ratio as a function of the scan velocity v2 applied on the second arm of a Y branch (see Fig. 2(b)) with an output arm separation 127 μm. A linear fit and confidence bands have been used to determine the optimum v2 for which a splitting ratio of 50% is achieved. (b) optimum v2 for different arm separations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Insertion loss (symbols) and PDL (bars) measured at 1557 nm for N=4,8,16,32 outputs. The dotted lines indicate the theoretical loss limit corresponding to each type of splitter.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectral variation of insertion loss for each channel, splitter uniformity and total excess loss for: (a) 1×4 splitter, (b) 1×8 splitter, (c) 1×16 splitter, (d) 1×32 splitter.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Length and UV writing time for the fabricated 1×N splitters

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