Abstract

Twin-hole fibers were provided with Au-Sn alloy electrodes and thermally poled at 255 °C. The evolution of the depletion layer was studied by etching fibers poled at varying poling temperatures. The electro-optic response was measured for different poling times. When the depletion region did not overlap the core the direction of the recorded field was opposite to the applied poling field. Poling for a longer time made the depletion region extend through the core and changed the sign of the recorded field.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Large second-order nonlinearity in poled fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1732 (1991)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A Poled Electrooptic Fiber,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 8, 227 (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, “High second-order nonliearities in poled silicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Large Electrooptic Modulation in a Thermally-Poled Germanosilicate Fiber,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 7, 1177 (1995)
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Fleming, M. Janos, and K.-M. Lo, “Frozen-in Electrical Field in Thermally Poled Fibers,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 5, 235 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Fokine, L. E. Nilsson, A. Claesson, D. Berlemont, L. Kjellberg, L. Krummenacher, and W. Margulis, “Integrated fiber Mach Zehnder interferometer for electro-optic switching,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1643 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Myrén, H. Olsson, L. Norin, N. Sjödin, P. Helander, J. Svennebrink, and W. Margulis, “Wide wedge-shaped depletion region in thermally poled fiber with alloy electrodes,” Opt. Express 12, 6093 (2004)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Quiquempois, A. Kudlinski, and G. Martinelli, “Zero potential condition in thermally poled silica samples: Evidence of a negative electric field outside the depletion layer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 598 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. G. Alley, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. A. Myers, “Space charge dynamics in thermally poled fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 165 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Blazkiewicz, W. Xu, D. Wong, S. Fleming, and T. Ryan, “Modification of thermal poling evolution using novel twin-hole fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1149 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Blazkiewicz, W. Xu, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Mechanism for the thermal poling in twin-hole silicate fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 870 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Li, R. D. Birch, and D. N. Payne, “An all fibre electro-optic Kerr modulator,” in IEEE Colloquium on Àdvanced Fibre Waveguide Devices79, p 10/1–4 (1986)
  14. W. Xu, J. Arentoft, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Evidence of Space-charge Effects in Thermal Poling,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 1265 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fibre elecrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994)
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

P. Blazkiewicz, W. Xu, D. Wong, S. Fleming, and T. Ryan, “Modification of thermal poling evolution using novel twin-hole fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1149 (2001)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001)
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Fleming, M. Janos, and K.-M. Lo, “Frozen-in Electrical Field in Thermally Poled Fibers,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 5, 235 (1999)
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, J. Arentoft, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Evidence of Space-charge Effects in Thermal Poling,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 1265 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. G. Alley, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. A. Myers, “Space charge dynamics in thermally poled fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 165 (1998)
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A Poled Electrooptic Fiber,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 8, 227 (1996)
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Large Electrooptic Modulation in a Thermally-Poled Germanosilicate Fiber,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 7, 1177 (1995)
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, “High second-order nonliearities in poled silicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fibre elecrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994)
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Alley, T. G.

T. G. Alley, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. A. Myers, “Space charge dynamics in thermally poled fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 165 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Arentoft, J.

W. Xu, J. Arentoft, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Evidence of Space-charge Effects in Thermal Poling,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 1265 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Berlemont, D.

Birch, R. D.

L. Li, R. D. Birch, and D. N. Payne, “An all fibre electro-optic Kerr modulator,” in IEEE Colloquium on Àdvanced Fibre Waveguide Devices79, p 10/1–4 (1986)

Blazkiewicz, P.

Brueck, S. R. J.

T. G. Alley, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. A. Myers, “Space charge dynamics in thermally poled fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 165 (1998)
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A Poled Electrooptic Fiber,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 8, 227 (1996)
[CrossRef]

R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Large second-order nonlinearity in poled fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1732 (1991)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claesson, A.

Dong, L.

Faccio, D.

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Fleming, S.

P. Blazkiewicz, W. Xu, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Mechanism for the thermal poling in twin-hole silicate fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 870 (2002)
[CrossRef]

P. Blazkiewicz, W. Xu, D. Wong, S. Fleming, and T. Ryan, “Modification of thermal poling evolution using novel twin-hole fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1149 (2001)
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, J. Arentoft, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Evidence of Space-charge Effects in Thermal Poling,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 1265 (1999)
[CrossRef]

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Fleming, M. Janos, and K.-M. Lo, “Frozen-in Electrical Field in Thermally Poled Fibers,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 5, 235 (1999)
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Large Electrooptic Modulation in a Thermally-Poled Germanosilicate Fiber,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 7, 1177 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Fokine, M.

Fujiwara, T.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Large Electrooptic Modulation in a Thermally-Poled Germanosilicate Fiber,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 7, 1177 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Helander, P.

Janos, M.

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Fleming, M. Janos, and K.-M. Lo, “Frozen-in Electrical Field in Thermally Poled Fibers,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 5, 235 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001)
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, “High second-order nonliearities in poled silicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fibre elecrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Kjellberg, L.

Krummenacher, L.

Kudlinski, A.

Li, L.

L. Li, R. D. Birch, and D. N. Payne, “An all fibre electro-optic Kerr modulator,” in IEEE Colloquium on Àdvanced Fibre Waveguide Devices79, p 10/1–4 (1986)

Lo, K.-M.

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Fleming, M. Janos, and K.-M. Lo, “Frozen-in Electrical Field in Thermally Poled Fibers,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 5, 235 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Long, X.-C.

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A Poled Electrooptic Fiber,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 8, 227 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

Martinelli, G.

Mukherjee, N.

Myers, R. A.

T. G. Alley, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. A. Myers, “Space charge dynamics in thermally poled fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 165 (1998)
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A Poled Electrooptic Fiber,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 8, 227 (1996)
[CrossRef]

R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Large second-order nonlinearity in poled fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1732 (1991)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myrén, N.

Nilsson, L. E.

Norin, L.

Olsson, H.

Pannell, C. N.

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fibre elecrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

L. Li, R. D. Birch, and D. N. Payne, “An all fibre electro-optic Kerr modulator,” in IEEE Colloquium on Àdvanced Fibre Waveguide Devices79, p 10/1–4 (1986)

Pruneri, V.

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Quiquempois, Y.

Russell, P. St. J.

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fibre elecrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994)
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, “High second-order nonliearities in poled silicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryan, T.

Sjödin, N.

Svennebrink, J.

Wong, D.

P. Blazkiewicz, W. Xu, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Mechanism for the thermal poling in twin-hole silicate fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 870 (2002)
[CrossRef]

P. Blazkiewicz, W. Xu, D. Wong, S. Fleming, and T. Ryan, “Modification of thermal poling evolution using novel twin-hole fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1149 (2001)
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, J. Arentoft, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Evidence of Space-charge Effects in Thermal Poling,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 1265 (1999)
[CrossRef]

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Fleming, M. Janos, and K.-M. Lo, “Frozen-in Electrical Field in Thermally Poled Fibers,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 5, 235 (1999)
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Large Electrooptic Modulation in a Thermally-Poled Germanosilicate Fiber,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 7, 1177 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

P. Blazkiewicz, W. Xu, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Mechanism for the thermal poling in twin-hole silicate fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 870 (2002)
[CrossRef]

P. Blazkiewicz, W. Xu, D. Wong, S. Fleming, and T. Ryan, “Modification of thermal poling evolution using novel twin-hole fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1149 (2001)
[CrossRef]

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Fleming, M. Janos, and K.-M. Lo, “Frozen-in Electrical Field in Thermally Poled Fibers,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 5, 235 (1999)
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, J. Arentoft, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Evidence of Space-charge Effects in Thermal Poling,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 1265 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2687 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fibre elecrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. (1)

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A Poled Electrooptic Fiber,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 8, 227 (1996)
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

T. G. Alley, S. R. J. Brueck, and R. A. Myers, “Space charge dynamics in thermally poled fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 165 (1998)
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fib. Tech. (1)

D. Wong, W. Xu, S. Fleming, M. Janos, and K.-M. Lo, “Frozen-in Electrical Field in Thermally Poled Fibers,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 5, 235 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phot. Tech. Lett. (2)

W. Xu, J. Arentoft, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Evidence of Space-charge Effects in Thermal Poling,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 1265 (1999)
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, “Large Electrooptic Modulation in a Thermally-Poled Germanosilicate Fiber,” Phot. Tech. Lett. 7, 1177 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. Li, R. D. Birch, and D. N. Payne, “An all fibre electro-optic Kerr modulator,” in IEEE Colloquium on Àdvanced Fibre Waveguide Devices79, p 10/1–4 (1986)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

After poling, when the voltage bias is switched off, positive charges are attracted from the metal surfaces of both anode and cathode to shield the field in the metal. If the negative charges recorded in the poled fiber are closer to the cathode side, the field outside the depletion region is larger than inside it [8].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spatial evolution of the depletion region measured by etching, temperature is increasing from upper left to lower right picture. The overlap with the core improves with increasing temperature until the region encompasses the entire core. Note the substructure in the lower right picture indicating that the core is slowing down the evolution of the depletion layer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(left figure) Intensity vs. voltage response to find recorded field. The arrow indicates a symmetry point in the Mach-Zehnder interferometer where the applied voltage cancels the recorded field. (right figure) Time evolution of the recorded electric field. The recorded field first has negative sign. After 23 minutes of poling the recorded field is zero after which the sign changes to be the same as that of the applied voltage.

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