Abstract

We demonstrate a novel technique for instituting complex and arbitrary shaped micron-scale domain patterns in LiNbO3 at room temperature. Fabrication of continuous domains as narrow as 2 µm across and hexagonal patterns of the same order accompanied by real time visualization of the poling process are presented.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. G.A. Magel, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990)
    [Crossref]
  2. L.E. Myres, R.C. Eckardt, M. M> Fejer, R.L. Byre, W.R. Bosenberg, and J.W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2102–2116 (1995)
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Houé and P.D. Townsend, “An introduction to methods of periodic poling for second harmonic generation,” J. of Phys. D: Appl. Phys 28, 1747–1763 (1995)
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Yamada, “Elelctrically induced Bragg-diffraction grating composed of periodically inverted domains in lithium niobate crystals and its application devices,” Rev. of Sci. Instr. 71, 4010–4016 (2000)
    [Crossref]
  5. E.J. Lim, M.M. Fejer, F.L. Byer, and W.J. Kozlovsky, “Blue light generation by frequency doubling in periodically poled lithium niobate channel waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 25, Issue 11, 731–732 (1989)
    [Crossref]
  6. M.M. Fejer, G.A. Magel, D.H. Jundt, and R.L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, No. 11, 2631–2654 (1992)
    [Crossref]
  7. N.G.R. Broderick, G.W. Ross, H.L. Offerhaus, D.J. Richardson, and D.C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, No. 19, 4345–4384 (2000)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K.S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Generation of bright squeezed light at 10.6 µm using cascaded nonlinearities in a triply resonant cw periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A64 (2001)
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1992)
    [Crossref]
  10. R.G. Batchko, V.Y. Shur, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Backswitch poling in lithium niobate for high-fidelity domain patterning and efficient blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1673–1675 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  11. V.Y. Shur, E.L. Rumyantsev, E.V. Nikolaeva, E.I. Shishkin, E.V. Fursov, R.G. Batchko, L.A. Eyres, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Nanoscale backswitched domain patterning in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 143–145 (2000)
    [Crossref]
  12. V.S. Ilchenko, A.A. Savchenkov, A.B. Matsko, and L. Maleko, “Nonlinear Optics and Crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode Cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, No. 4043903 (2004)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. H.A. Eggert, B. Hecking, and K. Buse, “Electrical fixing in near-stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 29, No. 21, 2476–2478 (2004)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. K. Terabe, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, K. Kitamura, S. Higuchi, Y. Gotoh, and Y. Cho, “Microscale to nanoscale ferroelectric domain and surface engineering of a near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, No. 3, 433–435 (2003)
    [Crossref]
  15. G. Rosenman, P. Urenski, A. Agronin, Y. Rosenwaks, and M. Molotskii, “Submicron ferroelectric domain structures tailored by high voltage scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett 82, No. 1, 103–105 (2003)
    [Crossref]
  16. B.J. Rodriquez, R.J. Nemanich, A. Kingon, A. Gruverman, S.V. Kalinin, K. Terabe, X.Y. Liu, and K. Kitamura, “Domain growth kinetics in lithium niobate signel crystals studied by piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 012906 (2005)
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. Cho, K. Fujimoto, Y. Hiranaga, Y. Wagatsuma, A. Onoe, K. Terabe, and K. Kitamura, “Tbit/inch2 ferroelectric data storage based on scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, No. 23, 4401–4403 (2002)
    [Crossref]
  18. K. Fujimoto and Y. Cho, “High-speed switching of nanoscale ferroelectric domains in congruent single-crystal LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5265–5267 (2003)
    [Crossref]
  19. S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizo, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 961–968 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  20. V.S. Ilchenko, A.B. Matsko, A.A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold parametric nonlinear optics with quasi-phase-matched whispering-gallery modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, No. 6, 1304–1308 (2003)
    [Crossref]
  21. M. Mohageg, A.B. Matsko, A.A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V.S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” Electron. Lett. 41, 356–358 (2005)
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, S. Kurimura, J.H. Ro, and M. Cha, “Periodic poling in 3-mm-thick MgO:LiNbO3 Crystals,” Japanese J. of Appl. Phys. 42, 108–110 (2003)
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Müller, E. Soergal, and K. Buse, “Visualization of ferroelectric domains with coherent light,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2515–2517 (2003)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. D.H. Jundt, “Temperature-dependant Sellmeier equation for the index of refraction, ne, in congruent lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1553–1555 (1997)
    [Crossref]

2005 (2)

B.J. Rodriquez, R.J. Nemanich, A. Kingon, A. Gruverman, S.V. Kalinin, K. Terabe, X.Y. Liu, and K. Kitamura, “Domain growth kinetics in lithium niobate signel crystals studied by piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 012906 (2005)
[Crossref]

M. Mohageg, A.B. Matsko, A.A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V.S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” Electron. Lett. 41, 356–358 (2005)
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizo, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 961–968 (2004)
[Crossref]

H.A. Eggert, B. Hecking, and K. Buse, “Electrical fixing in near-stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 29, No. 21, 2476–2478 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

K. Terabe, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, K. Kitamura, S. Higuchi, Y. Gotoh, and Y. Cho, “Microscale to nanoscale ferroelectric domain and surface engineering of a near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, No. 3, 433–435 (2003)
[Crossref]

G. Rosenman, P. Urenski, A. Agronin, Y. Rosenwaks, and M. Molotskii, “Submicron ferroelectric domain structures tailored by high voltage scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett 82, No. 1, 103–105 (2003)
[Crossref]

V.S. Ilchenko, A.B. Matsko, A.A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold parametric nonlinear optics with quasi-phase-matched whispering-gallery modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, No. 6, 1304–1308 (2003)
[Crossref]

H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, S. Kurimura, J.H. Ro, and M. Cha, “Periodic poling in 3-mm-thick MgO:LiNbO3 Crystals,” Japanese J. of Appl. Phys. 42, 108–110 (2003)
[Crossref]

M. Müller, E. Soergal, and K. Buse, “Visualization of ferroelectric domains with coherent light,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2515–2517 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujimoto and Y. Cho, “High-speed switching of nanoscale ferroelectric domains in congruent single-crystal LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5265–5267 (2003)
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Y. Cho, K. Fujimoto, Y. Hiranaga, Y. Wagatsuma, A. Onoe, K. Terabe, and K. Kitamura, “Tbit/inch2 ferroelectric data storage based on scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, No. 23, 4401–4403 (2002)
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

V.Y. Shur, E.L. Rumyantsev, E.V. Nikolaeva, E.I. Shishkin, E.V. Fursov, R.G. Batchko, L.A. Eyres, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Nanoscale backswitched domain patterning in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 143–145 (2000)
[Crossref]

M. Yamada, “Elelctrically induced Bragg-diffraction grating composed of periodically inverted domains in lithium niobate crystals and its application devices,” Rev. of Sci. Instr. 71, 4010–4016 (2000)
[Crossref]

N.G.R. Broderick, G.W. Ross, H.L. Offerhaus, D.J. Richardson, and D.C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, No. 19, 4345–4384 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R.G. Batchko, V.Y. Shur, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Backswitch poling in lithium niobate for high-fidelity domain patterning and efficient blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1673–1675 (1999)
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

L.E. Myres, R.C. Eckardt, M. M> Fejer, R.L. Byre, W.R. Bosenberg, and J.W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2102–2116 (1995)
[Crossref]

M. Houé and P.D. Townsend, “An introduction to methods of periodic poling for second harmonic generation,” J. of Phys. D: Appl. Phys 28, 1747–1763 (1995)
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1992)
[Crossref]

M.M. Fejer, G.A. Magel, D.H. Jundt, and R.L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, No. 11, 2631–2654 (1992)
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

G.A. Magel, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990)
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

E.J. Lim, M.M. Fejer, F.L. Byer, and W.J. Kozlovsky, “Blue light generation by frequency doubling in periodically poled lithium niobate channel waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 25, Issue 11, 731–732 (1989)
[Crossref]

Agronin, A.

G. Rosenman, P. Urenski, A. Agronin, Y. Rosenwaks, and M. Molotskii, “Submicron ferroelectric domain structures tailored by high voltage scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett 82, No. 1, 103–105 (2003)
[Crossref]

Batchko, R.G.

V.Y. Shur, E.L. Rumyantsev, E.V. Nikolaeva, E.I. Shishkin, E.V. Fursov, R.G. Batchko, L.A. Eyres, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Nanoscale backswitched domain patterning in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 143–145 (2000)
[Crossref]

R.G. Batchko, V.Y. Shur, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Backswitch poling in lithium niobate for high-fidelity domain patterning and efficient blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1673–1675 (1999)
[Crossref]

Bosenberg, W.R.

Broderick, N.G.R.

N.G.R. Broderick, G.W. Ross, H.L. Offerhaus, D.J. Richardson, and D.C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, No. 19, 4345–4384 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buse, K.

Byer, F.L.

E.J. Lim, M.M. Fejer, F.L. Byer, and W.J. Kozlovsky, “Blue light generation by frequency doubling in periodically poled lithium niobate channel waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 25, Issue 11, 731–732 (1989)
[Crossref]

Byer, R.L.

V.Y. Shur, E.L. Rumyantsev, E.V. Nikolaeva, E.I. Shishkin, E.V. Fursov, R.G. Batchko, L.A. Eyres, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Nanoscale backswitched domain patterning in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 143–145 (2000)
[Crossref]

R.G. Batchko, V.Y. Shur, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Backswitch poling in lithium niobate for high-fidelity domain patterning and efficient blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1673–1675 (1999)
[Crossref]

M.M. Fejer, G.A. Magel, D.H. Jundt, and R.L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, No. 11, 2631–2654 (1992)
[Crossref]

G.A. Magel, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990)
[Crossref]

Byre, R.L.

Cha, M.

H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, S. Kurimura, J.H. Ro, and M. Cha, “Periodic poling in 3-mm-thick MgO:LiNbO3 Crystals,” Japanese J. of Appl. Phys. 42, 108–110 (2003)
[Crossref]

Chiarini, M.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizo, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 961–968 (2004)
[Crossref]

Cho, Y.

K. Fujimoto and Y. Cho, “High-speed switching of nanoscale ferroelectric domains in congruent single-crystal LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5265–5267 (2003)
[Crossref]

K. Terabe, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, K. Kitamura, S. Higuchi, Y. Gotoh, and Y. Cho, “Microscale to nanoscale ferroelectric domain and surface engineering of a near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, No. 3, 433–435 (2003)
[Crossref]

Y. Cho, K. Fujimoto, Y. Hiranaga, Y. Wagatsuma, A. Onoe, K. Terabe, and K. Kitamura, “Tbit/inch2 ferroelectric data storage based on scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, No. 23, 4401–4403 (2002)
[Crossref]

Coppola, G.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizo, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 961–968 (2004)
[Crossref]

Coudreau, T.

K.S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Generation of bright squeezed light at 10.6 µm using cascaded nonlinearities in a triply resonant cw periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A64 (2001)
[Crossref]

De Natale, P.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizo, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 961–968 (2004)
[Crossref]

De Nicola, S.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizo, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 961–968 (2004)
[Crossref]

Eckardt, R.C.

Eggert, H.A.

Eyres, L.A.

V.Y. Shur, E.L. Rumyantsev, E.V. Nikolaeva, E.I. Shishkin, E.V. Fursov, R.G. Batchko, L.A. Eyres, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Nanoscale backswitched domain patterning in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 143–145 (2000)
[Crossref]

Fabre, C.

K.S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Generation of bright squeezed light at 10.6 µm using cascaded nonlinearities in a triply resonant cw periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A64 (2001)
[Crossref]

Fejer, M.M.

V.Y. Shur, E.L. Rumyantsev, E.V. Nikolaeva, E.I. Shishkin, E.V. Fursov, R.G. Batchko, L.A. Eyres, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Nanoscale backswitched domain patterning in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 143–145 (2000)
[Crossref]

R.G. Batchko, V.Y. Shur, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Backswitch poling in lithium niobate for high-fidelity domain patterning and efficient blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1673–1675 (1999)
[Crossref]

M.M. Fejer, G.A. Magel, D.H. Jundt, and R.L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, No. 11, 2631–2654 (1992)
[Crossref]

G.A. Magel, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990)
[Crossref]

E.J. Lim, M.M. Fejer, F.L. Byer, and W.J. Kozlovsky, “Blue light generation by frequency doubling in periodically poled lithium niobate channel waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 25, Issue 11, 731–732 (1989)
[Crossref]

Ferraro, P.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizo, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 961–968 (2004)
[Crossref]

Finizo, A.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizo, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 961–968 (2004)
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, K.

K. Fujimoto and Y. Cho, “High-speed switching of nanoscale ferroelectric domains in congruent single-crystal LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5265–5267 (2003)
[Crossref]

Y. Cho, K. Fujimoto, Y. Hiranaga, Y. Wagatsuma, A. Onoe, K. Terabe, and K. Kitamura, “Tbit/inch2 ferroelectric data storage based on scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, No. 23, 4401–4403 (2002)
[Crossref]

Fursov, E.V.

V.Y. Shur, E.L. Rumyantsev, E.V. Nikolaeva, E.I. Shishkin, E.V. Fursov, R.G. Batchko, L.A. Eyres, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Nanoscale backswitched domain patterning in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 143–145 (2000)
[Crossref]

Gotoh, Y.

K. Terabe, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, K. Kitamura, S. Higuchi, Y. Gotoh, and Y. Cho, “Microscale to nanoscale ferroelectric domain and surface engineering of a near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, No. 3, 433–435 (2003)
[Crossref]

Grilli, S.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizo, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 961–968 (2004)
[Crossref]

Gruverman, A.

B.J. Rodriquez, R.J. Nemanich, A. Kingon, A. Gruverman, S.V. Kalinin, K. Terabe, X.Y. Liu, and K. Kitamura, “Domain growth kinetics in lithium niobate signel crystals studied by piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 012906 (2005)
[Crossref]

Hanna, D.C.

N.G.R. Broderick, G.W. Ross, H.L. Offerhaus, D.J. Richardson, and D.C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, No. 19, 4345–4384 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hecking, B.

Higuchi, S.

K. Terabe, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, K. Kitamura, S. Higuchi, Y. Gotoh, and Y. Cho, “Microscale to nanoscale ferroelectric domain and surface engineering of a near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, No. 3, 433–435 (2003)
[Crossref]

Hiranaga, Y.

Y. Cho, K. Fujimoto, Y. Hiranaga, Y. Wagatsuma, A. Onoe, K. Terabe, and K. Kitamura, “Tbit/inch2 ferroelectric data storage based on scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, No. 23, 4401–4403 (2002)
[Crossref]

Houé, M.

M. Houé and P.D. Townsend, “An introduction to methods of periodic poling for second harmonic generation,” J. of Phys. D: Appl. Phys 28, 1747–1763 (1995)
[Crossref]

Ilchenko, V.S.

M. Mohageg, A.B. Matsko, A.A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V.S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” Electron. Lett. 41, 356–358 (2005)
[Crossref]

V.S. Ilchenko, A.B. Matsko, A.A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold parametric nonlinear optics with quasi-phase-matched whispering-gallery modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, No. 6, 1304–1308 (2003)
[Crossref]

V.S. Ilchenko, A.A. Savchenkov, A.B. Matsko, and L. Maleko, “Nonlinear Optics and Crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode Cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, No. 4043903 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iodice, M.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizo, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 961–968 (2004)
[Crossref]

Ishizuki, H.

H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, S. Kurimura, J.H. Ro, and M. Cha, “Periodic poling in 3-mm-thick MgO:LiNbO3 Crystals,” Japanese J. of Appl. Phys. 42, 108–110 (2003)
[Crossref]

Jundt, D.H.

D.H. Jundt, “Temperature-dependant Sellmeier equation for the index of refraction, ne, in congruent lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1553–1555 (1997)
[Crossref]

M.M. Fejer, G.A. Magel, D.H. Jundt, and R.L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, No. 11, 2631–2654 (1992)
[Crossref]

Kalinin, S.V.

B.J. Rodriquez, R.J. Nemanich, A. Kingon, A. Gruverman, S.V. Kalinin, K. Terabe, X.Y. Liu, and K. Kitamura, “Domain growth kinetics in lithium niobate signel crystals studied by piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 012906 (2005)
[Crossref]

Kingon, A.

B.J. Rodriquez, R.J. Nemanich, A. Kingon, A. Gruverman, S.V. Kalinin, K. Terabe, X.Y. Liu, and K. Kitamura, “Domain growth kinetics in lithium niobate signel crystals studied by piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 012906 (2005)
[Crossref]

Kitamura, K.

B.J. Rodriquez, R.J. Nemanich, A. Kingon, A. Gruverman, S.V. Kalinin, K. Terabe, X.Y. Liu, and K. Kitamura, “Domain growth kinetics in lithium niobate signel crystals studied by piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 012906 (2005)
[Crossref]

K. Terabe, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, K. Kitamura, S. Higuchi, Y. Gotoh, and Y. Cho, “Microscale to nanoscale ferroelectric domain and surface engineering of a near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, No. 3, 433–435 (2003)
[Crossref]

Y. Cho, K. Fujimoto, Y. Hiranaga, Y. Wagatsuma, A. Onoe, K. Terabe, and K. Kitamura, “Tbit/inch2 ferroelectric data storage based on scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, No. 23, 4401–4403 (2002)
[Crossref]

Kozlovsky, W.J.

E.J. Lim, M.M. Fejer, F.L. Byer, and W.J. Kozlovsky, “Blue light generation by frequency doubling in periodically poled lithium niobate channel waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 25, Issue 11, 731–732 (1989)
[Crossref]

Kurimura, S.

H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, S. Kurimura, J.H. Ro, and M. Cha, “Periodic poling in 3-mm-thick MgO:LiNbO3 Crystals,” Japanese J. of Appl. Phys. 42, 108–110 (2003)
[Crossref]

Lim, E.J.

E.J. Lim, M.M. Fejer, F.L. Byer, and W.J. Kozlovsky, “Blue light generation by frequency doubling in periodically poled lithium niobate channel waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 25, Issue 11, 731–732 (1989)
[Crossref]

Liu, X.Y.

B.J. Rodriquez, R.J. Nemanich, A. Kingon, A. Gruverman, S.V. Kalinin, K. Terabe, X.Y. Liu, and K. Kitamura, “Domain growth kinetics in lithium niobate signel crystals studied by piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 012906 (2005)
[Crossref]

M> Fejer, M.

Magel, G.A.

M.M. Fejer, G.A. Magel, D.H. Jundt, and R.L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, No. 11, 2631–2654 (1992)
[Crossref]

G.A. Magel, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990)
[Crossref]

Maitre, A.

K.S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Generation of bright squeezed light at 10.6 µm using cascaded nonlinearities in a triply resonant cw periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A64 (2001)
[Crossref]

Maleki, L.

M. Mohageg, A.B. Matsko, A.A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V.S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” Electron. Lett. 41, 356–358 (2005)
[Crossref]

V.S. Ilchenko, A.B. Matsko, A.A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold parametric nonlinear optics with quasi-phase-matched whispering-gallery modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, No. 6, 1304–1308 (2003)
[Crossref]

Maleko, L.

V.S. Ilchenko, A.A. Savchenkov, A.B. Matsko, and L. Maleko, “Nonlinear Optics and Crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode Cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, No. 4043903 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martinelli, M.

K.S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Generation of bright squeezed light at 10.6 µm using cascaded nonlinearities in a triply resonant cw periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A64 (2001)
[Crossref]

Matsko, A.B.

M. Mohageg, A.B. Matsko, A.A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V.S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” Electron. Lett. 41, 356–358 (2005)
[Crossref]

V.S. Ilchenko, A.B. Matsko, A.A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold parametric nonlinear optics with quasi-phase-matched whispering-gallery modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, No. 6, 1304–1308 (2003)
[Crossref]

V.S. Ilchenko, A.A. Savchenkov, A.B. Matsko, and L. Maleko, “Nonlinear Optics and Crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode Cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, No. 4043903 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohageg, M.

M. Mohageg, A.B. Matsko, A.A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V.S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” Electron. Lett. 41, 356–358 (2005)
[Crossref]

Molotskii, M.

G. Rosenman, P. Urenski, A. Agronin, Y. Rosenwaks, and M. Molotskii, “Submicron ferroelectric domain structures tailored by high voltage scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett 82, No. 1, 103–105 (2003)
[Crossref]

Müller, M.

Myres, L.E.

Nada, N.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1992)
[Crossref]

Nakamura, M.

K. Terabe, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, K. Kitamura, S. Higuchi, Y. Gotoh, and Y. Cho, “Microscale to nanoscale ferroelectric domain and surface engineering of a near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, No. 3, 433–435 (2003)
[Crossref]

Nemanich, R.J.

B.J. Rodriquez, R.J. Nemanich, A. Kingon, A. Gruverman, S.V. Kalinin, K. Terabe, X.Y. Liu, and K. Kitamura, “Domain growth kinetics in lithium niobate signel crystals studied by piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 012906 (2005)
[Crossref]

Nikolaeva, E.V.

V.Y. Shur, E.L. Rumyantsev, E.V. Nikolaeva, E.I. Shishkin, E.V. Fursov, R.G. Batchko, L.A. Eyres, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Nanoscale backswitched domain patterning in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 143–145 (2000)
[Crossref]

Offerhaus, H.L.

N.G.R. Broderick, G.W. Ross, H.L. Offerhaus, D.J. Richardson, and D.C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, No. 19, 4345–4384 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onoe, A.

Y. Cho, K. Fujimoto, Y. Hiranaga, Y. Wagatsuma, A. Onoe, K. Terabe, and K. Kitamura, “Tbit/inch2 ferroelectric data storage based on scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, No. 23, 4401–4403 (2002)
[Crossref]

Pierce, J.W.

Richardson, D.J.

N.G.R. Broderick, G.W. Ross, H.L. Offerhaus, D.J. Richardson, and D.C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, No. 19, 4345–4384 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ro, J.H.

H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, S. Kurimura, J.H. Ro, and M. Cha, “Periodic poling in 3-mm-thick MgO:LiNbO3 Crystals,” Japanese J. of Appl. Phys. 42, 108–110 (2003)
[Crossref]

Rodriquez, B.J.

B.J. Rodriquez, R.J. Nemanich, A. Kingon, A. Gruverman, S.V. Kalinin, K. Terabe, X.Y. Liu, and K. Kitamura, “Domain growth kinetics in lithium niobate signel crystals studied by piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 012906 (2005)
[Crossref]

Rosenman, G.

G. Rosenman, P. Urenski, A. Agronin, Y. Rosenwaks, and M. Molotskii, “Submicron ferroelectric domain structures tailored by high voltage scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett 82, No. 1, 103–105 (2003)
[Crossref]

Rosenwaks, Y.

G. Rosenman, P. Urenski, A. Agronin, Y. Rosenwaks, and M. Molotskii, “Submicron ferroelectric domain structures tailored by high voltage scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett 82, No. 1, 103–105 (2003)
[Crossref]

Ross, G.W.

N.G.R. Broderick, G.W. Ross, H.L. Offerhaus, D.J. Richardson, and D.C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, No. 19, 4345–4384 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rumyantsev, E.L.

V.Y. Shur, E.L. Rumyantsev, E.V. Nikolaeva, E.I. Shishkin, E.V. Fursov, R.G. Batchko, L.A. Eyres, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Nanoscale backswitched domain patterning in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 143–145 (2000)
[Crossref]

Saitoh, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1992)
[Crossref]

Savchenkov, A.A.

M. Mohageg, A.B. Matsko, A.A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V.S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” Electron. Lett. 41, 356–358 (2005)
[Crossref]

V.S. Ilchenko, A.B. Matsko, A.A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Low threshold parametric nonlinear optics with quasi-phase-matched whispering-gallery modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, No. 6, 1304–1308 (2003)
[Crossref]

V.S. Ilchenko, A.A. Savchenkov, A.B. Matsko, and L. Maleko, “Nonlinear Optics and Crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode Cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, No. 4043903 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishkin, E.I.

V.Y. Shur, E.L. Rumyantsev, E.V. Nikolaeva, E.I. Shishkin, E.V. Fursov, R.G. Batchko, L.A. Eyres, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Nanoscale backswitched domain patterning in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 143–145 (2000)
[Crossref]

Shur, V.Y.

V.Y. Shur, E.L. Rumyantsev, E.V. Nikolaeva, E.I. Shishkin, E.V. Fursov, R.G. Batchko, L.A. Eyres, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Nanoscale backswitched domain patterning in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 143–145 (2000)
[Crossref]

R.G. Batchko, V.Y. Shur, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Backswitch poling in lithium niobate for high-fidelity domain patterning and efficient blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1673–1675 (1999)
[Crossref]

Soergal, E.

Strekalov, D.

M. Mohageg, A.B. Matsko, A.A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V.S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” Electron. Lett. 41, 356–358 (2005)
[Crossref]

Taira, T.

H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, S. Kurimura, J.H. Ro, and M. Cha, “Periodic poling in 3-mm-thick MgO:LiNbO3 Crystals,” Japanese J. of Appl. Phys. 42, 108–110 (2003)
[Crossref]

Takekawa, S.

K. Terabe, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, K. Kitamura, S. Higuchi, Y. Gotoh, and Y. Cho, “Microscale to nanoscale ferroelectric domain and surface engineering of a near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, No. 3, 433–435 (2003)
[Crossref]

Terabe, K.

B.J. Rodriquez, R.J. Nemanich, A. Kingon, A. Gruverman, S.V. Kalinin, K. Terabe, X.Y. Liu, and K. Kitamura, “Domain growth kinetics in lithium niobate signel crystals studied by piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 012906 (2005)
[Crossref]

K. Terabe, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, K. Kitamura, S. Higuchi, Y. Gotoh, and Y. Cho, “Microscale to nanoscale ferroelectric domain and surface engineering of a near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, No. 3, 433–435 (2003)
[Crossref]

Y. Cho, K. Fujimoto, Y. Hiranaga, Y. Wagatsuma, A. Onoe, K. Terabe, and K. Kitamura, “Tbit/inch2 ferroelectric data storage based on scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, No. 23, 4401–4403 (2002)
[Crossref]

Townsend, P.D.

M. Houé and P.D. Townsend, “An introduction to methods of periodic poling for second harmonic generation,” J. of Phys. D: Appl. Phys 28, 1747–1763 (1995)
[Crossref]

Urenski, P.

G. Rosenman, P. Urenski, A. Agronin, Y. Rosenwaks, and M. Molotskii, “Submicron ferroelectric domain structures tailored by high voltage scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett 82, No. 1, 103–105 (2003)
[Crossref]

Wagatsuma, Y.

Y. Cho, K. Fujimoto, Y. Hiranaga, Y. Wagatsuma, A. Onoe, K. Terabe, and K. Kitamura, “Tbit/inch2 ferroelectric data storage based on scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, No. 23, 4401–4403 (2002)
[Crossref]

Watanabe, K.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1992)
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, “Elelctrically induced Bragg-diffraction grating composed of periodically inverted domains in lithium niobate crystals and its application devices,” Rev. of Sci. Instr. 71, 4010–4016 (2000)
[Crossref]

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1992)
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.S.

K.S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Generation of bright squeezed light at 10.6 µm using cascaded nonlinearities in a triply resonant cw periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A64 (2001)
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

G. Rosenman, P. Urenski, A. Agronin, Y. Rosenwaks, and M. Molotskii, “Submicron ferroelectric domain structures tailored by high voltage scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett 82, No. 1, 103–105 (2003)
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

B.J. Rodriquez, R.J. Nemanich, A. Kingon, A. Gruverman, S.V. Kalinin, K. Terabe, X.Y. Liu, and K. Kitamura, “Domain growth kinetics in lithium niobate signel crystals studied by piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 012906 (2005)
[Crossref]

Y. Cho, K. Fujimoto, Y. Hiranaga, Y. Wagatsuma, A. Onoe, K. Terabe, and K. Kitamura, “Tbit/inch2 ferroelectric data storage based on scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, No. 23, 4401–4403 (2002)
[Crossref]

K. Fujimoto and Y. Cho, “High-speed switching of nanoscale ferroelectric domains in congruent single-crystal LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5265–5267 (2003)
[Crossref]

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1992)
[Crossref]

R.G. Batchko, V.Y. Shur, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Backswitch poling in lithium niobate for high-fidelity domain patterning and efficient blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1673–1675 (1999)
[Crossref]

V.Y. Shur, E.L. Rumyantsev, E.V. Nikolaeva, E.I. Shishkin, E.V. Fursov, R.G. Batchko, L.A. Eyres, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer, “Nanoscale backswitched domain patterning in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 143–145 (2000)
[Crossref]

G.A. Magel, M.M. Fejer, and R.L. Byer “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 108–110 (1990)
[Crossref]

K. Terabe, M. Nakamura, S. Takekawa, K. Kitamura, S. Higuchi, Y. Gotoh, and Y. Cho, “Microscale to nanoscale ferroelectric domain and surface engineering of a near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, No. 3, 433–435 (2003)
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Mohageg, A.B. Matsko, A.A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V.S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” Electron. Lett. 41, 356–358 (2005)
[Crossref]

E.J. Lim, M.M. Fejer, F.L. Byer, and W.J. Kozlovsky, “Blue light generation by frequency doubling in periodically poled lithium niobate channel waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 25, Issue 11, 731–732 (1989)
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M.M. Fejer, G.A. Magel, D.H. Jundt, and R.L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, No. 11, 2631–2654 (1992)
[Crossref]

J. of Phys. D: Appl. Phys (1)

M. Houé and P.D. Townsend, “An introduction to methods of periodic poling for second harmonic generation,” J. of Phys. D: Appl. Phys 28, 1747–1763 (1995)
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Japanese J. of Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, S. Kurimura, J.H. Ro, and M. Cha, “Periodic poling in 3-mm-thick MgO:LiNbO3 Crystals,” Japanese J. of Appl. Phys. 42, 108–110 (2003)
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Tech. (1)

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizo, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, “Surface topography of microstructures in lithium niobate by digital holographic microscopy,” Meas. Sci. Tech. 15, 961–968 (2004)
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N.G.R. Broderick, G.W. Ross, H.L. Offerhaus, D.J. Richardson, and D.C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, No. 19, 4345–4384 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. of Sci. Instr. (1)

M. Yamada, “Elelctrically induced Bragg-diffraction grating composed of periodically inverted domains in lithium niobate crystals and its application devices,” Rev. of Sci. Instr. 71, 4010–4016 (2000)
[Crossref]

Other (2)

K.S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Generation of bright squeezed light at 10.6 µm using cascaded nonlinearities in a triply resonant cw periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A64 (2001)
[Crossref]

V.S. Ilchenko, A.A. Savchenkov, A.B. Matsko, and L. Maleko, “Nonlinear Optics and Crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode Cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, No. 4043903 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (747 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2231 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (2499 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A diagram of the calligraphic poling machine. The tungsten pen is free to move across the surface of the crystal. When voltage is applied, domain reversal takes place locally under the position of the pen. The arrows represent the direction of the polarization for local regions on the crystal.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Poling dynamics of a 200 µm thick specimen of congruent LiNbO3. 3 kV of bias was applied through a 1 µm tungsten pen and the surface area of the resultant domain structure was recorded. This experiment was repeated nine times at various locations on the crystal to obtain the error bars.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Poling dynamics in 200 µm thick stoichiometric LiNbO3. (a) Increasing bias voltage applied to different regions of the crystal for 5 s results in domain structures of increasing size. (b) Increasing the time a given bias voltage is applied will result in domains of increasing size.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Ferroelectric work-hardening in 120 µm thick congruent LiNbO3. Domains are flipped, erased, and re-poled in successive iterations. The measured surface areas of the domains grow dramatically through several iterations.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) A ring shaped poling pattern 2 µm edge to edge that follows the circumference of a disk shaped crystal. (b) Detail of a section of the ring. These images appear orange because of the brass substrate used as the bottom electrode.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) A hexagonally shaped domain pattern in stoichiometric LiNbO3 24 µm edge to edge visualized ex situ. The large black arrow is the shadow of the pen used for writing and visualizing the domain. The sample was 110 µm thick with a radius of 6 mm. (b) A video of a linear chain of such hexagons written on congruent LiNbO3 visualized in situ. This sample was 80 µm thick with a radius of 7.5 mm. (2.4 MB).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Modification to the calligraphic poling machine to allow for edge-poling on a polished crystal. A hydrophobic, transparent, and insulating oil prevents sparks from charge build up on the edge of the crystal.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Demonstration of poling at the edge of a disk shaped crystal with a diameter of 7 mm. Domains in the shape of radial lines 13 µm across (and 13 µm between) are draws with a 1 µm radius tungsten tip at 1.8 kV bias in real time. Two to three passes per line are made to ensure uniform domain thickness. Between stripes, the image goes out of focus because of the oil drop on top of the crystal (2.2 MB).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Two linear domain structures 15 µm across are divided into sections by ‘erasing’ domain structures with the pen. The bias voltage between the pen and the substrate causes the previously +z poled regions to flip back to −z polarization (2.5 MB).

Metrics