Abstract

Vertical-cavity multiple quantum well electroabsorption modulators (EAM) offer gigahertz modulation speeds, insensitivity to light polarisation and can be integrated into large arrays. They are therefore good candidates for efficient parallel signal processing architectures. We present high-performance 2×128 and 2×64 EAM arrays that were fabricated at 4” wafer-scale by using optimised fabrication and hybridisation processes. The arrays exhibit contrast ratios of 20:1 with a voltage swing of 1 V, a maximum contrast ratio of 335:1 for a 10 V bias and a modulation frequency in excess of 15 MHz.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Uriel Arad, Eddie Redmard, Moshe Shamay, Arkadi Averboukh, Shimon Levit, and Uzi Efron, �??�??Development of a large high-performance 2-D array of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum-well modulators,�??�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1531-1533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qin Wang, Stéphane Junique, Daniel �?gren, Bertrand Noharet and Jan Y. Andersson, �??�??Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators for high-speed free-space optical communication,�??�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1471-1473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

D. Dolfi, J. Tabourel, Q. Durand, V. Laude, J. P. Huignard, J. Chazelas, �??�??Optical architectures for programmable filtering and correlation of microwave signals,�??�?? IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1467-1471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. A. Trezza and J. S. Harris, Jr. �??�??Creation and optimization of vertical cavity phase flip modulators,�??�?? J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4878-4884 (1994)
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

H. Malm, C. Asplund, S. Becanovic, J. Borgling, A. Parekh and B. Hirschauer, �??�??Advanced process control for high quality R&D and production of MOVPE material by RealTemp,�??�?? J. Cryst. Growth 248, 229-234 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

Hong Liu, Chien-Chung Lin, and James S. Harris, Jr., �??�??High-speed, dual-function vertical cavity multiple quantum well modulators and photodetectors for optical interconnects,�??�?? Opt. Eng. 40, 1186-1191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Solkolsky, J. A.Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi- Anastasiou, and M. J. Montes, �??�??Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for freespace optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,�??�?? Opt. Eng. 40, 1348-1356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett (1)

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, �??�??Bandedge electro-absorption in quantum well structures: the quantum confined Stark effect,�??�?? Phys. Rev. Lett, 53, 2173-2177 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. T. Carrott, G. L. Mallaley, R. B. Dydyk, S. A. Mills, �??�??Third generation miniature ruggedized optical correlators (MROC) module,�?? in Optical Pattern Recognition IX, David P. Casasent, Tien-Hsin Chao, eds., Proc. SPIE 3386, 38-44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

U. Efron and G. Liverscu, �??Multiple Quantum Well Spatial Light Modulators,�?? in Spatial Light Modulator Technology: materials, devices and applications, Uzi Efron, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995), pp. 217-286.

G. E. Ponchak, �??�??PIN diodes,�??�?? in GaAs MMIC Reliability Assurance Guideline for Space Applications, chapter 6 (1996), <a href= "http://parts.jpl.nasa.gov/mmic/contents.htm">http://parts.jpl.nasa.gov/mmic/contents.htm</a>.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Design of the 2×128 EAM arrays, (b) Zoomed a part of the array.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic cross-section of the EAM array hybridised to its electrical connector (not to scale).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Hybridised 2×64 (a) and 2×128 (b) EAM arrays on their ECs after the thinning process.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

I–V curves of the pixels in 2×64 and 2×128 EAM arrays, the insert of the figure shows the electrical uniformity of one row (64 pixels) in a 2×64 EAM array and one row (128 pixels) in a 2×128 EAM array.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

A typical reflectance spectrum of the EAM arrays. The insert shows the FP cavity uniformity of the 2×128 (A) and 2×64 (B1 and B2) EAM arrays with a measurement step of 0.5 mm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Modulation depth of a 2×64 EAM array under different reverse biases. The insert shows contrast ratio for a 6 V bias.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Reflectance vs. applied bias at 853.8 nm and 856.1 nm, respectively.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Example of optical response of the 2×64 EAM array for a 15 MHz sinusoidal drive signal.

Equations (3)

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E max = V b r W
C R = R on R off
f c = 1 2 π R C

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