Abstract

Using a collection near-field microscope, we image interaction of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) excited locally at telecom wavelengths with periodic triangular arrays of gold bumps placed on gold film surfaces. We observe the inhibition of SPP propagation into the arrays within a certain wavelength range depending on their period and orientation, i.e., the band gap (BG) effect, as well as the SPP propagation along bent channels cut through these arrays. Prospects and challenges in realization of compact and efficient SPPBG waveguiding structures are discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  2. W.L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T.W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics, " Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J.R. Krenn, J.-C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon polaritons in metal stripes and wires, " Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 739-756 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, �??Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Express 13, 977-984 (2005), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-977">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-977<a/>
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  5. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S.I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5836 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, "Integrated plasmon and dielectric waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 5481-5486 (2004), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-22-5481.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-22-5481.<a/>
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  7. S.I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P.M.W. Skovgaard, and J.M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in Surface Plasmon Polariton Band Gap Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade and J. N. Winn, "Photonic Crystals," Princeton Press, Princeton, New Jersey (1995).
  9. S.I. Bozhevolnyi, V.S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, "Bend loss in surface plasmon polariton band-gap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076-1078 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. DME-DualScopeTM, Herlev, Denmark
  11. S.I. Bozhevolnyi, "Near-field mapping of surface polariton fields," J. Microscopy 202, 313-319 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Grosjean and D. Courjon, "Polarization filtering induced by imaging systems: Effect on image structure, " Phys. Rev. E 67, art.No.046611 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, San Diego, CA, 1985).
  14. T. Søndergaard and S.I. Bozhevolnyi, "Vectorial model for multiple scattering by surface nanoparticles via surface polariton-to-polariton interactions, " Phys. Rev. B 67, art.No.165405 (2003).
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  15. M. Kretschmann, "Phase diagrams of surface plasmon polaritonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 68, art.No.125419 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S.I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.I. Bozhevolnyi, V.S. Volkov, K. Leosson, and A. Boltasseva, "Bend loss in surface plasmon polariton band-gap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1076-1078 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Microscopy (1)

S.I. Bozhevolnyi, "Near-field mapping of surface polariton fields," J. Microscopy 202, 313-319 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W.L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T.W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics, " Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

J.R. Krenn, J.-C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon polaritons in metal stripes and wires, " Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 739-756 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

T. Søndergaard and S.I. Bozhevolnyi, "Vectorial model for multiple scattering by surface nanoparticles via surface polariton-to-polariton interactions, " Phys. Rev. B 67, art.No.165405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kretschmann, "Phase diagrams of surface plasmon polaritonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 68, art.No.125419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

T. Grosjean and D. Courjon, "Polarization filtering induced by imaging systems: Effect on image structure, " Phys. Rev. E 67, art.No.046611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S.I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P.M.W. Skovgaard, and J.M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in Surface Plasmon Polariton Band Gap Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade and J. N. Winn, "Photonic Crystals," Princeton Press, Princeton, New Jersey (1995).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, San Diego, CA, 1985).

DME-DualScopeTM, Herlev, Denmark

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (920 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup. (b) A reflected beam spot observed on a screen for a 45-nm-thick gold film at λ=633 nm. (c) Microscope dark-field image of a typical sample structure showing periodic arrays of gold bumps with straight and bent channels (line defects) placed along the median line of a 200-µm-wide gold stripe.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Near-field imaging of localized SPP excitation and SPP propagation for different wavelengths. A 60-nm-thick gold film has been used for λ=(a) 633 and (b) 790 nm, whereas a 50-nm-thick gold film was used for (c) λ=1520 nm. (d) The SPP propagation length derived by an exponential fit to the signal decrease along dashed lines indicated in the corresponding SNOM images.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SNOM (a) topographical and (b,c) optical images (35×35 µm2) of a triangular 900-nm-period structure with the SPP being excited at the wavelength of (b) 1550 and (c) 1600 nm and incident from the right in the ΓK direction of the irreducible Brillouin zone of the lattice [8]. The gold film thickness is 40 nm, and bump diameter and height are 378 nm and 100 nm, respectively. The structure orientation and an estimate of the position of the exciting focused laser beam are indicated on the topographical image (a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Orientation of the SPPBG structure in our experiments for ΓK orientation and (b) the typical cross section of the SNOM optical image obtained. Similar cross sections are used to determine wavelength dependencies of (c) the SPP penetration depth and (d) the peak in spatial frequency spectra (of the signal variations in front of the SPPBG structure). (Movie 920 KB)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SNOM (a) topographical and (b,c,d) optical images (52×26 µm2) of a triangular 950-nm-period structure with the SPP being excited at the wavelength of (b) 1500, (c) 1520 and (c) 1540 nm and incident from the right in ΓM direction. The gold film thickness is 23 nm, and bump diameter and height are 438 nm and 80 nm, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SNOM (a) topographical and (b) optical image (35×35 µm2) of a channel bend in a triangular 950-nm-period structure with the SPP being excited at the wavelength of 1515 nm and incident from the right in ΓM direction. The gold film thickness is 23 nm, and bump diameter and height are 438 nm and 80 nm, respectively.

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