Abstract

A resonant diffraction grating comprising a mirror, a dielectric layer and a high index corrugation at the layer-air interface is shown to exhibit off-Littrow the record diffraction efficiency of 99% in the -1st reflected order at 1064 nm wavelength thanks to the excitation of a leaky mode of the layer. Such high figure is obtained by a grating 5 to 10 times shallower than in current attempts to realize high efficiency all-dielectric gratings.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. G.A. Golubenko, A.S. Svakhin, A.V. Tishchenko, and V.A Sychugov, “Total reflection of light from the corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 886–887 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  2. A.V. Tishchenko and V.A. Sychugov, “High grating efficiency by energy accumulation in a leaky mode,” Opt. and Quantum Electron. 32, 1027–1031 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  3. V.A. Sychugov and A.V. Tishchenko, “Light emission from a corrugated dielectric waveguide,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10 (2), 186–189 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  4. I.A. Avrutsky and V. A. Sychugov “Reflection of a beam of finite size from a corrugated waveguide,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1527 (1989)
    [Crossref]
  5. O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as functional elements,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453–469 (1996)
    [Crossref]
  6. S.S. Wang and R. Magnusson, “Theory and applications of guided-mode resonance filters,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2606–2613 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. K. Hehl, J. Bischoff, U. Mohaupt, M. Palme, B. Schnabel, L Wenke, R. Boedefeld, W. Theobald, E. Welsch, R. Sauerbrey, and H. Heyer, “High-efficiency dielectric reflection gratings: design, fabrication and analysis,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6257–6271 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Ulrich and W. Prettl, “Planar leaky light-guides and couplers,” Appl. Phys. 1, 55–68 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  9. J.D. Decotignie, O. Parriaux, and F.E. Gardiol, “Wave propagation in lossy and leaky planar optical waveguides,” AEÜ, Band 35, 201–204 (1981).
  10. I.F. Salakhutdinov, V.A. Sychugov, and O. Parriaux, “Highly efficient diffraction gratings for use in the Littman-Metcalf mounting,” Quantum Electron. 28, 983–986 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Clausnitzer, T. Schreiber, F. Röser, J. Limpert, E.-B. Kley, H.- J. Fuchs, and A. Tuennermann, “Highly efficient dielectric gratings for high power ultrafast fiberlaser systems,” SPIE Photonics West 22–27 January, 2005, Conference Proceeding No 5714 Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers VII (in print), Paper No 49.
  12. H. Wei and L. Li, “All-dielectric reflection gratings: a study of the physical mechanism for achieving high efficiency,” Appl. Opt. 42 (31), 6255–6260 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. D. Perry, R.D. Boyd, J.A. Decker, B.W. Shore, C. Shannon, and E. Shults, “High-efficiency multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 20, 940–942 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. B. Touzet and J. R. Gilchrist, “Multilayer dielectric gratings enable more-powerful high-energy lasers,” Photonics Spectra, 68–75, Sept 2003.
  15. M. A. Ahmed, J.-C. Pommier, F. Pigeon, and O. Parriaux, “Flux resistance degradation in resonant grating multilayer mirror,” SPIE 5250, 27 (2003).

2003 (2)

H. Wei and L. Li, “All-dielectric reflection gratings: a study of the physical mechanism for achieving high efficiency,” Appl. Opt. 42 (31), 6255–6260 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Ahmed, J.-C. Pommier, F. Pigeon, and O. Parriaux, “Flux resistance degradation in resonant grating multilayer mirror,” SPIE 5250, 27 (2003).

2000 (1)

A.V. Tishchenko and V.A. Sychugov, “High grating efficiency by energy accumulation in a leaky mode,” Opt. and Quantum Electron. 32, 1027–1031 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

I.F. Salakhutdinov, V.A. Sychugov, and O. Parriaux, “Highly efficient diffraction gratings for use in the Littman-Metcalf mounting,” Quantum Electron. 28, 983–986 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as functional elements,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453–469 (1996)
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

I.A. Avrutsky and V. A. Sychugov “Reflection of a beam of finite size from a corrugated waveguide,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1527 (1989)
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

G.A. Golubenko, A.S. Svakhin, A.V. Tishchenko, and V.A Sychugov, “Total reflection of light from the corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 886–887 (1985).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

J.D. Decotignie, O. Parriaux, and F.E. Gardiol, “Wave propagation in lossy and leaky planar optical waveguides,” AEÜ, Band 35, 201–204 (1981).

1980 (1)

V.A. Sychugov and A.V. Tishchenko, “Light emission from a corrugated dielectric waveguide,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10 (2), 186–189 (1980).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. Ulrich and W. Prettl, “Planar leaky light-guides and couplers,” Appl. Phys. 1, 55–68 (1973).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, M. A.

M. A. Ahmed, J.-C. Pommier, F. Pigeon, and O. Parriaux, “Flux resistance degradation in resonant grating multilayer mirror,” SPIE 5250, 27 (2003).

Avrutsky, I.A.

I.A. Avrutsky and V. A. Sychugov “Reflection of a beam of finite size from a corrugated waveguide,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1527 (1989)
[Crossref]

Bischoff, J.

Boedefeld, R.

Boyd, R.D.

Clausnitzer, T.

T. Clausnitzer, T. Schreiber, F. Röser, J. Limpert, E.-B. Kley, H.- J. Fuchs, and A. Tuennermann, “Highly efficient dielectric gratings for high power ultrafast fiberlaser systems,” SPIE Photonics West 22–27 January, 2005, Conference Proceeding No 5714 Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers VII (in print), Paper No 49.

Decker, J.A.

Decotignie, J.D.

J.D. Decotignie, O. Parriaux, and F.E. Gardiol, “Wave propagation in lossy and leaky planar optical waveguides,” AEÜ, Band 35, 201–204 (1981).

Fuchs, H.- J.

T. Clausnitzer, T. Schreiber, F. Röser, J. Limpert, E.-B. Kley, H.- J. Fuchs, and A. Tuennermann, “Highly efficient dielectric gratings for high power ultrafast fiberlaser systems,” SPIE Photonics West 22–27 January, 2005, Conference Proceeding No 5714 Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers VII (in print), Paper No 49.

Gardiol, F.E.

J.D. Decotignie, O. Parriaux, and F.E. Gardiol, “Wave propagation in lossy and leaky planar optical waveguides,” AEÜ, Band 35, 201–204 (1981).

Gilchrist, J. R.

B. Touzet and J. R. Gilchrist, “Multilayer dielectric gratings enable more-powerful high-energy lasers,” Photonics Spectra, 68–75, Sept 2003.

Golubenko, G.A.

G.A. Golubenko, A.S. Svakhin, A.V. Tishchenko, and V.A Sychugov, “Total reflection of light from the corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 886–887 (1985).
[Crossref]

Hehl, K.

Heyer, H.

Kley, E.-B.

T. Clausnitzer, T. Schreiber, F. Röser, J. Limpert, E.-B. Kley, H.- J. Fuchs, and A. Tuennermann, “Highly efficient dielectric gratings for high power ultrafast fiberlaser systems,” SPIE Photonics West 22–27 January, 2005, Conference Proceeding No 5714 Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers VII (in print), Paper No 49.

Li, L.

Limpert, J.

T. Clausnitzer, T. Schreiber, F. Röser, J. Limpert, E.-B. Kley, H.- J. Fuchs, and A. Tuennermann, “Highly efficient dielectric gratings for high power ultrafast fiberlaser systems,” SPIE Photonics West 22–27 January, 2005, Conference Proceeding No 5714 Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers VII (in print), Paper No 49.

Magnusson, R.

Mohaupt, U.

Palme, M.

Parriaux, O.

M. A. Ahmed, J.-C. Pommier, F. Pigeon, and O. Parriaux, “Flux resistance degradation in resonant grating multilayer mirror,” SPIE 5250, 27 (2003).

I.F. Salakhutdinov, V.A. Sychugov, and O. Parriaux, “Highly efficient diffraction gratings for use in the Littman-Metcalf mounting,” Quantum Electron. 28, 983–986 (1998).
[Crossref]

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as functional elements,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453–469 (1996)
[Crossref]

J.D. Decotignie, O. Parriaux, and F.E. Gardiol, “Wave propagation in lossy and leaky planar optical waveguides,” AEÜ, Band 35, 201–204 (1981).

Perry, M. D.

Pigeon, F.

M. A. Ahmed, J.-C. Pommier, F. Pigeon, and O. Parriaux, “Flux resistance degradation in resonant grating multilayer mirror,” SPIE 5250, 27 (2003).

Pommier, J.-C.

M. A. Ahmed, J.-C. Pommier, F. Pigeon, and O. Parriaux, “Flux resistance degradation in resonant grating multilayer mirror,” SPIE 5250, 27 (2003).

Prettl, W.

R. Ulrich and W. Prettl, “Planar leaky light-guides and couplers,” Appl. Phys. 1, 55–68 (1973).
[Crossref]

Röser, F.

T. Clausnitzer, T. Schreiber, F. Röser, J. Limpert, E.-B. Kley, H.- J. Fuchs, and A. Tuennermann, “Highly efficient dielectric gratings for high power ultrafast fiberlaser systems,” SPIE Photonics West 22–27 January, 2005, Conference Proceeding No 5714 Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers VII (in print), Paper No 49.

Salakhutdinov, I.F.

I.F. Salakhutdinov, V.A. Sychugov, and O. Parriaux, “Highly efficient diffraction gratings for use in the Littman-Metcalf mounting,” Quantum Electron. 28, 983–986 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sauerbrey, R.

Schnabel, B.

Schreiber, T.

T. Clausnitzer, T. Schreiber, F. Röser, J. Limpert, E.-B. Kley, H.- J. Fuchs, and A. Tuennermann, “Highly efficient dielectric gratings for high power ultrafast fiberlaser systems,” SPIE Photonics West 22–27 January, 2005, Conference Proceeding No 5714 Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers VII (in print), Paper No 49.

Shannon, C.

Shore, B.W.

Shults, E.

Svakhin, A.S.

G.A. Golubenko, A.S. Svakhin, A.V. Tishchenko, and V.A Sychugov, “Total reflection of light from the corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 886–887 (1985).
[Crossref]

Sychugov, V. A.

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as functional elements,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453–469 (1996)
[Crossref]

I.A. Avrutsky and V. A. Sychugov “Reflection of a beam of finite size from a corrugated waveguide,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1527 (1989)
[Crossref]

Sychugov, V.A

G.A. Golubenko, A.S. Svakhin, A.V. Tishchenko, and V.A Sychugov, “Total reflection of light from the corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 886–887 (1985).
[Crossref]

Sychugov, V.A.

A.V. Tishchenko and V.A. Sychugov, “High grating efficiency by energy accumulation in a leaky mode,” Opt. and Quantum Electron. 32, 1027–1031 (2000).
[Crossref]

I.F. Salakhutdinov, V.A. Sychugov, and O. Parriaux, “Highly efficient diffraction gratings for use in the Littman-Metcalf mounting,” Quantum Electron. 28, 983–986 (1998).
[Crossref]

V.A. Sychugov and A.V. Tishchenko, “Light emission from a corrugated dielectric waveguide,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10 (2), 186–189 (1980).
[Crossref]

Theobald, W.

Tishchenko, A. V.

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as functional elements,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453–469 (1996)
[Crossref]

Tishchenko, A.V.

A.V. Tishchenko and V.A. Sychugov, “High grating efficiency by energy accumulation in a leaky mode,” Opt. and Quantum Electron. 32, 1027–1031 (2000).
[Crossref]

G.A. Golubenko, A.S. Svakhin, A.V. Tishchenko, and V.A Sychugov, “Total reflection of light from the corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 886–887 (1985).
[Crossref]

V.A. Sychugov and A.V. Tishchenko, “Light emission from a corrugated dielectric waveguide,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10 (2), 186–189 (1980).
[Crossref]

Touzet, B.

B. Touzet and J. R. Gilchrist, “Multilayer dielectric gratings enable more-powerful high-energy lasers,” Photonics Spectra, 68–75, Sept 2003.

Tuennermann, A.

T. Clausnitzer, T. Schreiber, F. Röser, J. Limpert, E.-B. Kley, H.- J. Fuchs, and A. Tuennermann, “Highly efficient dielectric gratings for high power ultrafast fiberlaser systems,” SPIE Photonics West 22–27 January, 2005, Conference Proceeding No 5714 Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers VII (in print), Paper No 49.

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich and W. Prettl, “Planar leaky light-guides and couplers,” Appl. Phys. 1, 55–68 (1973).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.S.

Wei, H.

Welsch, E.

Wenke, L

AEÜ, Band (1)

J.D. Decotignie, O. Parriaux, and F.E. Gardiol, “Wave propagation in lossy and leaky planar optical waveguides,” AEÜ, Band 35, 201–204 (1981).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Ulrich and W. Prettl, “Planar leaky light-guides and couplers,” Appl. Phys. 1, 55–68 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

I.A. Avrutsky and V. A. Sychugov “Reflection of a beam of finite size from a corrugated waveguide,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1527 (1989)
[Crossref]

Opt. and Quantum Electron. (1)

A.V. Tishchenko and V.A. Sychugov, “High grating efficiency by energy accumulation in a leaky mode,” Opt. and Quantum Electron. 32, 1027–1031 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as functional elements,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453–469 (1996)
[Crossref]

Quantum Electron. (1)

I.F. Salakhutdinov, V.A. Sychugov, and O. Parriaux, “Highly efficient diffraction gratings for use in the Littman-Metcalf mounting,” Quantum Electron. 28, 983–986 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (2)

V.A. Sychugov and A.V. Tishchenko, “Light emission from a corrugated dielectric waveguide,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10 (2), 186–189 (1980).
[Crossref]

G.A. Golubenko, A.S. Svakhin, A.V. Tishchenko, and V.A Sychugov, “Total reflection of light from the corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 886–887 (1985).
[Crossref]

SPIE (1)

M. A. Ahmed, J.-C. Pommier, F. Pigeon, and O. Parriaux, “Flux resistance degradation in resonant grating multilayer mirror,” SPIE 5250, 27 (2003).

Other (2)

B. Touzet and J. R. Gilchrist, “Multilayer dielectric gratings enable more-powerful high-energy lasers,” Photonics Spectra, 68–75, Sept 2003.

T. Clausnitzer, T. Schreiber, F. Röser, J. Limpert, E.-B. Kley, H.- J. Fuchs, and A. Tuennermann, “Highly efficient dielectric gratings for high power ultrafast fiberlaser systems,” SPIE Photonics West 22–27 January, 2005, Conference Proceeding No 5714 Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers VII (in print), Paper No 49.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fresnel reflection mechanism on a mirror based corrugated dielectric film : direct reflection, field trapping, leaky mode propagation and re-radiation. The corrugation balances the direct reflected and the re-radiated field modulus ensuring 100% −1st order efficiency. The inset represents the fabricated multilayer grating structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

AFM scan of the 560 nm period grating etched into the last Ta2O5 layer of 70 nm thickness.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the experimental and the theoretical diffraction efficiencies of the −1st order for the TE polarization. Calculations are performed taking into account the groove depth experimental value of 52 nm and a line/space ratio of 0.85. Both experiments and calculations are performed at a wavelength of 1064 nm with a variable incidence angle. The diffraction efficiency is defined as the ratio between the diffracted power and the incident power.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of the experimental and the theoretical diffraction efficiencies in the 0th order in TM polarization. Both experiments and calculations are performed at a wavelength of 1064 nm with a variable incidence angle. In this case, TM leaky mode excitation condition is not fulfilled and −1st order efficiency is practically zero.

Equations (2)

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k 0 n f h cos θ f + ϕ m + ϕ c 2 = m π
k 0 n f h cos θ f = π 2

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