Abstract

The behavior of transient oscillations has been studied experimentally for the first time in a broadly tunable ytterbium fiber laser. Spectroscopic study of the relaxation frequency allows one to distinguish three- and four-level transitions and provides a useful tool for controlling the dynamics of pulsed lasers. Particularly, the relaxation oscillation frequency depends on the occupation of the terminal level of the laser transition and clearly shows that the laser transition becomes four-level at the long-wavelength tail of the gain spectrum of ytterbium fiber (λ>1060 nm). The wavelength dependence of relaxation oscillations can be used to determine the parameters of the gain material such as transition cross-section.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Reekie, R. J. Mears, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Tunable Single-Mode Fiber Lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 956–960 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  2. O. G. Okhotnikov and J. R. Salcedo, “Spectroscopy of the transient oscillations in a Nd3+-doped fiber laser for the four-level 4F3/2-4I11/2 (1060 nm) and three-level 4F3/2-4I9/2 (900-nm) transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2619–2621 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. R. Ó. Cochláin, R. J. Mears, and G. Sherlock, “Low threshold tunable soliton source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 25–28 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Optimization of filtering in soliton fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1433–1435 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-Doped Silica Fiber Lasers: Versatile Sources for the 1–1.2 µm Region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2–13 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  6. O.G. Okhotnikov, L. Gomes, N. Xiang, T. Jouhti, and A. B. Grudinin, “Mode-locked ytterbium fiber laser tunable in the 980–1070 nm spectral range,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1522–1524 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. O.G. Okhotnikov, L. Gomes, N. Xiang, T. Jouhti, A. K. Chin, R. Singh, and A.B. Grudinin, “980 nm picosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1519–1521 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. O.G. Okhotnikov, V.V. Kuzmin, and J.R. Salcedo, “General intracavity method for laser transition characterization by relaxation oscillation spectral analysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 362–364 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  9. O.G. Okhotnikov and J.R. Salcedo, “Laser transitions characterization by spectral and thermal dependences of the transient oscillation,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1445–1447 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. C. J. Kennedy, J. D. Barry, and R. R. Rice, “Measurement of parameters in a mode-locked and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser using relaxation oscillations,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2447–2449 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Harrison, G. A. Rines, and P. F. Moulton, “Long-pulse generation with a stable-relaxation-oscillation Nd:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 13, 309–311 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

O.G. Okhotnikov, L. Gomes, N. Xiang, T. Jouhti, and A. B. Grudinin, “Mode-locked ytterbium fiber laser tunable in the 980–1070 nm spectral range,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1522–1524 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O.G. Okhotnikov, L. Gomes, N. Xiang, T. Jouhti, A. K. Chin, R. Singh, and A.B. Grudinin, “980 nm picosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1519–1521 (2003).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-Doped Silica Fiber Lasers: Versatile Sources for the 1–1.2 µm Region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (4)

O.G. Okhotnikov, V.V. Kuzmin, and J.R. Salcedo, “General intracavity method for laser transition characterization by relaxation oscillation spectral analysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 362–364 (1994).
[Crossref]

O.G. Okhotnikov and J.R. Salcedo, “Laser transitions characterization by spectral and thermal dependences of the transient oscillation,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1445–1447 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. G. Okhotnikov and J. R. Salcedo, “Spectroscopy of the transient oscillations in a Nd3+-doped fiber laser for the four-level 4F3/2-4I11/2 (1060 nm) and three-level 4F3/2-4I9/2 (900-nm) transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2619–2621 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Optimization of filtering in soliton fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1433–1435 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

C. R. Ó. Cochláin, R. J. Mears, and G. Sherlock, “Low threshold tunable soliton source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 25–28 (1993).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

L. Reekie, R. J. Mears, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Tunable Single-Mode Fiber Lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 956–960 (1986).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

C. J. Kennedy, J. D. Barry, and R. R. Rice, “Measurement of parameters in a mode-locked and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser using relaxation oscillations,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2447–2449 (1976).
[Crossref]

Barber, P. R.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-Doped Silica Fiber Lasers: Versatile Sources for the 1–1.2 µm Region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Barry, J. D.

C. J. Kennedy, J. D. Barry, and R. R. Rice, “Measurement of parameters in a mode-locked and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser using relaxation oscillations,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2447–2449 (1976).
[Crossref]

Carman, R. J.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-Doped Silica Fiber Lasers: Versatile Sources for the 1–1.2 µm Region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chin, A. K.

O.G. Okhotnikov, L. Gomes, N. Xiang, T. Jouhti, A. K. Chin, R. Singh, and A.B. Grudinin, “980 nm picosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1519–1521 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cochláin, C. R. Ó.

C. R. Ó. Cochláin, R. J. Mears, and G. Sherlock, “Low threshold tunable soliton source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 25–28 (1993).
[Crossref]

Dawes, J. M.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-Doped Silica Fiber Lasers: Versatile Sources for the 1–1.2 µm Region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gomes, L.

O.G. Okhotnikov, L. Gomes, N. Xiang, T. Jouhti, and A. B. Grudinin, “Mode-locked ytterbium fiber laser tunable in the 980–1070 nm spectral range,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1522–1524 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O.G. Okhotnikov, L. Gomes, N. Xiang, T. Jouhti, A. K. Chin, R. Singh, and A.B. Grudinin, “980 nm picosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1519–1521 (2003).
[Crossref]

Grudinin, A. B.

Grudinin, A.B.

O.G. Okhotnikov, L. Gomes, N. Xiang, T. Jouhti, A. K. Chin, R. Singh, and A.B. Grudinin, “980 nm picosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1519–1521 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-Doped Silica Fiber Lasers: Versatile Sources for the 1–1.2 µm Region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Harrison, J.

Haus, H. A.

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Optimization of filtering in soliton fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1433–1435 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Optimization of filtering in soliton fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1433–1435 (1994).
[Crossref]

Jouhti, T.

O.G. Okhotnikov, L. Gomes, N. Xiang, T. Jouhti, and A. B. Grudinin, “Mode-locked ytterbium fiber laser tunable in the 980–1070 nm spectral range,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1522–1524 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O.G. Okhotnikov, L. Gomes, N. Xiang, T. Jouhti, A. K. Chin, R. Singh, and A.B. Grudinin, “980 nm picosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1519–1521 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kennedy, C. J.

C. J. Kennedy, J. D. Barry, and R. R. Rice, “Measurement of parameters in a mode-locked and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser using relaxation oscillations,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2447–2449 (1976).
[Crossref]

Kuzmin, V.V.

O.G. Okhotnikov, V.V. Kuzmin, and J.R. Salcedo, “General intracavity method for laser transition characterization by relaxation oscillation spectral analysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 362–364 (1994).
[Crossref]

Mackechnie, C. J.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-Doped Silica Fiber Lasers: Versatile Sources for the 1–1.2 µm Region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mears, R. J.

C. R. Ó. Cochláin, R. J. Mears, and G. Sherlock, “Low threshold tunable soliton source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 25–28 (1993).
[Crossref]

L. Reekie, R. J. Mears, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Tunable Single-Mode Fiber Lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 956–960 (1986).
[Crossref]

Moulton, P. F.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

O. G. Okhotnikov and J. R. Salcedo, “Spectroscopy of the transient oscillations in a Nd3+-doped fiber laser for the four-level 4F3/2-4I11/2 (1060 nm) and three-level 4F3/2-4I9/2 (900-nm) transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2619–2621 (1994).
[Crossref]

Okhotnikov, O.G.

O.G. Okhotnikov, L. Gomes, N. Xiang, T. Jouhti, A. K. Chin, R. Singh, and A.B. Grudinin, “980 nm picosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1519–1521 (2003).
[Crossref]

O.G. Okhotnikov, L. Gomes, N. Xiang, T. Jouhti, and A. B. Grudinin, “Mode-locked ytterbium fiber laser tunable in the 980–1070 nm spectral range,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1522–1524 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O.G. Okhotnikov, V.V. Kuzmin, and J.R. Salcedo, “General intracavity method for laser transition characterization by relaxation oscillation spectral analysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 362–364 (1994).
[Crossref]

O.G. Okhotnikov and J.R. Salcedo, “Laser transitions characterization by spectral and thermal dependences of the transient oscillation,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1445–1447 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pask, H. M.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-Doped Silica Fiber Lasers: Versatile Sources for the 1–1.2 µm Region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Payne, D. N.

L. Reekie, R. J. Mears, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Tunable Single-Mode Fiber Lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 956–960 (1986).
[Crossref]

Poole, S. B.

L. Reekie, R. J. Mears, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Tunable Single-Mode Fiber Lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 956–960 (1986).
[Crossref]

Reekie, L.

L. Reekie, R. J. Mears, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Tunable Single-Mode Fiber Lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 956–960 (1986).
[Crossref]

Rice, R. R.

C. J. Kennedy, J. D. Barry, and R. R. Rice, “Measurement of parameters in a mode-locked and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser using relaxation oscillations,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2447–2449 (1976).
[Crossref]

Rines, G. A.

Salcedo, J. R.

O. G. Okhotnikov and J. R. Salcedo, “Spectroscopy of the transient oscillations in a Nd3+-doped fiber laser for the four-level 4F3/2-4I11/2 (1060 nm) and three-level 4F3/2-4I9/2 (900-nm) transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2619–2621 (1994).
[Crossref]

Salcedo, J.R.

O.G. Okhotnikov, V.V. Kuzmin, and J.R. Salcedo, “General intracavity method for laser transition characterization by relaxation oscillation spectral analysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 362–364 (1994).
[Crossref]

O.G. Okhotnikov and J.R. Salcedo, “Laser transitions characterization by spectral and thermal dependences of the transient oscillation,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1445–1447 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sherlock, G.

C. R. Ó. Cochláin, R. J. Mears, and G. Sherlock, “Low threshold tunable soliton source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 25–28 (1993).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

O.G. Okhotnikov, L. Gomes, N. Xiang, T. Jouhti, A. K. Chin, R. Singh, and A.B. Grudinin, “980 nm picosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1519–1521 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tamura, K.

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Optimization of filtering in soliton fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1433–1435 (1994).
[Crossref]

Tropper, A. C.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-Doped Silica Fiber Lasers: Versatile Sources for the 1–1.2 µm Region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Xiang, N.

O.G. Okhotnikov, L. Gomes, N. Xiang, T. Jouhti, and A. B. Grudinin, “Mode-locked ytterbium fiber laser tunable in the 980–1070 nm spectral range,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1522–1524 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O.G. Okhotnikov, L. Gomes, N. Xiang, T. Jouhti, A. K. Chin, R. Singh, and A.B. Grudinin, “980 nm picosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1519–1521 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

O. G. Okhotnikov and J. R. Salcedo, “Spectroscopy of the transient oscillations in a Nd3+-doped fiber laser for the four-level 4F3/2-4I11/2 (1060 nm) and three-level 4F3/2-4I9/2 (900-nm) transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2619–2621 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-Doped Silica Fiber Lasers: Versatile Sources for the 1–1.2 µm Region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

C. R. Ó. Cochláin, R. J. Mears, and G. Sherlock, “Low threshold tunable soliton source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 25–28 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Optimization of filtering in soliton fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1433–1435 (1994).
[Crossref]

O.G. Okhotnikov, L. Gomes, N. Xiang, T. Jouhti, A. K. Chin, R. Singh, and A.B. Grudinin, “980 nm picosecond fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1519–1521 (2003).
[Crossref]

O.G. Okhotnikov, V.V. Kuzmin, and J.R. Salcedo, “General intracavity method for laser transition characterization by relaxation oscillation spectral analysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 362–364 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. J. Kennedy, J. D. Barry, and R. R. Rice, “Measurement of parameters in a mode-locked and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser using relaxation oscillations,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2447–2449 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. Reekie, R. J. Mears, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, “Tunable Single-Mode Fiber Lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 956–960 (1986).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. For 980 nm spectral range, a 915 nm pump was used with 30 cm Yb-fiber and three wavelength-division multiplexers (WDM) 1: 915/980, 2: 910/1024, 3: 920/1050. For 1030–1100 nm range, 142 cm-long Yb-fiber was pumped with 980 nm single-mode pigtailed diode laser through the cascade of three fiber WDMs 1: 980/1100, 2: 980/1030, 3: 980/1050.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical transient oscillations from an Yb3+-doped fiber laser. Pumping rate normalized to the threshold pumping rate is r–1=0.12 and lasing wavelength is λ=1053 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

relax/2π)2 versus normalized pumping rate (r–l) around 980 nm with the lasing wavelength as a parameter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

relax/2π)2 against normalized pumping rate (r-l) for 1030–1105 nm spectral range.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Wavelength dependence of the relaxation oscillation parameter (ωrelax/2π)2/(r-l) derived from the plots presented in Fig. 4 and of the Yb3+-ϕiβερ αττενυατιoν.

Equations (1)

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ω relax 2 = 1 τ c τ s ( 1 + c τ c σ η f l N ) ( r 1 ) .

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