Abstract

Recently, new classes of optical lattices were identified, permitting the creation of arbitrarily large two- and three-dimensional arrays of tightly confined excitation maxima of controllable periodicity and polarization from the superposition of a finite set of plane waves. Here, experimental methods for the generation of such lattices are considered theoretically in light of their potential applications, including high resolution dynamic live cell imaging, photonic crystal fabrication, and quantum simulation and quantum computation using ultracold atoms.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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Appl. Phys. B. (1)

M. Mützel, et al., �??Atomic nanofabrication with complex light fields,�?? Appl. Phys. B. 77, 1-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Tanaka, H.B. Sun, and S. Kawata, �??Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312-314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Berger, O. Gauthler-Lafaye, and E. Costard, �??Photonic band gaps and holography,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (3)

M.G.L. Gustafsson, D.A. Agard, and J.W. Sedat, �??I5M: 3D widefield light microscopy with better than 100 nm axial resolution,�?? J. Microsc. 195, 10-16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M.G.L. Gustafsson, �??Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,�?? J. Microsc. 198 82-87 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Bahlmann and S.W. Hell, �??Electric field depolarization in high aperture focusing with emphasis on annular apertures,�?? J. Microsc. 200, 59-67 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (1)

J. Zhang, R.E. Campbell, A.Y. Ting, and R.Y. Tsien, �??Creating new fluorescent probes for cell biology,�?? Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3, 906-918 (2002).

Nature (3)

B. Bailey, D.L. Farkas, D.L. Taylor, and F. Lanni, �??Enhancement of axial resolution in fluorescence microscopy by standing-wave excitation,�?? Nature 366, 44-48 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T.W. Hänsch, I. Bloch, �??Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms,�?? Nature 415, 39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Campbell, D.N. Sharp, M.T. Harrison, R.G. Denning, and A.J. Turberfield, �??Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,�?? Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express. (1)

X.L. Yang, L.Z. Cai, and Y.R. Wang, �??Larger bandgaps of two-dimensional triangular photonic crystals fabricated by holographic lithography can be realized by recording geometry design,�?? Opt. Express 12, 5850-5856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett (1)

G.E. Cragg and P.T.C. So, �??Lateral resolution enhancement with standing evanescent waves,�?? Opt. Lett 25, 46-48 (2000).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optik (1)

C.Y. Dong, P.T.C. So, C. Buehler, and E. Gratton, �??Spatial resolution in scanning pump-probe fluorescence microscopy,�?? Optik 106, 7-14 (1997).

Phys. Rev. (1)

K.I. Petsas, A.B. Coates, and G. Grynberg, �??Crystallography of optical lattices,�?? Phys. Rev. A 50, 5173-5189 (1994).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D.C. Meisel, M. Wegener, and K. Busch, �??Three-dimensional photonic crystals by holographic lithography using the umbrella configuration: Symmetries and complete photonic band gaps,�?? Phys. Rev. B 70, 165104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

P.S. Jessen, et al., �??Observation of quantized motion of Rb atoms in an optical field,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 49-52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Hemmerich and T.W. Hänsch, �??Two-dimensional atomic crystal bound by light,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 410-413 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Grynberg, B. Lounis, P. Verkerk, J.-Y. Courtois, and C. Salomon, �??Quantized motion of cold cesium atoms in two- and three-dimensional optical potentials,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2249-2252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Dumke, et al, �??Micro-optical realization of arrays of selectively addressable dipole traps: A scalable configuration for quantum computation with atomic qubits,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 097903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Timp, et al., �??Using light as a lens for submicron, neutral-atom lithography,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 -1639(1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

J.I. Cirac and P. Zoller, "New frontiers in quantum information with atoms and ions," Phys. Today 57, No. 3, 38-44 (2004).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci (1)

J.T. Frohn, H.F. Knapp, and A. Stemmer, �??True optical resolution beyond the Rayleigh limit achieved by standing wave illumination,�?? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 7232-7236 (2000).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

M.J. Booth, M.A.A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, �??Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,�?? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 5788-5792 (2002).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (2)

E. Wolf, �??Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems I. An integral representation of the image field,�?? Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349-357 (1959).

B. Richards and E. Wolf, �??�??Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,�?? Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358-379 (1959).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E.R. Dufresne and D.G. Grier, �??Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optics,�?? Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1974-1977 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

J.J. McClelland, R.E. Scholten, E.C. Palm, and R.J. Celotta, �??Laser-focused atomic deposition�??, Science 262, 877-880 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J.I. Cirac and P. Zoller, �??How to manipulate cold atoms,�?? Science 301, 176-177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, second ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), Secs. 9.8 and 9.9.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, sixth (corrected) ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), Sec. 8.8.

M. Gu, Principles of Three-Dimensional Imaging in Confocal Microscopes (World Scientific, 1996).

E. Betzig, New Millennium Research, LLC, Okemos, MI 48864 has submitted a paper entitled �??Sparse and composite coherent lattices�??.

E. Betzig, New Millennium Research, LLC, Okemos, MI 48864 is preparing a paper to be called �??Detection strategies for optical lattice microscopy�??.

D. Axelrod, �??Total internal fluorescence microscopy,�?? in Methods in Cellular Imaging, A. Periasamy, ed., American Physiological Society Book Series (Oxford Univ. Press, 2001).

E. Betzig, New Millennium Research, LLC, Okemos, MI 48864 is preparing a paper to be called �??Optical lattice microscopy: implications for live cell and molecular imaging�??.

Perkin-Elmer UltraVIEW Live Cell Imager, <a href="http://las.perkinelmer.com/content/livecellimaging/nipkow.asp">http://las.perkinelmer.com/content/livecellimaging/nipkow.asp</a>

Supplementary Material (6)

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