Abstract

The carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of femtosecond pulses from a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser is stabilized using a novel method operating in the time domain. This is a direct and relatively simple method for stabilizing the CEP of femtosecond laser pulses, compared to the conventional method based on phase-locked loop. Using this method, we have directly locked the pulse-to-pulse CEP slip to zero with an in-loop phase jitter of 0.05 rad. Out-of-loop measurement has revealed a comparable phase jitter of 0.1 rad, verifying a good performance of this locking technique. The capability of electrical CEP modulation is also demonstrated.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, S. H. Cho, Y. Chen, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Sub-two-cycle pulses from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 411–413 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror-assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime,” Opt. Lett. 24, 631–633 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1562 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London) 414, 182–184 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. G. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 051805(R) (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Armelle de Bohan, Philippe Antoine, Dejan B. Milošević, and Bernard Piraux, “Phase-Dependent Harmonic Emission with Ultrashort Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Masayuki Kakehata, Hideyuki Takada, Yohei Kobayashi, and Kenji Torizuka, “Carrier-envelope-phase stabilized chirped-pulse amplification system scalable to higher pulse energies,” Opt. Express 12, 2070–2080 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-10-2070
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Kyung-Han Hong, Tae Jun Yu, Yong Soo Lee, Chang Hee Nam, and Robert S. Windeler, “Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrier-envelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 42, 101–105 (2003).
  14. L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Route to phase control of ultrashort light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2008–2010 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Jinendra K. Ranka, Robert S. Windeler, and Andrew J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air.silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G.G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Tara. M. Fortier, David. J. Jones, Jun. Ye, and Steve T. Cundiff, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase coherence,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1436–1438 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Poppe, R. Holzwarth, A. Apolonski, G. Tempea, Ch. Spilmann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Few-cycle optical waveform synthesis,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 373–376 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of Amplified Chirped Optical Pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. G. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 051805(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masayuki Kakehata, Hideyuki Takada, Yohei Kobayashi, and Kenji Torizuka, “Carrier-envelope-phase stabilized chirped-pulse amplification system scalable to higher pulse energies,” Opt. Express 12, 2070–2080 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-10-2070
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kyung-Han Hong, Tae Jun Yu, Yong Soo Lee, Chang Hee Nam, and Robert S. Windeler, “Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrier-envelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 42, 101–105 (2003).

G.G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London) 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Poppe, R. Holzwarth, A. Apolonski, G. Tempea, Ch. Spilmann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Few-cycle optical waveform synthesis,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 373–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

Jinendra K. Ranka, Robert S. Windeler, and Andrew J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air.silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, S. H. Cho, Y. Chen, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Sub-two-cycle pulses from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 411–413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror-assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime,” Opt. Lett. 24, 631–633 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Armelle de Bohan, Philippe Antoine, Dejan B. Milošević, and Bernard Piraux, “Phase-Dependent Harmonic Emission with Ultrashort Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Route to phase control of ultrashort light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2008–2010 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of Amplified Chirped Optical Pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Angelow, G.

Antoine, Philippe

Armelle de Bohan, Philippe Antoine, Dejan B. Milošević, and Bernard Piraux, “Phase-Dependent Harmonic Emission with Ultrashort Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Poppe, R. Holzwarth, A. Apolonski, G. Tempea, Ch. Spilmann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Few-cycle optical waveform synthesis,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 373–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baik, M. G.

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. G. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 051805(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baltuška, A.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G.G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

Burgdörfer, J.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Cheng, Z.

Cho, S. H.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cundiff, Steve T.

de Bohan, Armelle

Armelle de Bohan, Philippe Antoine, Dejan B. Milošević, and Bernard Piraux, “Phase-Dependent Harmonic Emission with Ultrashort Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London) 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dombi, P.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, Tara. M.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gallmann, L.

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G.G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London) 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Poppe, R. Holzwarth, A. Apolonski, G. Tempea, Ch. Spilmann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Few-cycle optical waveform synthesis,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 373–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T.W.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Poppe, R. Holzwarth, A. Apolonski, G. Tempea, Ch. Spilmann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Few-cycle optical waveform synthesis,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 373–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Kyung-Han

Kyung-Han Hong, Tae Jun Yu, Yong Soo Lee, Chang Hee Nam, and Robert S. Windeler, “Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrier-envelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 42, 101–105 (2003).

Ippen, E. P.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, David. J.

Kakehata, M.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kakehata, Masayuki

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror-assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime,” Opt. Lett. 24, 631–633 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. M.

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. G. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 051805(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. T.

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. G. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 051805(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Yohei

Krausz, F.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Poppe, R. Holzwarth, A. Apolonski, G. Tempea, Ch. Spilmann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Few-cycle optical waveform synthesis,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 373–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1562 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Route to phase control of ultrashort light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2008–2010 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Yong Soo

Kyung-Han Hong, Tae Jun Yu, Yong Soo Lee, Chang Hee Nam, and Robert S. Windeler, “Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrier-envelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 42, 101–105 (2003).

Lemell, Ch.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenzner, M.

Lezius, M.

G.G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

G.G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matuschek, N.

Miloševic, Dejan B.

Armelle de Bohan, Philippe Antoine, Dejan B. Milošević, and Bernard Piraux, “Phase-Dependent Harmonic Emission with Ultrashort Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

Morier-Genoud, F.

Mourou, G.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of Amplified Chirped Optical Pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C. H.

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. G. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 051805(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nam, Chang Hee

Kyung-Han Hong, Tae Jun Yu, Yong Soo Lee, Chang Hee Nam, and Robert S. Windeler, “Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrier-envelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 42, 101–105 (2003).

Nisoli, M.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London) 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, G. G.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London) 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, G.G.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Piraux, Bernard

Armelle de Bohan, Philippe Antoine, Dejan B. Milošević, and Bernard Piraux, “Phase-Dependent Harmonic Emission with Ultrashort Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poppe, A.

A. Poppe, R. Holzwarth, A. Apolonski, G. Tempea, Ch. Spilmann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Few-cycle optical waveform synthesis,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 373–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Route to phase control of ultrashort light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2008–2010 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London) 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, Jinendra K.

Reichert, J.

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sartania, S.

Scheuer, V.

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

Spilmann, Ch.

A. Poppe, R. Holzwarth, A. Apolonski, G. Tempea, Ch. Spilmann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Few-cycle optical waveform synthesis,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 373–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London) 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror-assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime,” Opt. Lett. 24, 631–633 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, Andrew J.

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of Amplified Chirped Optical Pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, D. H.

D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror-assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime,” Opt. Lett. 24, 631–633 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takada, Hideyuki

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

A. Poppe, R. Holzwarth, A. Apolonski, G. Tempea, Ch. Spilmann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Few-cycle optical waveform synthesis,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 373–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1562 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torizuka, Kenji

Tschudi, T.

Udem, Th.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Umesh, G.

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. G. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 051805(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London) 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

G.G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London) 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, Robert S.

Kyung-Han Hong, Tae Jun Yu, Yong Soo Lee, Chang Hee Nam, and Robert S. Windeler, “Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrier-envelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 42, 101–105 (2003).

Jinendra K. Ranka, Robert S. Windeler, and Andrew J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air.silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Jun.

Yu, Tae Jun

Kyung-Han Hong, Tae Jun Yu, Yong Soo Lee, Chang Hee Nam, and Robert S. Windeler, “Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrier-envelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 42, 101–105 (2003).

Appl. Phys. B (2)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Poppe, R. Holzwarth, A. Apolonski, G. Tempea, Ch. Spilmann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Few-cycle optical waveform synthesis,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 373–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Kor. Phys. Soc. (1)

Kyung-Han Hong, Tae Jun Yu, Yong Soo Lee, Chang Hee Nam, and Robert S. Windeler, “Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrier-envelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 42, 101–105 (2003).

Nature (London) (2)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London) 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London) 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of Amplified Chirped Optical Pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. G. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 051805(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

Armelle de Bohan, Philippe Antoine, Dejan B. Milošević, and Bernard Piraux, “Phase-Dependent Harmonic Emission with Ultrashort Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G.G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the direct locking method for CEP stabilization(for the in-loop and the out-of-loop measurements). (Ti:S: Ti:sapphire crystal, AOM: acousto-optic modulator, PCF: photonic crystal fiber, DB: dichroic beam-splitter, SHG: second-harmonic generation crystal, HWP: half-wave plate, BPF: band-pass filter, PBS: polarizing beamsplitter, APD: avalanche photodiode)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

CEP stabilization using the direct locking method. (a) Pure beat signal extracted from the interference signal. (b) Quenching of the beat signal with the activation of feedback loop at time zero. Histograms of the beat signal before (blue) and after (red) stabilization are also shown on the right side.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

In-loop and out-of-loop measurement: (a) Stabilized beat signals from in-loop (upper) and out-of-loop (lower). (b)Power spectral densities and accumulated phases of the in-loop (black) and the out-of-loop (blue) after locking.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

CEP modulation: (a) DC and (b) Saw tooth signals (red) were added at time t 1 and t 2, respectively, during the locking process. Stabilized CEP signals exactly tracked the added input signals.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ ϕ = 2 π f ceo f rep ,
I 1 = A I f 2 n + B I 2 f n + C I f 2 n I 2 f n sin ( 2 π f ceo t + ϕ 0 ) ,
I 2 = D I f 2 n + E I 2 f n ,
Δ ϕ RMS = [ 2 1 τ obs S ϕ ( ν ) d ν ] 1 2 ,

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