Abstract

In this paper a novel grating-like integrated optics device is proposed, the CrossWaveguide Grating (XWG). The device is based upon a modified configuration of a traditional ArrayedWaveguide Grating (AWG). The Arrayed Waveguides part is changed, as detailed along this document, giving the device both the ability of multi/demultiplexing and power splitting/coupling. Design examples and transfer function simulations show good agreement with the presented theory. Finally, some of the envisaged applications are outlined.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. K. Smit, �??New focusing and dispersive planar component based on an optical phased array,�?? Electron. Lett., 24, 385-386 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki and I. Nishi, �??Wavelength multiplexer based on SiO2-Ta2O5 arrayed waveguide grating,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 989-995 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Muñoz, D. Pastor and J. Capmany, �??Modeling and design of Arrayed Waveguide Gratings,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 661-674 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Muñoz, D. Pastor and J. Capmany, D. Ortega, A. Pujol and J. Bonar, �??AWG Model Validation through Measurement of Fabricated Devices,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2763-2777 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J.W. Goodman, �??Introduction to Fourier Optics,�?? McGraw-Hill, ch. 5, pp. 83-90 (1988).
  6. P. Muñoz, D. Pastor, J. Capmany and S. Sales, �??Analytical and Numerical Analysis of Phase and Amplitude Errors in the Performance of Arrayed Waveguide Gratings,�?? J. Selected Topics in Quantum Elect. 8, 1130-1141 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Dragone, �??An NN optical multiplexer using a planar arrangement of two star couplers,�?? IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 3, 812-815 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. K. Smit, �??New focusing and dispersive planar component based on an optical phased array,�?? Electron. Lett., 24, 385-386 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. (1)

C. Dragone, �??An NN optical multiplexer using a planar arrangement of two star couplers,�?? IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 3, 812-815 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Selected Topics in Quantum Elect. (1)

P. Muñoz, D. Pastor, J. Capmany and S. Sales, �??Analytical and Numerical Analysis of Phase and Amplitude Errors in the Performance of Arrayed Waveguide Gratings,�?? J. Selected Topics in Quantum Elect. 8, 1130-1141 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J.W. Goodman, �??Introduction to Fourier Optics,�?? McGraw-Hill, ch. 5, pp. 83-90 (1988).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout of (a) a regular AWG and (b) the proposed XWG.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

fM (u,a,b) -blue-, fM(u,a,b) -green- and fM+ (u,a,b) -red-.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Focusing properties of the device. Two beams moving in opposite directions are generated, one by each sub-array. For the design frequency ν 0 the beams cross at OW 0.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

XWG normalised transfer function [dB] vs. frequency [THz] from the centre IW to OWs numbers -2 (cyan), -1 (red), 0 (green), 1 (blue dashed), 2 (magenta dashed).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Applications for the XWG.

Equations (19)

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b i ( x 0 ) = 2 π w i 2 4 e ( x 0 w i ) 2
B i ( x 1 ) = 1 α 𝓕 { b i ( x 0 ) } u = x 1 α = 2 π w i 2 α 2 e ( π w i ( x 1 α ) 2 4
α = c L f n S ν
Δ L = m λ 0 n c = m c n c ν 0
f 1 ( x 1 ) = B 1 ( 0 ) + r = 1 N 1 2 B 1 ( r d w ) δ ( x 1 r d w ) + r = N 1 2 1 B 1 ( r d w ) δ ( x 1 r d w )
Δ ϕ r = ( L 0 + r Δ L ) β
f 2 A ( x 2 , ν ) = r = 1 N 1 2 B 1 ( r d w ) δ ( x 2 r d w ) e j β r Δ L
f 2 B ( x 2 , ν ) = r = N 1 2 1 B 1 ( r d w ) δ ( x 2 r d w ) e + j β r Δ L
f 2 A ( x 2 , ν ) = B 1 ( x 1 ) Π ( x 2 d w M 2 M d w ) r = δ ( x 2 r d w ) e j β r Δ L
f 2 B ( x 2 , ν ) = B 1 ( x 1 ) Π ( x 2 + d w M 2 M d w ) r = δ ( x 2 r d w ) e + j β r Δ L
f 3 ( x 3 , ν ) = r = f M ( x 3 + ν γ r α d w )
f 3 + ( x 3 , ν ) = r = f M + ( x 3 ν γ r α d w )
f M ( u , a , b ) = 0 a B 1 ( x ) e j 2 π u x x
f M + ( u , a , b ) = a 0 B 1 ( x ) e j 2 π u x x
f M ( u , a , b ) = 1 2 b π e ( π u b ) 2 [ erf ( a b + j π u b ) erf ( j π u b ) ]
f M + ( u , a , b ) = 1 2 b π e ( π u b ) 2 [ erf ( a b + j π u b ) + erf ( j π u b ) ]
γ = d w ν 0 α m
f M ( u , a , b ) = ( f M + ( u , a , b ) ) *
t 0 , q ( ν ) = + f 3 ( x 3 , ν ) b 0 ( x 3 q d 0 ) x 3

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