Abstract

Using the three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we have investigated in detail the optical properties of a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC) surface-emitting laser having a square-lattice structure. In this study we perform the 3D-FDTD calculation for the structure of an actual fabricated device. The device is based on bandedge resonance, and four band edges are present at the corresponding band edge point. For these band edges, we calculate the quality (Q) factor. The results show that the Q factor of a resonant mode labeled A1 is larger than that of other resonant modes; that is, lasing occurs easily in mode A1. The device can thus achieve single-mode lasing oscillation. To increase the Q factor, we also consider the optimization of device parameters. The results provide important guidelines for device fabrication.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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App. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, D.M. Tennant, A.M. Sergent, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho, M. Troccoli, and F. Capasso, �??Lasing mode pattern of a quantum cascade photonic crystal surface-emitting microcavity laser,�?? App. Phys. Lett. 84, 4164-4166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys Lett. (1)

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, �??Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316-318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos and O. Nalamasu, �??Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Conf. on Antennas and Propagat. '96 (1)

K. S. Yee, �??Numerical Solution of Initial Boundary Value Problem Involving Maxwell�??s Equations in Isotropic Media,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Antennas and Propagat. AP-14 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1966), pp. 302-307.

IEEE Conf. on Electromagn. Compat. 1981 (1)

G. Mur, �??Absorbing Boundary Conditions for the Finite-Difference Approximation of the Time-Domain Electromagnetic-Field Equations,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Electromagn. Compat. EMC-23 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1981), pp. 377-382.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Imada, S. Noda, H. Kobayashi, and G. Sasaki, �??Characterization of a Distributed Feedback Laser with Air/Semiconductor Gratings Embedded by the Wafer Fusion Technique,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1277-1283 (1999).

M. Yokoyama and S. Noda, �??Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser having a square lattice structure,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1074-1080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

M. Yokoyama and S. Noda, �??Finite-Difference Time-Domain Simulation of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Surface-Emitting Laser having a Square-Lattice Slab Structure,�?? IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 386-392 (2004).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, J. A. Rogers, R. E. Slusher, A. Mekis, A. Timko, C. A. Murray, R. Ruel and O. Nalamasu, �??Emission characteristics of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers fabricated by replica molding,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3502-3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Inoue, M. Sasada, J. Kawamata, K. Sakoda and J. W. Haus, �??A Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser,�?? Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L157-L159 (1999).

Nature (1)

S. Noda, M. Imada, and A. Chutinan, �??Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,�?? Nature 407, 608-610 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comm. (1)

M. Plihal, A. Shambrook, and A. A. Maradudin, �??Two-dimensional photonic band structures,�?? Opt. Comm. 80, 199-204 (1991).

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (5)

T. Ochiai and K. Sakoda, �??Dispersion relation and optical transmittance of a hexagonal photonic crystal slab,�?? Phys. Rev. B 63, 125107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, �??Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,�?? Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Sakoda, �??Symmetry, degeneracy, and uncoupled modes in two-dimensional photonic lattices,�?? Phys. Rev. B 52, 7982-7986 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Okano and S. Noda, �??Analysis of multimode point-defect cavities in three-dimensional photonic crystals using group theory in frequency and time domains,�?? Phys. Rev. B 70, 125105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Imada, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, and M. Mochizuki, �??Multidirectionally distributed feedback photonic crystal lasers,�?? Phys. Rev. B 65, 195306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Yablonovitch, �??Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Science (5)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, �??Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,�?? Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, �??Full Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals at Near-Infrared Wavelengths,�?? Science 289, 604-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Song, S. Noda and T. Asano, �??Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals,�?? Science 300, 1537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, �??Polarization mode control of twodimensional photonic crystal laser by unit cell structure design,�?? Science 293, 1123-1125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and F. Capasso, �??Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser,�?? Science 302, 1374-1377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals, (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2001).

S. Noda and T. Baba, Eds., Roadmap on Photonic Crystals, (Kluwer Academic, New York, 2003).

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