Abstract

We have demonstrated all-optical bistable switching operation of resonant-tunnelling devices with ultra-small high-Q Si photonic-crystal nanocavities. Due to their high Q/V ratio, the switching energy is extremely small in comparison with that of conventional devices using the same optical nonlinear mechanism. We also show that they exhibit all-opticaltransistor action by using two resonant modes. These ultrasmall unique nonlinear bistable devices have potentials to function as various signal processing functions in photonic-crystal-based optical-circuits.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, �??Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915-1917 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, and M. Soljacic, �??High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2739-2741 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, �??Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, H. A. Macleod, and F. Van Milligen, �??Microsecond room-temperature optical bistability and crosstalk studies in ZnS and ZnSe interference filters with visible light and milliwatt powers,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1031-1033 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, "Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5 µm in silicon etalon," Electron. Lett. 28, 83- 85 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, P-T. Ho, �??Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators,�?? IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE LEOS 2003 (1)

S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, T. Tsuchizawa, and T. Watanabe, "Resonant tunneling wavelength filters with high Q and high transmittance based on photonic crystal slabs," in Proceedings of 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE LEOS (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), pp. 214-215.

J. Opt. Sci. Am. B (1)

S. F. Mingaleev and Y. S. Kivshar, �??Nonlinear transmission and light localization in photonic-crystal waveguides,�?? J. Opt. Sci. Am. B 19, 2241-2249 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Landolt-Börnstein, New Series (1)

O. Madelung, M. Schulz, and H. Weiss, Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Landolt-Börnstein, New Series, Vol. 17 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).

Nature (5)

S. D. Smith, A. C. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, and B. S. Wherrett, �??The demonstration of restoring digital optical logic,�?? Nature 325, 27-31 (1987)
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia �??A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxidesemiconductor capacitor,�?? Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, �??Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,�?? Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, �??Optical microcavities,�?? Nature 424, 839-846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B-S. Song, and S. Noda, �??High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,�?? Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature Materials (1)

M. Soljacic and J.D. Joannopoulos, �??Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,�?? Nature Materials 3, 211-219 (2004), and references therein
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optics Express (1)

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, "Nonlinear response of silicon photonic crystal microresonators excited via an integrated waveguide and fiber taper," Opt. Express 13, 801-820 (2005). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-801">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-801</a>.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

E. Centeno and D. Felbacq, �??Optical bistability in finite-size nonlinear bidimensional photonic crystals doped by a microcavity,�?? Phys. Rev. B 62, 7683-7686(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

M. Soljacic, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, and J. D. Joannopoulos, �??Optimal bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals,�?? Phys. Rev. E 66, 055601(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Cowan and J. F. Young, �??Optical bistability involving photonic crystal microcavities and Fano line shapes,�?? Phys. Rev. E 68, 046606 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. Yablonovitch, �??Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, �??Extremely large group velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H.M. Gibbs, Optical bistability: controlling light with light. (Academic Press, Orlando, 1985).

H.A. Haus, Waves and fields in optoelectronics (Prince-Hall, New Jersey, 1984).

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