Abstract

We investigate the guidance properties of low-contrast photonic band gap fibres. As predicted by the antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) picture, band gaps were observed between wavelengths where modes of the high-index rods in the cladding are cutoff. At these wavelengths, leakage from the core by coupling to higher-order modes of the rods was observed directly. The low index contrast allowed for bend loss to be investigated; unlike in index-guiding fibres, anomalous "centripetal" light leakage through the inside of the bend can occur.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  18. Cladding of fibres B and C: Corning Corguide, 50 µm core diameter, 125 µm outer diameter, NA = 0.21. This fibre had a double-cladding structure, which when drawn down becomes equivalent to a step index core with an NA of 0.18. Cladding of fibre D: Thorlabs GIF625: 62.5 µm core diameter, 125 µm outer diameter, graded index, NA = 0.275. Core of fibre B: Corning SMF 28, 9 µm core diameter, 125 µm outer diameter, NA = 0.14. A different single-mode fibre with a 3.5 µm core diameter, 125 µm outer diameter and NA = 0.11 was used in the core of fibres C and D.
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    [CrossRef]
  20. W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, P. St.J. Russell, �??Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers,�?? Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-299.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-299."</a>
    [CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Lightwave Tech.

N. A. Issa, L. Poladian, �??Vector wave expansion method for leaky modes of microstructured fibers,�?? IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 1005-12 (2003)

IEEE J. Quant. Electron.

M. Heiblum, J. H. Harris, �??Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation,�?? IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 11, 75-83 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Tech

S. R. Rengarajan, �??On higher order mode cutoff frequencies in elliptical step index fibers,�?? IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques 37, 1244-8 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Tech.

H. F. Taylor, �??Bending effects in optical fibers,�?? J. Lightwave Tech. 2, 617-28 (1984).

M.-S. Chung, C.-M. Kim, �??Analysis of optical fibers with graded index profile by a combination of modified Airy functions and WKB solutions,�?? J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 2534-41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, D. J. Richardson, �??Understanding bend losses in holey optical fibers,�?? Opt. Commun. 227, 317-335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, �??Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 11, 1243-51 (2003) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-10-1243.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-10-1243.</a>

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, P. St.J. Russell, �??Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers,�?? Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-299.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-299."</a>
[CrossRef]

P. Steinvurzel, B. T. Kuhmley, T. P. White, M. J. Steel, C. M. de Sterke, B. J. Eggleton, �??Long-wavelength anti-resonant guidance in high index inclusion microstructured fibers,�?? Opt. Express 12, 5424-33, <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-22-5424.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-22-5424."</a>
[CrossRef]

T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. S. H. Anawati, J. Broeng, J. Li, S.-T. Wu, �??All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,�?? Opt. Express 12, 5857-71, <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5857.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5857.</a>
[CrossRef]

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, P. St.J. Russell, �??Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent,�?? Opt. Express 13, 309-14 (2005), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-309.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-309.</a>
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Pure Appl. Opt.

J. Lægsgaard, �??Gap formation and guided modes in photonic band gap fibres with high-inex rods,�?? J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 798-804 (2004).

Science

P.St.J. Russell, �??Photonic crystal fibers,�?? Science 299, 69-74 (2004).

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Managan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allen, �??Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,�?? Science 285, 1537-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory, (Chapman and Hall, London, 1983).

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton University Press, 1995).

Cladding of fibres B and C: Corning Corguide, 50 µm core diameter, 125 µm outer diameter, NA = 0.21. This fibre had a double-cladding structure, which when drawn down becomes equivalent to a step index core with an NA of 0.18. Cladding of fibre D: Thorlabs GIF625: 62.5 µm core diameter, 125 µm outer diameter, graded index, NA = 0.275. Core of fibre B: Corning SMF 28, 9 µm core diameter, 125 µm outer diameter, NA = 0.14. A different single-mode fibre with a 3.5 µm core diameter, 125 µm outer diameter and NA = 0.11 was used in the core of fibres C and D.

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