Abstract

We present here new experimental results on high contrast imaging of 10-7 at 4.5λ/D (λ=0.820 microns) by combining a circular focal plane mask (coronagraph) of 2.5λ/D diameter and a multi-Gaussian pupil plane mask. Both the masks were fabricated on very high surface quality (λ/30) BK7 optical substrates using nano-fabrication techniques of photolithography and metal lift-off. This process ensured that the shaped masks have a useable edge roughness better than λ/4 (rms error better than 0.2 microns), a specification that is necessary to realize the predicted theoretical limits of any mask design. Though a theoretical model predicts a contrast level of 10-12, the background noise of the observed images was speckle dominated which reduced the contrast level to 4×10-7 at 4.5λ/D. The optical setup was built on the University of Illinois Seeing Improvement System (UnISIS) optics table which is at the Coude focus of the 2.5-m telescope of the Mt. Wilson Observatory. We used a 0.820 micron laser source coupled with a 5 micron single-mode fiber to simulate an artificial star on the optical test bench of UnISIS.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  1. John H. Debes, Jian Ge, Chakraborty, and Abhijit, “First High-Contrast Imaging Using a Gaussian Aperture Pupil Mask,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 572L, 165–168, (2002)
    [Crossref]
  2. John H. Debes, Jian Ge, Marc J. Kuchner, Rogosky, and Michael “Using Notch-Filter Masks for High-Contrast Imaging of Extrasolar Planets,” Astrophys. J. 608, 1095–1099, (2004)
    [Crossref]
  3. Wilhelmsen Evans, Julia Sommargren, Gary Poyneer, Lisa Macintosh, Bruce A. Severson, Scott Dillon, Daren Sheinis, Andrew I. Palmer, Dave Kasdin, N. Jeremy Olivier, and Scot, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: results and future work,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 954–959, (2004)
    [Crossref]
  4. N. Jeremy Kasdin, Robert J. Vanderbei, David N. Spergel, and Michael G. Littman, “Extrasolar Planet Finding via Optimal Apodized-Pupil and Shaped-Pupil Coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147–1161, (2003)
    [Crossref]
  5. Robert J. Vanderbei, N. Jeremy Kasdin, and David N. Spergel, “Checkerboard-Mask Coronagraphs for High-Contrast Imaging,” Astrophys. J. 615, 555–561, (2004)
    [Crossref]
  6. Marc J. Kuchner and David N. Spergel, “Notch-Filter Masks: Practical Image Masks for Planet-finding Coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 594, 617–626, (2003)
    [Crossref]
  7. M.J. Kuchner, “A Unified View of Coronagraph Image Masks,” preprint no. astro-ph/0401256 at http://xxx.lanl.gov/archive/astro, (2004)
  8. John H. Debes and Jian Ge, “High-Contrast Imaging with Gaussian Aperture Pupil Masks,” PASP,  116, 674–681, (2004)
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Nakajima, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. R. Kulkarni, D. A. Golimowski, K. Matthews, and S. T. Durrance, “Discovery of a Cool Brown Dwarf,” Nature 378, 463–464, (1995)
    [Crossref]
  10. Ben R. Oppenheimer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, and R.B. Makidon, “Imaging Exoplanets: The role of small Telescopes,” in The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium, T. Oswalt, ed., III, (Dordrecht: Kluwar), p.157–174, (2003)
  11. Ben R. Oppenheimer, Andrew P. Digby, Laura Newburgh, Douglas Brenner, Michael Shara, Jacob Mey, Charles Mandeville, Russell B. Makidon, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, and Remi Soummer and 7 coauthors, “The Lyot project: toward exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 433–442, (2004)
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    [Crossref]
  14. Anand Sivaramakrishnan, James P. Lloyd, Philip E. Hodge, and Bruce A. Macintosh, “Speckle Decorrelation and Dynamic Range in Speckle Noise-limited Imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 581, 59–62, (2002)
    [Crossref]
  15. Laird A. Thompson and Yao-Heng Xiong, “Laser beacon system for the UnISIS adaptive optics system at the Mount Wilson 2.5-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 38–47, (1995)
    [Crossref]
  16. Laird A. Thompson, Richard M. Castle, Scott W. Teare, Peter R. McCullough, and Samuel L. Crawford, “UnISIS: a laser-guided adaptive optics system for the Mt. Wilson 2.5-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 282–289, (1998)
    [Crossref]
  17. Laird A. Thompson and Scott W. Teare, “Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems: Application to the University of Illinois Seeing Improvement System,” PASP 114, 1029–1042, (2002)
    [Crossref]
  18. Laird A. Thompson, Scott W. Teare, Samuel L. Crawford, and Robert W. Leach, “Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems: UnISIS Bow-Tie Shutter and CCD39 Wavefront Camera,” PASP 114, 1143–1149, (2002)
    [Crossref]
  19. Laird A. Thompson, Scott W. Teare, Yao-Heng Xiong, Abhijit Chakraborty, Gruendl, and Robert, “Progress with UnISIS: a Rayleigh laser-guided adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 90–96, (2004)
    [Crossref]
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  21. Anand Sivaramakrishnan, Christopher D. Koresko, Russell B. Makidon, Thomas Berkefeld, and Marc J. Kuchner, “Ground-based Coronagraphy with High-order Adaptive Optics,” Astrophys. J. 552397–408, (2001)
    [Crossref]
  22. John Trauger, Chris Burrows, Brian Gordon, Joseph Green, Andrew Lowman, Dwight Moody, Albert Niessner, Fang Shi, Wilson, and Daniel, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the High Contrast Imaging Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330–1336, (2004)
    [Crossref]

2004 (8)

John H. Debes, Jian Ge, Marc J. Kuchner, Rogosky, and Michael “Using Notch-Filter Masks for High-Contrast Imaging of Extrasolar Planets,” Astrophys. J. 608, 1095–1099, (2004)
[Crossref]

Wilhelmsen Evans, Julia Sommargren, Gary Poyneer, Lisa Macintosh, Bruce A. Severson, Scott Dillon, Daren Sheinis, Andrew I. Palmer, Dave Kasdin, N. Jeremy Olivier, and Scot, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: results and future work,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 954–959, (2004)
[Crossref]

Robert J. Vanderbei, N. Jeremy Kasdin, and David N. Spergel, “Checkerboard-Mask Coronagraphs for High-Contrast Imaging,” Astrophys. J. 615, 555–561, (2004)
[Crossref]

Ben R. Oppenheimer, Andrew P. Digby, Laura Newburgh, Douglas Brenner, Michael Shara, Jacob Mey, Charles Mandeville, Russell B. Makidon, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, and Remi Soummer and 7 coauthors, “The Lyot project: toward exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 433–442, (2004)
[Crossref]

M.J. Kuchner, “A Unified View of Coronagraph Image Masks,” preprint no. astro-ph/0401256 at http://xxx.lanl.gov/archive/astro, (2004)

John H. Debes and Jian Ge, “High-Contrast Imaging with Gaussian Aperture Pupil Masks,” PASP,  116, 674–681, (2004)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson, Scott W. Teare, Yao-Heng Xiong, Abhijit Chakraborty, Gruendl, and Robert, “Progress with UnISIS: a Rayleigh laser-guided adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 90–96, (2004)
[Crossref]

John Trauger, Chris Burrows, Brian Gordon, Joseph Green, Andrew Lowman, Dwight Moody, Albert Niessner, Fang Shi, Wilson, and Daniel, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the High Contrast Imaging Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330–1336, (2004)
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

Marc J. Kuchner and David N. Spergel, “Notch-Filter Masks: Practical Image Masks for Planet-finding Coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 594, 617–626, (2003)
[Crossref]

N. Jeremy Kasdin, Robert J. Vanderbei, David N. Spergel, and Michael G. Littman, “Extrasolar Planet Finding via Optimal Apodized-Pupil and Shaped-Pupil Coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147–1161, (2003)
[Crossref]

2002 (5)

Marc J. Kuchner and Wesley A. Traub, “A Coronagraph with a Band-limited Mask for Finding Terrestrial Planets,” Astrophys. J. 570, 900–908, (2002)
[Crossref]

Anand Sivaramakrishnan, James P. Lloyd, Philip E. Hodge, and Bruce A. Macintosh, “Speckle Decorrelation and Dynamic Range in Speckle Noise-limited Imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 581, 59–62, (2002)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson and Scott W. Teare, “Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems: Application to the University of Illinois Seeing Improvement System,” PASP 114, 1029–1042, (2002)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson, Scott W. Teare, Samuel L. Crawford, and Robert W. Leach, “Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems: UnISIS Bow-Tie Shutter and CCD39 Wavefront Camera,” PASP 114, 1143–1149, (2002)
[Crossref]

John H. Debes, Jian Ge, Chakraborty, and Abhijit, “First High-Contrast Imaging Using a Gaussian Aperture Pupil Mask,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 572L, 165–168, (2002)
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Anand Sivaramakrishnan, Christopher D. Koresko, Russell B. Makidon, Thomas Berkefeld, and Marc J. Kuchner, “Ground-based Coronagraphy with High-order Adaptive Optics,” Astrophys. J. 552397–408, (2001)
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Laird A. Thompson, Richard M. Castle, Scott W. Teare, Peter R. McCullough, and Samuel L. Crawford, “UnISIS: a laser-guided adaptive optics system for the Mt. Wilson 2.5-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 282–289, (1998)
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

T. Nakajima, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. R. Kulkarni, D. A. Golimowski, K. Matthews, and S. T. Durrance, “Discovery of a Cool Brown Dwarf,” Nature 378, 463–464, (1995)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson and Yao-Heng Xiong, “Laser beacon system for the UnISIS adaptive optics system at the Mount Wilson 2.5-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 38–47, (1995)
[Crossref]

Abhijit,

John H. Debes, Jian Ge, Chakraborty, and Abhijit, “First High-Contrast Imaging Using a Gaussian Aperture Pupil Mask,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 572L, 165–168, (2002)
[Crossref]

Berkefeld, Thomas

Anand Sivaramakrishnan, Christopher D. Koresko, Russell B. Makidon, Thomas Berkefeld, and Marc J. Kuchner, “Ground-based Coronagraphy with High-order Adaptive Optics,” Astrophys. J. 552397–408, (2001)
[Crossref]

Brenner, Douglas

Ben R. Oppenheimer, Andrew P. Digby, Laura Newburgh, Douglas Brenner, Michael Shara, Jacob Mey, Charles Mandeville, Russell B. Makidon, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, and Remi Soummer and 7 coauthors, “The Lyot project: toward exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 433–442, (2004)
[Crossref]

Burrows, Chris

John Trauger, Chris Burrows, Brian Gordon, Joseph Green, Andrew Lowman, Dwight Moody, Albert Niessner, Fang Shi, Wilson, and Daniel, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the High Contrast Imaging Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330–1336, (2004)
[Crossref]

Castle, Richard M.

Laird A. Thompson, Richard M. Castle, Scott W. Teare, Peter R. McCullough, and Samuel L. Crawford, “UnISIS: a laser-guided adaptive optics system for the Mt. Wilson 2.5-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 282–289, (1998)
[Crossref]

Chakraborty,

John H. Debes, Jian Ge, Chakraborty, and Abhijit, “First High-Contrast Imaging Using a Gaussian Aperture Pupil Mask,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 572L, 165–168, (2002)
[Crossref]

Chakraborty, Abhijit

Laird A. Thompson, Scott W. Teare, Yao-Heng Xiong, Abhijit Chakraborty, Gruendl, and Robert, “Progress with UnISIS: a Rayleigh laser-guided adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 90–96, (2004)
[Crossref]

Crawford, Samuel L.

Laird A. Thompson, Scott W. Teare, Samuel L. Crawford, and Robert W. Leach, “Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems: UnISIS Bow-Tie Shutter and CCD39 Wavefront Camera,” PASP 114, 1143–1149, (2002)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson, Richard M. Castle, Scott W. Teare, Peter R. McCullough, and Samuel L. Crawford, “UnISIS: a laser-guided adaptive optics system for the Mt. Wilson 2.5-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 282–289, (1998)
[Crossref]

Daniel,

John Trauger, Chris Burrows, Brian Gordon, Joseph Green, Andrew Lowman, Dwight Moody, Albert Niessner, Fang Shi, Wilson, and Daniel, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the High Contrast Imaging Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330–1336, (2004)
[Crossref]

Debes, John H.

John H. Debes, Jian Ge, Marc J. Kuchner, Rogosky, and Michael “Using Notch-Filter Masks for High-Contrast Imaging of Extrasolar Planets,” Astrophys. J. 608, 1095–1099, (2004)
[Crossref]

John H. Debes and Jian Ge, “High-Contrast Imaging with Gaussian Aperture Pupil Masks,” PASP,  116, 674–681, (2004)
[Crossref]

John H. Debes, Jian Ge, Chakraborty, and Abhijit, “First High-Contrast Imaging Using a Gaussian Aperture Pupil Mask,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 572L, 165–168, (2002)
[Crossref]

Digby, Andrew P.

Ben R. Oppenheimer, Andrew P. Digby, Laura Newburgh, Douglas Brenner, Michael Shara, Jacob Mey, Charles Mandeville, Russell B. Makidon, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, and Remi Soummer and 7 coauthors, “The Lyot project: toward exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 433–442, (2004)
[Crossref]

Dillon, Scott

Wilhelmsen Evans, Julia Sommargren, Gary Poyneer, Lisa Macintosh, Bruce A. Severson, Scott Dillon, Daren Sheinis, Andrew I. Palmer, Dave Kasdin, N. Jeremy Olivier, and Scot, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: results and future work,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 954–959, (2004)
[Crossref]

Durrance, S. T.

T. Nakajima, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. R. Kulkarni, D. A. Golimowski, K. Matthews, and S. T. Durrance, “Discovery of a Cool Brown Dwarf,” Nature 378, 463–464, (1995)
[Crossref]

Evans, Wilhelmsen

Wilhelmsen Evans, Julia Sommargren, Gary Poyneer, Lisa Macintosh, Bruce A. Severson, Scott Dillon, Daren Sheinis, Andrew I. Palmer, Dave Kasdin, N. Jeremy Olivier, and Scot, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: results and future work,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 954–959, (2004)
[Crossref]

Ge, Jian

John H. Debes, Jian Ge, Marc J. Kuchner, Rogosky, and Michael “Using Notch-Filter Masks for High-Contrast Imaging of Extrasolar Planets,” Astrophys. J. 608, 1095–1099, (2004)
[Crossref]

John H. Debes and Jian Ge, “High-Contrast Imaging with Gaussian Aperture Pupil Masks,” PASP,  116, 674–681, (2004)
[Crossref]

John H. Debes, Jian Ge, Chakraborty, and Abhijit, “First High-Contrast Imaging Using a Gaussian Aperture Pupil Mask,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 572L, 165–168, (2002)
[Crossref]

Golimowski, D. A.

T. Nakajima, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. R. Kulkarni, D. A. Golimowski, K. Matthews, and S. T. Durrance, “Discovery of a Cool Brown Dwarf,” Nature 378, 463–464, (1995)
[Crossref]

Gordon, Brian

John Trauger, Chris Burrows, Brian Gordon, Joseph Green, Andrew Lowman, Dwight Moody, Albert Niessner, Fang Shi, Wilson, and Daniel, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the High Contrast Imaging Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330–1336, (2004)
[Crossref]

Green, Joseph

John Trauger, Chris Burrows, Brian Gordon, Joseph Green, Andrew Lowman, Dwight Moody, Albert Niessner, Fang Shi, Wilson, and Daniel, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the High Contrast Imaging Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330–1336, (2004)
[Crossref]

Gruendl,

Laird A. Thompson, Scott W. Teare, Yao-Heng Xiong, Abhijit Chakraborty, Gruendl, and Robert, “Progress with UnISIS: a Rayleigh laser-guided adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 90–96, (2004)
[Crossref]

Hodge, Philip E.

Anand Sivaramakrishnan, James P. Lloyd, Philip E. Hodge, and Bruce A. Macintosh, “Speckle Decorrelation and Dynamic Range in Speckle Noise-limited Imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 581, 59–62, (2002)
[Crossref]

Kasdin, Dave

Wilhelmsen Evans, Julia Sommargren, Gary Poyneer, Lisa Macintosh, Bruce A. Severson, Scott Dillon, Daren Sheinis, Andrew I. Palmer, Dave Kasdin, N. Jeremy Olivier, and Scot, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: results and future work,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 954–959, (2004)
[Crossref]

Kasdin, N. Jeremy

Robert J. Vanderbei, N. Jeremy Kasdin, and David N. Spergel, “Checkerboard-Mask Coronagraphs for High-Contrast Imaging,” Astrophys. J. 615, 555–561, (2004)
[Crossref]

N. Jeremy Kasdin, Robert J. Vanderbei, David N. Spergel, and Michael G. Littman, “Extrasolar Planet Finding via Optimal Apodized-Pupil and Shaped-Pupil Coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147–1161, (2003)
[Crossref]

Koresko, Christopher D.

Anand Sivaramakrishnan, Christopher D. Koresko, Russell B. Makidon, Thomas Berkefeld, and Marc J. Kuchner, “Ground-based Coronagraphy with High-order Adaptive Optics,” Astrophys. J. 552397–408, (2001)
[Crossref]

Kuchner, M.J.

M.J. Kuchner, “A Unified View of Coronagraph Image Masks,” preprint no. astro-ph/0401256 at http://xxx.lanl.gov/archive/astro, (2004)

Kuchner, Marc J.

John H. Debes, Jian Ge, Marc J. Kuchner, Rogosky, and Michael “Using Notch-Filter Masks for High-Contrast Imaging of Extrasolar Planets,” Astrophys. J. 608, 1095–1099, (2004)
[Crossref]

Marc J. Kuchner and David N. Spergel, “Notch-Filter Masks: Practical Image Masks for Planet-finding Coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 594, 617–626, (2003)
[Crossref]

Marc J. Kuchner and Wesley A. Traub, “A Coronagraph with a Band-limited Mask for Finding Terrestrial Planets,” Astrophys. J. 570, 900–908, (2002)
[Crossref]

Anand Sivaramakrishnan, Christopher D. Koresko, Russell B. Makidon, Thomas Berkefeld, and Marc J. Kuchner, “Ground-based Coronagraphy with High-order Adaptive Optics,” Astrophys. J. 552397–408, (2001)
[Crossref]

Kulkarni, S. R.

T. Nakajima, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. R. Kulkarni, D. A. Golimowski, K. Matthews, and S. T. Durrance, “Discovery of a Cool Brown Dwarf,” Nature 378, 463–464, (1995)
[Crossref]

Leach, Robert W.

Laird A. Thompson, Scott W. Teare, Samuel L. Crawford, and Robert W. Leach, “Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems: UnISIS Bow-Tie Shutter and CCD39 Wavefront Camera,” PASP 114, 1143–1149, (2002)
[Crossref]

Littman, Michael G.

N. Jeremy Kasdin, Robert J. Vanderbei, David N. Spergel, and Michael G. Littman, “Extrasolar Planet Finding via Optimal Apodized-Pupil and Shaped-Pupil Coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147–1161, (2003)
[Crossref]

Lloyd, James P.

Anand Sivaramakrishnan, James P. Lloyd, Philip E. Hodge, and Bruce A. Macintosh, “Speckle Decorrelation and Dynamic Range in Speckle Noise-limited Imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 581, 59–62, (2002)
[Crossref]

Lowman, Andrew

John Trauger, Chris Burrows, Brian Gordon, Joseph Green, Andrew Lowman, Dwight Moody, Albert Niessner, Fang Shi, Wilson, and Daniel, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the High Contrast Imaging Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330–1336, (2004)
[Crossref]

Macintosh, Bruce A.

Anand Sivaramakrishnan, James P. Lloyd, Philip E. Hodge, and Bruce A. Macintosh, “Speckle Decorrelation and Dynamic Range in Speckle Noise-limited Imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 581, 59–62, (2002)
[Crossref]

Macintosh, Lisa

Wilhelmsen Evans, Julia Sommargren, Gary Poyneer, Lisa Macintosh, Bruce A. Severson, Scott Dillon, Daren Sheinis, Andrew I. Palmer, Dave Kasdin, N. Jeremy Olivier, and Scot, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: results and future work,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 954–959, (2004)
[Crossref]

Makidon, R.B.

Ben R. Oppenheimer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, and R.B. Makidon, “Imaging Exoplanets: The role of small Telescopes,” in The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium, T. Oswalt, ed., III, (Dordrecht: Kluwar), p.157–174, (2003)

Makidon, Russell B.

Ben R. Oppenheimer, Andrew P. Digby, Laura Newburgh, Douglas Brenner, Michael Shara, Jacob Mey, Charles Mandeville, Russell B. Makidon, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, and Remi Soummer and 7 coauthors, “The Lyot project: toward exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 433–442, (2004)
[Crossref]

Anand Sivaramakrishnan, Christopher D. Koresko, Russell B. Makidon, Thomas Berkefeld, and Marc J. Kuchner, “Ground-based Coronagraphy with High-order Adaptive Optics,” Astrophys. J. 552397–408, (2001)
[Crossref]

Mandeville, Charles

Ben R. Oppenheimer, Andrew P. Digby, Laura Newburgh, Douglas Brenner, Michael Shara, Jacob Mey, Charles Mandeville, Russell B. Makidon, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, and Remi Soummer and 7 coauthors, “The Lyot project: toward exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 433–442, (2004)
[Crossref]

Matthews, K.

T. Nakajima, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. R. Kulkarni, D. A. Golimowski, K. Matthews, and S. T. Durrance, “Discovery of a Cool Brown Dwarf,” Nature 378, 463–464, (1995)
[Crossref]

McCullough, Peter R.

Laird A. Thompson, Richard M. Castle, Scott W. Teare, Peter R. McCullough, and Samuel L. Crawford, “UnISIS: a laser-guided adaptive optics system for the Mt. Wilson 2.5-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 282–289, (1998)
[Crossref]

Mey, Jacob

Ben R. Oppenheimer, Andrew P. Digby, Laura Newburgh, Douglas Brenner, Michael Shara, Jacob Mey, Charles Mandeville, Russell B. Makidon, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, and Remi Soummer and 7 coauthors, “The Lyot project: toward exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 433–442, (2004)
[Crossref]

Michael,

John H. Debes, Jian Ge, Marc J. Kuchner, Rogosky, and Michael “Using Notch-Filter Masks for High-Contrast Imaging of Extrasolar Planets,” Astrophys. J. 608, 1095–1099, (2004)
[Crossref]

Moody, Dwight

John Trauger, Chris Burrows, Brian Gordon, Joseph Green, Andrew Lowman, Dwight Moody, Albert Niessner, Fang Shi, Wilson, and Daniel, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the High Contrast Imaging Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330–1336, (2004)
[Crossref]

Nakajima, T.

T. Nakajima, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. R. Kulkarni, D. A. Golimowski, K. Matthews, and S. T. Durrance, “Discovery of a Cool Brown Dwarf,” Nature 378, 463–464, (1995)
[Crossref]

Newburgh, Laura

Ben R. Oppenheimer, Andrew P. Digby, Laura Newburgh, Douglas Brenner, Michael Shara, Jacob Mey, Charles Mandeville, Russell B. Makidon, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, and Remi Soummer and 7 coauthors, “The Lyot project: toward exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 433–442, (2004)
[Crossref]

Niessner, Albert

John Trauger, Chris Burrows, Brian Gordon, Joseph Green, Andrew Lowman, Dwight Moody, Albert Niessner, Fang Shi, Wilson, and Daniel, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the High Contrast Imaging Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330–1336, (2004)
[Crossref]

Olivier, N. Jeremy

Wilhelmsen Evans, Julia Sommargren, Gary Poyneer, Lisa Macintosh, Bruce A. Severson, Scott Dillon, Daren Sheinis, Andrew I. Palmer, Dave Kasdin, N. Jeremy Olivier, and Scot, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: results and future work,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 954–959, (2004)
[Crossref]

Oppenheimer, B. R.

T. Nakajima, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. R. Kulkarni, D. A. Golimowski, K. Matthews, and S. T. Durrance, “Discovery of a Cool Brown Dwarf,” Nature 378, 463–464, (1995)
[Crossref]

Oppenheimer, Ben R.

Ben R. Oppenheimer, Andrew P. Digby, Laura Newburgh, Douglas Brenner, Michael Shara, Jacob Mey, Charles Mandeville, Russell B. Makidon, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, and Remi Soummer and 7 coauthors, “The Lyot project: toward exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 433–442, (2004)
[Crossref]

Ben R. Oppenheimer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, and R.B. Makidon, “Imaging Exoplanets: The role of small Telescopes,” in The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium, T. Oswalt, ed., III, (Dordrecht: Kluwar), p.157–174, (2003)

Palmer, Andrew I.

Wilhelmsen Evans, Julia Sommargren, Gary Poyneer, Lisa Macintosh, Bruce A. Severson, Scott Dillon, Daren Sheinis, Andrew I. Palmer, Dave Kasdin, N. Jeremy Olivier, and Scot, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: results and future work,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 954–959, (2004)
[Crossref]

Poyneer, Gary

Wilhelmsen Evans, Julia Sommargren, Gary Poyneer, Lisa Macintosh, Bruce A. Severson, Scott Dillon, Daren Sheinis, Andrew I. Palmer, Dave Kasdin, N. Jeremy Olivier, and Scot, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: results and future work,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 954–959, (2004)
[Crossref]

Robert,

Laird A. Thompson, Scott W. Teare, Yao-Heng Xiong, Abhijit Chakraborty, Gruendl, and Robert, “Progress with UnISIS: a Rayleigh laser-guided adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 90–96, (2004)
[Crossref]

Rogosky,

John H. Debes, Jian Ge, Marc J. Kuchner, Rogosky, and Michael “Using Notch-Filter Masks for High-Contrast Imaging of Extrasolar Planets,” Astrophys. J. 608, 1095–1099, (2004)
[Crossref]

Scot,

Wilhelmsen Evans, Julia Sommargren, Gary Poyneer, Lisa Macintosh, Bruce A. Severson, Scott Dillon, Daren Sheinis, Andrew I. Palmer, Dave Kasdin, N. Jeremy Olivier, and Scot, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: results and future work,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 954–959, (2004)
[Crossref]

Severson, Bruce A.

Wilhelmsen Evans, Julia Sommargren, Gary Poyneer, Lisa Macintosh, Bruce A. Severson, Scott Dillon, Daren Sheinis, Andrew I. Palmer, Dave Kasdin, N. Jeremy Olivier, and Scot, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: results and future work,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 954–959, (2004)
[Crossref]

Shara, Michael

Ben R. Oppenheimer, Andrew P. Digby, Laura Newburgh, Douglas Brenner, Michael Shara, Jacob Mey, Charles Mandeville, Russell B. Makidon, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, and Remi Soummer and 7 coauthors, “The Lyot project: toward exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 433–442, (2004)
[Crossref]

Sheinis, Daren

Wilhelmsen Evans, Julia Sommargren, Gary Poyneer, Lisa Macintosh, Bruce A. Severson, Scott Dillon, Daren Sheinis, Andrew I. Palmer, Dave Kasdin, N. Jeremy Olivier, and Scot, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: results and future work,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 954–959, (2004)
[Crossref]

Shi, Fang

John Trauger, Chris Burrows, Brian Gordon, Joseph Green, Andrew Lowman, Dwight Moody, Albert Niessner, Fang Shi, Wilson, and Daniel, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the High Contrast Imaging Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330–1336, (2004)
[Crossref]

Sivaramakrishnan, A.

Ben R. Oppenheimer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, and R.B. Makidon, “Imaging Exoplanets: The role of small Telescopes,” in The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium, T. Oswalt, ed., III, (Dordrecht: Kluwar), p.157–174, (2003)

Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

Ben R. Oppenheimer, Andrew P. Digby, Laura Newburgh, Douglas Brenner, Michael Shara, Jacob Mey, Charles Mandeville, Russell B. Makidon, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, and Remi Soummer and 7 coauthors, “The Lyot project: toward exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 433–442, (2004)
[Crossref]

Anand Sivaramakrishnan, James P. Lloyd, Philip E. Hodge, and Bruce A. Macintosh, “Speckle Decorrelation and Dynamic Range in Speckle Noise-limited Imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 581, 59–62, (2002)
[Crossref]

Anand Sivaramakrishnan, Christopher D. Koresko, Russell B. Makidon, Thomas Berkefeld, and Marc J. Kuchner, “Ground-based Coronagraphy with High-order Adaptive Optics,” Astrophys. J. 552397–408, (2001)
[Crossref]

Sommargren, Julia

Wilhelmsen Evans, Julia Sommargren, Gary Poyneer, Lisa Macintosh, Bruce A. Severson, Scott Dillon, Daren Sheinis, Andrew I. Palmer, Dave Kasdin, N. Jeremy Olivier, and Scot, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: results and future work,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 954–959, (2004)
[Crossref]

Soummer, Remi

Ben R. Oppenheimer, Andrew P. Digby, Laura Newburgh, Douglas Brenner, Michael Shara, Jacob Mey, Charles Mandeville, Russell B. Makidon, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, and Remi Soummer and 7 coauthors, “The Lyot project: toward exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 433–442, (2004)
[Crossref]

Spergel, D.N.

D.N. Spergel, “A New Pupil for Detecting Extra-solar Planets,” preprint no. astro-ph/0101142 at http://xxx.lanl.gov/archive/astro, (2001)

Spergel, David N.

Robert J. Vanderbei, N. Jeremy Kasdin, and David N. Spergel, “Checkerboard-Mask Coronagraphs for High-Contrast Imaging,” Astrophys. J. 615, 555–561, (2004)
[Crossref]

Marc J. Kuchner and David N. Spergel, “Notch-Filter Masks: Practical Image Masks for Planet-finding Coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 594, 617–626, (2003)
[Crossref]

N. Jeremy Kasdin, Robert J. Vanderbei, David N. Spergel, and Michael G. Littman, “Extrasolar Planet Finding via Optimal Apodized-Pupil and Shaped-Pupil Coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147–1161, (2003)
[Crossref]

Teare, Scott W.

Laird A. Thompson, Scott W. Teare, Yao-Heng Xiong, Abhijit Chakraborty, Gruendl, and Robert, “Progress with UnISIS: a Rayleigh laser-guided adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 90–96, (2004)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson, Scott W. Teare, Samuel L. Crawford, and Robert W. Leach, “Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems: UnISIS Bow-Tie Shutter and CCD39 Wavefront Camera,” PASP 114, 1143–1149, (2002)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson and Scott W. Teare, “Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems: Application to the University of Illinois Seeing Improvement System,” PASP 114, 1029–1042, (2002)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson, Richard M. Castle, Scott W. Teare, Peter R. McCullough, and Samuel L. Crawford, “UnISIS: a laser-guided adaptive optics system for the Mt. Wilson 2.5-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 282–289, (1998)
[Crossref]

Thompson, Laird A.

Laird A. Thompson, Scott W. Teare, Yao-Heng Xiong, Abhijit Chakraborty, Gruendl, and Robert, “Progress with UnISIS: a Rayleigh laser-guided adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 90–96, (2004)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson, Scott W. Teare, Samuel L. Crawford, and Robert W. Leach, “Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems: UnISIS Bow-Tie Shutter and CCD39 Wavefront Camera,” PASP 114, 1143–1149, (2002)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson and Scott W. Teare, “Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems: Application to the University of Illinois Seeing Improvement System,” PASP 114, 1029–1042, (2002)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson, Richard M. Castle, Scott W. Teare, Peter R. McCullough, and Samuel L. Crawford, “UnISIS: a laser-guided adaptive optics system for the Mt. Wilson 2.5-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 282–289, (1998)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson and Yao-Heng Xiong, “Laser beacon system for the UnISIS adaptive optics system at the Mount Wilson 2.5-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 38–47, (1995)
[Crossref]

Traub, Wesley A.

Marc J. Kuchner and Wesley A. Traub, “A Coronagraph with a Band-limited Mask for Finding Terrestrial Planets,” Astrophys. J. 570, 900–908, (2002)
[Crossref]

Trauger, John

John Trauger, Chris Burrows, Brian Gordon, Joseph Green, Andrew Lowman, Dwight Moody, Albert Niessner, Fang Shi, Wilson, and Daniel, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the High Contrast Imaging Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330–1336, (2004)
[Crossref]

Vanderbei, Robert J.

Robert J. Vanderbei, N. Jeremy Kasdin, and David N. Spergel, “Checkerboard-Mask Coronagraphs for High-Contrast Imaging,” Astrophys. J. 615, 555–561, (2004)
[Crossref]

N. Jeremy Kasdin, Robert J. Vanderbei, David N. Spergel, and Michael G. Littman, “Extrasolar Planet Finding via Optimal Apodized-Pupil and Shaped-Pupil Coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147–1161, (2003)
[Crossref]

Wilson,

John Trauger, Chris Burrows, Brian Gordon, Joseph Green, Andrew Lowman, Dwight Moody, Albert Niessner, Fang Shi, Wilson, and Daniel, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the High Contrast Imaging Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330–1336, (2004)
[Crossref]

Xiong, Yao-Heng

Laird A. Thompson, Scott W. Teare, Yao-Heng Xiong, Abhijit Chakraborty, Gruendl, and Robert, “Progress with UnISIS: a Rayleigh laser-guided adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 90–96, (2004)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson and Yao-Heng Xiong, “Laser beacon system for the UnISIS adaptive optics system at the Mount Wilson 2.5-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 38–47, (1995)
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. (6)

N. Jeremy Kasdin, Robert J. Vanderbei, David N. Spergel, and Michael G. Littman, “Extrasolar Planet Finding via Optimal Apodized-Pupil and Shaped-Pupil Coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 582, 1147–1161, (2003)
[Crossref]

Robert J. Vanderbei, N. Jeremy Kasdin, and David N. Spergel, “Checkerboard-Mask Coronagraphs for High-Contrast Imaging,” Astrophys. J. 615, 555–561, (2004)
[Crossref]

Marc J. Kuchner and David N. Spergel, “Notch-Filter Masks: Practical Image Masks for Planet-finding Coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 594, 617–626, (2003)
[Crossref]

John H. Debes, Jian Ge, Marc J. Kuchner, Rogosky, and Michael “Using Notch-Filter Masks for High-Contrast Imaging of Extrasolar Planets,” Astrophys. J. 608, 1095–1099, (2004)
[Crossref]

Marc J. Kuchner and Wesley A. Traub, “A Coronagraph with a Band-limited Mask for Finding Terrestrial Planets,” Astrophys. J. 570, 900–908, (2002)
[Crossref]

Anand Sivaramakrishnan, Christopher D. Koresko, Russell B. Makidon, Thomas Berkefeld, and Marc J. Kuchner, “Ground-based Coronagraphy with High-order Adaptive Optics,” Astrophys. J. 552397–408, (2001)
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. Lett. (2)

Anand Sivaramakrishnan, James P. Lloyd, Philip E. Hodge, and Bruce A. Macintosh, “Speckle Decorrelation and Dynamic Range in Speckle Noise-limited Imaging,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 581, 59–62, (2002)
[Crossref]

John H. Debes, Jian Ge, Chakraborty, and Abhijit, “First High-Contrast Imaging Using a Gaussian Aperture Pupil Mask,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 572L, 165–168, (2002)
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

T. Nakajima, B. R. Oppenheimer, S. R. Kulkarni, D. A. Golimowski, K. Matthews, and S. T. Durrance, “Discovery of a Cool Brown Dwarf,” Nature 378, 463–464, (1995)
[Crossref]

PASP (3)

John H. Debes and Jian Ge, “High-Contrast Imaging with Gaussian Aperture Pupil Masks,” PASP,  116, 674–681, (2004)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson and Scott W. Teare, “Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems: Application to the University of Illinois Seeing Improvement System,” PASP 114, 1029–1042, (2002)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson, Scott W. Teare, Samuel L. Crawford, and Robert W. Leach, “Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems: UnISIS Bow-Tie Shutter and CCD39 Wavefront Camera,” PASP 114, 1143–1149, (2002)
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (6)

Laird A. Thompson, Scott W. Teare, Yao-Heng Xiong, Abhijit Chakraborty, Gruendl, and Robert, “Progress with UnISIS: a Rayleigh laser-guided adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 90–96, (2004)
[Crossref]

John Trauger, Chris Burrows, Brian Gordon, Joseph Green, Andrew Lowman, Dwight Moody, Albert Niessner, Fang Shi, Wilson, and Daniel, “Coronagraph contrast demonstrations with the High Contrast Imaging Testbed,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330–1336, (2004)
[Crossref]

Wilhelmsen Evans, Julia Sommargren, Gary Poyneer, Lisa Macintosh, Bruce A. Severson, Scott Dillon, Daren Sheinis, Andrew I. Palmer, Dave Kasdin, N. Jeremy Olivier, and Scot, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: results and future work,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 954–959, (2004)
[Crossref]

Ben R. Oppenheimer, Andrew P. Digby, Laura Newburgh, Douglas Brenner, Michael Shara, Jacob Mey, Charles Mandeville, Russell B. Makidon, Anand Sivaramakrishnan, and Remi Soummer and 7 coauthors, “The Lyot project: toward exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 433–442, (2004)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson and Yao-Heng Xiong, “Laser beacon system for the UnISIS adaptive optics system at the Mount Wilson 2.5-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 2534, 38–47, (1995)
[Crossref]

Laird A. Thompson, Richard M. Castle, Scott W. Teare, Peter R. McCullough, and Samuel L. Crawford, “UnISIS: a laser-guided adaptive optics system for the Mt. Wilson 2.5-m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 282–289, (1998)
[Crossref]

Other (4)

D.N. Spergel, “A New Pupil for Detecting Extra-solar Planets,” preprint no. astro-ph/0101142 at http://xxx.lanl.gov/archive/astro, (2001)

Ben R. Oppenheimer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, and R.B. Makidon, “Imaging Exoplanets: The role of small Telescopes,” in The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium, T. Oswalt, ed., III, (Dordrecht: Kluwar), p.157–174, (2003)

M.J. Kuchner, “A Unified View of Coronagraph Image Masks,” preprint no. astro-ph/0401256 at http://xxx.lanl.gov/archive/astro, (2004)

Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining and MicrofabricationVol. 1, P. Rai-Choudhury, editor SPIE Optical Engineering Press ; London, UK : Institution of Electrical Engineers, (1997)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). The design of the Gaussian mask. 1b). Enlarged high resolution image (taken at the nano-fab facility) of the encircled defective region in Fig. 1a showing the smoothness of the edges (note the scale of 20 microns; rms error on the edges was measured to be about 0.2microns) as well as pin-hole defects and residual metal at the Gaussian edge. Such defects were not present in the second sample which was used for the experiment.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) (left): Photograph showing the GSPM replicated on a 25 mm diameter BK7 substrate mounted in its holder. (b) (right): Sketch of the basic optical train of the test-bed set up shown in Fig. 3. Some of the elements that were not used (flipped) for recording the coronagraphic images are eliminated in this sketch, like the Pupil Re-Imaging Lens, the Dichroic Beam Splitter, Flip Mirror (M2), and the video camera (located on kinematic mounts between the Imaging Lens L3 and the CCD).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical setup of the test-bench on the UnISIS AO optics table. Legend: Smf=Single mode fiber artificial star L1=Imaging Lens for image plane I1, I1=1st Image plane (for test-bench Coronagraph; focal plane mask), M1=Flip Mirror (for bending the beam), L2=Collimator Lens, GSPM=Gaussian Shaped Pupil Mask, L3=Final Imaging Lens onto the detector, DC=Dichroic Beam Splitter (50–50 between optical/NIR), M2=Flip Mirror 2, for redirecting the beam onto a video camera (VC) solely used for optical alignment purposes.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) (left) Laser 0.82 micron point source log stretched negative image showing the Airy pattern before introducing the focal plane mask (coronagraph) at the focal plane and GSPM at the pupil plane. (b) (right) a positive log stretched image of the uniformly illuminated GSPM (see text for details). The pupil reimaging lens has a wider field of view than the f/81 principal beam of the optical train. The intensity variations seen within the GSPM are probably due to light scattering and multiple reflections from the two surfaces of the BK7 substrate as well as light scattered at larger angles as seen by the pupil re-imaging lens.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) (left) Theoretically simulated model PSF with 2.5λ/D focal plane mask and the GSPM (negative image). (b) (right) The observed PSF (log stretched negative image) on the UnISIS optics table using 0.82 micron laser source coupled with a 5 micron single mode fiber as an artificial star. Note that the high contrast region is along the “red” line in the images. The observed PSF is the median of nine 10s images (in (b)). The image shows many speckles (tiny back dots) in the high contrast region making the background speckle-noise limited rather than detector-noise limited. See text for details.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

A comparison of line profiles showing normalized contrast levels of observed and model PSF across the “red” line in the high contrast region (see Figs. 5(a) and 5(b). The difference between the two is mainly due to speckle noise in the observed PSF line profile. The y-axis represents the normalized dynamic range or the contrast level (normalized with respect to the peak intensity of the un-obscured test star with the GSPM at the Lyot plane). The two bold solid lines at ±1.25λ/D show the width of the 2.5λ/D focal plane mask. Also, between ±2λ/D the observed line profile is saturated due to spill-over of scattered light over the edges of the focal plane mask.

Equations (2)

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y t = a R { exp [ ( α x R ) 2 ] exp ( α 2 ) } , and y b = b R { exp [ ( α x R ) 2 ] exp ( α 2 ) }
L d = D ( F ) * 2 D s

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