Abstract

We demonstrate a single-mode waveguide in LiNbO3 by use of both prism and end-face coupling methods. The waveguide is formed by multienergy megaelectron-volt O2+ implantation at room temperature. A bright line is observed only when moderate postimplant annealing was performed. The possible index profile of the waveguide is constructed according to the damage profile of the lattice structure caused by the implantation. Although dark-mode measurement shows that the effective extraordinary index of LiNbO3 is raised in the waveguide layer, results of the analysis indicate that the single guiding mode could be supported by a synergetic effect from both the raised index layer and the low-index barrier. The reduced loss of the waveguide can be attributed to the widened low-index barrier from multienergy implantation.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. L.Jackel, C. E. Rice, and J. J. Veselka, �??Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607 �??608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M.-Q. Meng, F. Lu , K.-M. Wang , F.-X. Wang, W. Li, C.-Q. Ma, D.-H. Jiang, and Q.-M. Lu, �??Property analysis of planar optical waveguide in NYAB formed by He+ ion implantation,�?? Electron. Lett. 33, 1045�??1047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectr. Lett.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, �??Detailed index profiles of ion-implanted wave-guides in KNbO3,�?? Ferroelectr. Lett. 11 (4), 89�??97 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B.-R. Shi, K.-M. Wang, and D.-Y. Shen, �??Monomode optical waveguide in lithium niobate formed by MeV Si+ ion implantation,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224�??5226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Other

P. D. Townsend and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Dark-mode profile obtained with prism coupling measurements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Bright line obtained by end-face coupling.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Lattice damage profile in O2+ implanted LN.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reconstructed extraordinary index profile in a waveguide.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Two models of extraordinary index profile in waveguides

Equations (2)

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β = k 0 n 1 sin θ = k 0 n 2 ,
kd = m π + tan 1 ( n 1 2 p n 2 2 k ) + tan 1 ( n 1 2 q n 0 2 k ) ,

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